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Versions: (draft-sdt-detnet-security) 00 01 02

Internet Engineering Task Force                               T. Mizrahi
Internet-Draft                                                   MARVELL
Intended status: Informational                          E. Grossman, Ed.
Expires: October 25, 2018                                          DOLBY
                                                               A. Hacker
                                                                  MISTIQ
                                                                  S. Das
                                          Applied Communication Sciences
                                                              J. Dowdell
                                                Airbus Defence and Space
                                                               H. Austad
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                              K. Stanton
                                                                   INTEL
                                                                 N. Finn
                                                                  HUAWEI
                                                          April 23, 2018


       Deterministic Networking (DetNet) Security Considerations
                     draft-ietf-detnet-security-02

Abstract

   A deterministic network is one that can carry data flows for real-
   time applications with extremely low data loss rates and bounded
   latency.  Deterministic networks have been successfully deployed in
   real-time operational technology (OT) applications for some years
   (for example [ARINC664P7]).  However, such networks are typically
   isolated from external access, and thus the security threat from
   external attackers is low.  IETF Deterministic Networking (DetNet)
   specifies a set of technologies that enable creation of deterministic
   networks on IP-based networks of potentially wide area (on the scale
   of a corporate network) potentially bringing the OT network into
   contact with Information Technology (IT) traffic and security threats
   that lie outside of a tightly controlled and bounded area (such as
   the internals of an aircraft).  These DetNet technologies have not
   previously been deployed together on a wide area IP-based network,
   and thus can present security considerations that may be new to IP-
   based wide area network designers.  This draft, intended for use by
   DetNet network designers, provides insight into these security
   considerations.  In addition, this draft collects all security-
   related statements from the various DetNet drafts (Architecture, Use
   Cases, etc) into a single location Section 7.







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Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 25, 2018.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Security Threats  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.1.  Threat Model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.2.  Threat Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.2.1.  Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
         3.2.1.1.  Delay Attack  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.2.2.  DetNet Flow Modification or Spoofing  . . . . . . . .   7
       3.2.3.  Resource Segmentation or Slicing  . . . . . . . . . .   7
         3.2.3.1.  Inter-segment Attack  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.2.4.  Packet Replication and Elimination  . . . . . . . . .   8
         3.2.4.1.  Replication: Increased Attack Surface . . . . . .   8
         3.2.4.2.  Replication-related Header Manipulation . . . . .   8
       3.2.5.  Path Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8



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         3.2.5.1.  Path Manipulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
         3.2.5.2.  Path Choice: Increased Attack Surface . . . . . .   9
       3.2.6.  Control Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
         3.2.6.1.  Control or Signaling Packet Modification  . . . .   9
         3.2.6.2.  Control or Signaling Packet Injection . . . . . .   9
       3.2.7.  Scheduling or Shaping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
         3.2.7.1.  Reconnaissance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       3.2.8.  Time Synchronization Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.3.  Threat Summary  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   4.  Security Threat Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.1.  Delay-Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       4.1.1.  Data Plane Delay Attacks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       4.1.2.  Control Plane Delay Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.2.  Flow Modification and Spoofing  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       4.2.1.  Flow Modification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       4.2.2.  Spoofing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
         4.2.2.1.  Dataplane Spoofing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
         4.2.2.2.  Control Plane Spoofing  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     4.3.  Segmentation attacks (injection)  . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       4.3.1.  Data Plane Segmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       4.3.2.  Control Plane segmentation  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     4.4.  Replication and Elimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       4.4.1.  Increased Attack Surface  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       4.4.2.  Header Manipulation at Elimination Bridges  . . . . .  15
     4.5.  Control or Signaling Packet Modification  . . . . . . . .  16
     4.6.  Control or Signaling Packet Injection . . . . . . . . . .  16
     4.7.  Reconnaissance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     4.8.  Attacks on Time Sync Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     4.9.  Attacks on Path Choice  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   5.  Security Threat Mitigation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     5.1.  Path Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     5.2.  Integrity Protection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     5.3.  DetNet Node Authentication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     5.4.  Encryption  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     5.5.