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Versions: 00

CoRE Working Group                                           I. Jarvinen
Internet-Draft                                                   M. Kojo
Intended status: Experimental                               I. Raitahila
Expires: January 4, 2019                          University of Helsinki
                                                                  Z. Cao
                                                                  Huawei
                                                            July 3, 2018


 Fast-Slow Retransmission Timeout and Congestion Control Algorithm for
                                  CoAP
                      draft-jarvinen-core-fasor-00

Abstract

   This document specifies an alternative retransmission timeout and
   congestion control back off algorithm for the CoAP protocol, called
   Fast-Slow RTO (FASOR).

   The algorithm specified in this document employs an appropriate and
   large enough back off of Retransmission Timeout (RTO) as the major
   congestion control mechanism to allow acquiring unambiguous RTT
   samples with high probability and to prevent building a persistent
   queue when retransmitting.  The algorithm also aims to retransmit
   quickly using an accurately managed retransmission timeout when link-
   errors are occuring, basing RTO calculation on unambiguous round-trip
   time (RTT) samples.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 4, 2019.







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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Problems with Existing CoAP Congestion Control Algorithms . .   3
   4.  FASOR Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4.1.  Computing Normal RTO (FastRTO)  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4.2.  Slow RTO  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.3.  Retransmission Timeout Back Off Logic . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.3.1.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.3.2.  Retransmission State Machine  . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.4.  Retransmission Count Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.5.  Alternatives for Exchanging Retransmission Count
           Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     7.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     7.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12

1.  Introduction

   CoAP senders use retransmission timeout (RTO) to infer losses that
   have occurred in the network.  For such a heuristic to be correct,
   the RTT estimate used for calculating the retransmission timeout must
   match to the real end-to-end path characteristics.  Otherwise,
   unnecessary retransmission may occur.  Both default RTO mechanism for
   CoAP [RFC7252] and CoCoA [I-D.ietf-core-cocoa] have issues in dealing
   with unnecessary retransmissions and in the worst-case the situation
   can persist causing congestion collapse [JRCK18].





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   This document specifies FASOR retransmission timeout and congestion
   control algorithm.  FASOR algorithm ensures unnecessary
   retransmissions that a sender may have sent due to an inaccurate RTT
   estimate will not persist avoiding the threat of congestion collapse.
   FASOR also aims to quickly restore the accuracy of the RTT estimate.
   Armed with an accurate RTT estimate, FASOR not only handles
   congestion robustly but also can quickly infer losses due to link
   errors.

2.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119
   [RFC2119].

3.  Problems with Existing CoAP Congestion Control Algorithms

   Correctly inferring losses requires the retransmission timeout (RTO)
   to be longer than the real RTT in the network.  Under certain
   circumstances the RTO may be incorrectly small.  If the real end-to-
   end RTT is larger than the retransmission timeout, it is impossible
   for the sender to avoid making unnecessary retransmissions that
   duplicate data still existing in the network because the sender
   cannot receive any feedback in time.  Unnecessary retransmissions
   cause two basic problems.  First, they increase the perceived end-to-
   end RTT if the bottleneck has buffering capacity, and second, they
   prevent getting unambiguous RTT samples.  Making unnecessary
   retransmissions is also a pre-condition for the congestion collapse
   [RFC0896], which may occur in the worst case if retransmissions are
   not well controlled [JRCK18].  Therefore, the sender retransmission
   timeout algorithm should actively attempt to prevent unnecessary
   retransmissions from persisting under any circumstance.

   Karn's algorithm [KP87] has prevented unnecessary retransmission from
   turning into congestion collapse for decades due to robust RTT
   estimation and retransmission timeout backoff handling.  The recent
   CoAP congestion control algorithms, however, diverge from the
   principles of Karn's algorithm in significant ways and may pose a
   threat to the stability of the Internet due to those differences.

   The default RTO mechanism for CoAP [RFC7252] uses only an initial RTO
   dithered between 2 and 3 seconds, while CoCoA [I-D.ietf-core-cocoa]
   measures RTT both from unambiguous and ambiguous RTT samples and
   applies a modified version of the TCP RTO algorithm [RFC6298].  The
   algorithm in RFC 7252 lacks solution to persistent congestion.  The
   binary exponential back off used for the retransmission timeout does
   not properly address unnecessary retransmissions when RTT is larger



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   than the default RTO (ACK_TIMEOUT).  If the CoAP sender performs
   exchanges over an end-to-end path with such a high RTT, it
   persistently keeps making unnecessary retransmissions for every
   exchange wasting some fraction of the used resources (network
   capacity, battery power).

   CoCoA [I-D.ietf-core-cocoa] attempts to improve scenarios with link-
   error related losses and solve persistent congestion by basing its
   RTO value on an estimated RTT.  However, there are couple of
   exceptions when the RTT estimation is not available:

      - At the beginning of a flow where initial RTO of 2 seconds is
      used.

      - When RTT suddenly jumps high enough to trigger the rule in CoCoA
      that prevents taking RTT samples when more than two
      retransmissions are needed.  This may also occur when the packet
      drop rate on the path is high enough.

   When RTT estimate is too small, unnecessary retransmission will occur
   also with CoCoA.  CoCoA being unable to take RTT samples at all is a
   particularly problematic phenomenon as it is similarly persisting
   state as with the algorithm outlined in RFC 7252 and the network
   remains in a congestion collapsed state due to persisting unnecessary
   retransmissions.

4.  FASOR Algorithm

   FASOR is composed of three key components: RTO computation, Slow RTO,
   and novel retransmission timeout back off logic.

4.1.  Computing Normal RTO (FastRTO)

   The FASOR algorithm measures the RTT for an CoAP message exchange
   over an end-to-end path and computes the RTO value using the TCP RTO
   algorithm specified in [RFC6298].  We call this normal RTO or
   FastRTO.  In contrast to the TCP RTO mechanism, FASOR SHOULD NOT use
   1 second lower-bound when setting the RTO because RTO is only a
   backup mechanisms for loss detection with TCP, whereas with CoAP RTO
   is the primary and only loss detection mechanism.  A lower-bound of 1
   second would impact timeliness of the loss detection in low RTT
   environments.  The RTO value MAY be upper-bounded by at least 60
   seconds.  A CoAP sender using the FASOR algorithm SHOULD set initial
   RTO to 2 seconds.  The computed RTO value as well as the initial RTO
   value is subject to dithering; they are dithered between RTO + 1/4 x
   SRTT and RTO + SRTT.  For dithering initial RTO, SRTT is unset;
   therefore, SRTT is replaced with initial RTO / 3 which is derived
   from the RTO formula and equals to a hypothetical initial RTT that



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   would yield the initial RTO using the SRTT and RTTVAR initialization
   rule of RFC 6298.  That is, for initial RTO of 2 seconds we use SRTT
   value of 2/3 seconds.

   RTO is updated only with unambiguous RTT samples.  Therefore, it
   closely tracks the actual RTT of the network and can quickly trigger
   a retransmission when the network state is not dubious.
   Retransmitting without extra delay is very useful when the end-to-end
   path is subject to losses that are unrelated to congestion.  When the
   first unambiguous RTT sample is received, the RTT estimator is
   initialized with that sample as specified in [RFC6298] except RTTVAR
   that is set to R/2K.

4.2.  Slow RTO

   We introduce Slow RTO as a safe way to ensure that only a unique copy
   of message is sent before at least one RTT has elapsed.  To achieve
   this the sender must ensure that its retransmission timeout is set to
   a value that is larger than the path end-to-end RTT that may be
   inflated by the unnecessary retransmission themselves.  Therefore,
   whenever a message needs to be retransmitted, we measure Slow RTO as
   the elapsed time required for getting an acknowledgement.  That is,
   Slow RTO is measured starting from the original transmission of the
   request message until the receipt of the acknowledgement, regardless
   of the number of retransmissions.  In this way, Slow RTO always
   covers the worst-case RTT during which a number of unnecessary
   retransmissions were made but the acknowledgement is received for the
   original transmission.  In contrast to computing normal RTO, Slow RTO
   is not smoothed because it is derived from the sending pattern of the
   retransmissions (that may turn out unnecessary).  In order to drain
   the potential unnecessary retransmissions successfully from the
   network, it makes sense to wait for the time used for sending them
   rather than some smoothed value.  However, Slow RTO is multiplied by
   a factor to allow some growth in load without making Slow RTO too
   aggressive (by default the factor of 1.5 is used).  FASOR then
   applies Slow RTO as one of the backed off timer values used with the
   next request message.

   Slow RTO allows rapidly converging towards stable operating point
   because 1) it lets the duplicate copies sent earlier to drain from
   the network reducing the perceived end-to-end RTT, and 2) allows
   enough time to acquire an unambiguous RTT sample for the RTO
   computation.  Robustly acquiring the RTT sample ensures that the next
   RTO is set according to the recent measurement and further
   unnecessary retransmissions are avoided.  Slow RTO itself is a form
   of back off because it includes the accumulated time from the
   retransmission timeout back off of the previous exchange.  FASOR uses
   this for its advantage as the time included into Slow RTO is what is



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   needed to drain all unnecessary retransmissions possibly made during
   the previous exchange.  Assuming a stable RTT and that all of the
   retransmissions were unnecessary, the time to drain them is the time
   elapsed from the original transmission to the sending time of the
   last retransmission plus one RTT.  When the acknowledgement for the
   original transmission arrives, one RTT has already elapsed, leaving
   only the sending time difference still unaccounted for which is at
   minimum the value for Slow RTO (when an RTT sample arrives
   immediately after the last retransmission).  Even if RTT would be
   increasing, the draining still occurs rapidly due to exponentially
   backed off frequency in sending the unnecessary retransmissions.

4.3.  Retransmission Timeout Back Off Logic

4.3.1.  Overview

   FASOR uses normal RTO as the base for binary exponential back off
   when no retransmission were needed for the previous CoAP message
   exchange.  When retransmission were needed for the previous CoAP
   message exchange, the algorithm rules, however, are more complicated
   than with the traditional RTO back off because Slow RTO is injected
   into the back off series to reduce high impact of using Slow RTO.
   FASOR logic chooses from three possible back off series alternatives:

      FAST back off: Perform traditional RTO back off with the normal
      RTO as the base.  Applied when the previous message was not
      retransmitted.

      FAST_SLOW_FAST back off: First perform a probe using the normal
      RTO for the original transmission of the request message to
      improve cases with losses unrelated to congestion.  If the probe
      for the original transmission of the request message is successful
      without retransmissions, continue with FAST back off for the next
      message exchange.  If the request message needs to be
      retransmitted, continue by using Slow RTO for the first
      retransmission in order to respond to congestion and drain the
      network from the unnecessary retransmissions that were potentially
      sent for the previous exchange.  If still further RTOs are needed,
      continue by backing off the normal RTO further on each timeout.
      FAST_SLOW_FAST back off is applied just once when the previous
      request message using FAST back off required one or more
      retransmissions.

      SLOW_FAST back off: Perform Slow RTO first for the original
      transmisssion to respond to congestion and to acquire an
      unambiguous RTT sample with high probability.  Then, if the
      original request needs to be retransmitted, continue with the
      normal RTO-based RTO back off serie by backing off the normal RTO



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      on each timeout.  SLOW_FAST back off is applied when the previous
      request message using FAST_SLOW_FAST or SLOW_FAST back off
      required one or more retransmissions.  Once an acknowledgement for
      the original transmission with unambigous RTT sample is received,
      continue with FAST back off for the next message exchange.

   For the initial message, FAST is used with INITIAL_RTO as the FastRTO
   value.  From there on, state is updated when an acknowledgement
   arrives.  Following unambiguous RTT samples, FASOR always uses FAST.
   Whenever retransmissions are needed, the back off series selection is
   first downgraded to FAST_SLOW_FAST back off and then to SLOW_FAST
   back off if further retransmission are needed in FAST_SLOW_FAST.

   When Slow RTO is used as the first RTO value, the sender is likely to
   acquire unambiguous RTT sample even when the network has high delay
   due to congestion because Slow RTO is based on a very recent
   measurement of the worst-case RTT.  However, using Slow RTO may
   negatively impact the performance when losses unrelated to congestion
   are occurring.  Due to its potential high cost, FASOR algorithm
   attempts to avoid using Slow RTO unnecessarily.

   The CoAP protocol is often used by devices that are connected through
   a wireless network where non-congestion related losses are much more
   frequent than in their wired counterparts.  This has implications for
   the retransmission timeout algorithm.  While it would be possible to
   implement FASOR such that it immediately uses Slow RTO when a dubious
   network state is detected, which would handle congestion very well,
   it would do significant harm for performance when RTOs occur due to
   non-congestion related losses.  Instead, FASOR uses first normal RTO
   for one transmission and only responds using Slow RTO if RTO expires
   also for that request message.  Such a pattern quickly probes if the
   losses were unrelated to congestion and only slightly delays response
   if real congestion event is taking place.  To ensure that an
   unambiguous RTT sample is also acquired on a congested network path,
   FASOR then needs to use Slow RTO for the original transmission of the
   subsequent packet if the probe was not successful.

4.3.2.  Retransmission State Machine

   FASOR consists of the three states discussed above while making
   retranmission decisions, FAST, FAST_SLOW_FAST and SLOW_FAST.  The
   state machine of the FASOR algorithm is depicted in Figure 1.









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        +-------------------b----------------+
        |                                    |
        v                                    |
   +--FAST--a-->FAST_SLOW_FAST-----a----->SLOW_FAST--+
   |   ^ ^             |                         ^   |
   |   | |             |                         |   |
   +-b-+ +------b------+                         +-a-+

      a: retransmission acknowledged, ambiguous RTT sample acquired;
      b: no retransmission, umambiguous RTT sample acquired;

                     Figure 1: State Machine of FASOR

   In the FAST state, if the original transmission of the message has
   not been acknowledged by the receiver within the time defined by
   FastRTO, the sender will retransmit it.  If there is still no
   acknowledgement of the retransmitted packet within 2*FastRTO, the
   sender performs the second retransmission and if necessary, each
   further retransmission applying binary exponential back off of
   FastRTO.  The retransmission interval in this state is defined as
   FastRTO, 2^1 * FastRTO, ..., 2^i * FastRTO.

   When there is an acknowledgement after any retransmission, the sender
   will calculate SlowRTO value based on the algorithm defined in
   Section 4.2.

   When these is an acknowledgement after any retransmission, the sender
   will also switch to the second state, FAST_FLOW_FAST.  In this state,
   the retransmission interval is defined as FastRTO, Max(SlowRTO,
   2*FastRTO), FastRTO * 2^1, ..., 2^i * FastRTO.  The state will be
   switched back to the FAST state once an acknowledgement is returned
   within FastRTO, i.e., no retransmission happens for a message.  This
   is reasonable because it shows the network has recovered from
   congestion or bloated queue.

   If some retransmission has been made before the acknowledged arrives
   in the FAST_SLOW_FAST state, the sender updates the SlowRTO value,
   and moves to the third state, SLOW_FAST.  The retransmission interval
   in the SLOW_FAST state is defined as SlowRTO, FastRTO, FastRTO * 2^1,
   ..., 2^i * FastRTO.

   In SLOW_FAST state, the sender switches back to the FAST state if an
   unambiguous acknowledgement arrives.  Otherwise, the sender stays in
   the SLOW_FAST state if retransmission happens again.







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4.4.  Retransmission Count Option

   When retransmissions are needed to deliver a CoAP message, it is not
   possible to measure RTT for the RTO computation as the RTT sample
   becomes ambiguous.  Therefore, it would be beneficial to be able to
   distinguish whether an acknowledgement arrives for the original
   transmission of the message or for a retransmission of it.  This
   would allow reliably acquiring an RTT sample for every CoAP message
   exchange and thereby compute a more accurate RTO even during periods
   of congestion and loss.

   The Retransmission Count Option is used to distinguish whether an
   Acknowledgement message arrives for the original transmission or one
   of the retransmissions of a Confirmable message.  However, the
   Retransmission Count Option cannot be used with an Empty
   Acknowledgement (or Reset) message because the CoAP protocol
   specification [RFC7252] does not allow adding options to an Empty
   message.  Therefore, Retransmission Count Option is useful only for
   the common case of Piggybacked Response.  In case of Empty
   Acknowledgements the operation of FASOR is the same as without the
   option.

     +-----+---+---+---+---+------------+--------+--------+---------+
     | No. | C | U | N | R |    Name    | Format | Length | Default |
     +-----+---+---+---+---+------------+--------+--------+---------+
     | TBD |   |   | X |   | Rexmit-Cnt |  uint  |  0-1   |    0    |
     +-----+---+---+---+---+------------+--------+--------+---------+

             C=Critical, U=Unsafe, N=NoCacheKey, R=Repeatable

                   Table 1: Retransmission Count Option

   Implementation of the Retransmission Count option is optional and it
   is identified as elective.  However, when it is present in a CoAP
   message and a CoAP endpoint processes it, it MUST be processed as
   described in this document.  The Retransmission Count option MUST NOT
   occur more than once in a single message.

   The value of the Retransmission Count option is a variable-size (0 to
   1 byte) unsigned integer.  The default value for the option is the
   number 0 and it is represented with an empty option value (a zero-
   length sequence of bytes).  However, when a client intents to use
   Retransmit Count option, it MUST reserve space for it by limiting the
   request message size also when the value is empty in order to fit the
   full-sized option into retransmissions.

   The Retransmission Count option can be present in both the request
   and response message.  When the option is present in a request it



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   indicates the ordinal number of the transmission for the request
   message.

   If the server supports (implements) the Retransmission Count option
   and the option is present in a request, the server MUST echo the
   option value in its Piggybacked Response unmodified.  If the server
   replies with an Empty Acknowledgement the server MUST silently ignore
   the option and MUST not include it in a later separate response to
   that request.

   When Piggybacked Response carrying the Retransmission Count option
   arrives, the client uses the option to match the response message to
   the corresponding transmission of the request.  In order to measure a
   correct RTT, the client must store the timestamp for the original
   transmission of the request as well as the timestamp for each
   retransmission, if any, of the request.  The resulting RTT sample is
   used for the RTO computation.  If the client retransmitted the
   request without the option but the response includes the option, the
   client MUST silently ignore the option.

   The original transmission of a request is indicated with the number
   0, except when sending the first request to a new destination
   endpoint.  The first original transmission of the request to a new
   endpoint carries the number 255 (0xFF) and is interpreted the same as
   an original transmission carrying the number 0.  Retransmissions, if
   any, carry the ordinal number of the retransmission.  Once the first
   Piggybacked Response from the new endpoint arrives the client learns
   whether or not the other endpoint implements the option.  If the
   first response includes the echoed option, the client learns that the
   other endpoint supports the option and may continue including the
   option to each retransmitted request.  From this point on the
   original transmissions of requests implicitly include the option
   number 0 and a zero-byte integer will be sent according to the CoAP
   uint-encoding rules.  If the first Piggybacked Response does not
   include the option, the client SHOULD stop including the option into
   the requests to that endpoint.

   When the Retransmission Count option is in use, the client bases the
   retransmission timeout for the normal RTO in the back off series as
   follows:

      max(RTO, Previous-RTT-Sample)

   Previous-RTT-Sample is the RTT sample acquired from the previous
   message exchange.  If no RTT sample was available with the previous
   message exchange (e.g., the server replied with an Empty
   Acknowledgement), RTO computed earlier is used like in case the
   Retransmission Count option is not in use.



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4.5.  Alternatives for Exchanging Retransmission Count Information

   An alternative way of exchanging the retransmission count information
   between a client and server is to encode it in the Token.  The Token
   is a client-local identifier and a client solely decides how it
   generates the Token.  Therefore, including a varying Token value to
   retransmissions of the same request is all possible as long as the
   client can use the Token to differentiate between requests and match
   a response to the corresponding request.  The server is required to
   make no assumptions about the content or structure of a Token and
   always echo the Token unmodified in its response.

   How exactly a client encodes the retransmission count into a Token is
   an implementation issue.  Note that the original transmission of a
   request may carry a zero-length Token given that the rules for
   generating a Token as specified in RFC 7252 [RFC7252] are followed.
   This allows reducing the overhead of including the Token into the
   reguests in such cases where Token could otherwise be omitted.
   However, similar to Retransmit Count option the maximum request
   message size MUST be limited to accommodate the Token with retransmit
   count into the retransmissions of the request.

5.  Security Considerations

6.  IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no request to IANA.

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC6298]  Paxson, V., Allman, M., Chu, J., and M. Sargent,
              "Computing TCP's Retransmission Timer", RFC 6298,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6298, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6298>.

   [RFC7252]  Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "The Constrained
              Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7252,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7252, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7252>.





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7.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-core-cocoa]
              Bormann, C., Betzler, A., Gomez, C., and I. Demirkol,
              "CoAP Simple Congestion Control/Advanced", draft-ietf-
              core-cocoa-03 (work in progress), February 2018.

   [JRCK18]   Jarvinen, I., Raitahila, I., Cao, Z., and M. Kojo, "Is
              CoAP Congestion Safe?",  Applied Networking Research
              Workshop (ANRW'18), July 2018.

   [KP87]     Karn, P. and C. Partridge, "Improving Round-trip Time
              Estimates in Reliable Transport Protocols",  SIGCOMM'87
              Proceedings of the ACM Workshop on Frontiers in Computer
              Communications Technology, August 1987.

   [RFC0896]  Nagle, J., "Congestion Control in IP/TCP Internetworks",
              RFC 896, DOI 10.17487/RFC0896, January 1984,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc896>.

Authors' Addresses

   Ilpo Jarvinen
   University of Helsinki
   P.O. Box 68
   FI-00014 UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI
   Finland

   EMail: ilpo.jarvinen@helsinki.fi


   Markku Kojo
   University of Helsinki
   P.O. Box 68
   FI-00014 UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI
   Finland

   EMail: markku.kojo@cs.helsinki.fi


   Iivo Raitahila
   University of Helsinki
   P.O. Box 68
   FI-00014 UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI
   Finland

   EMail: iivo.raitahila@helsinki.fi




Jarvinen, et al.         Expires January 4, 2019               [Page 12]


Internet-Draft       Fast-Slow RTO and CC Algorithm            July 2018


   Zhen Cao
   Huawei
   Beijing
   China

   EMail: zhencao.ietf@gmail.com













































Jarvinen, et al.         Expires January 4, 2019               [Page 13]


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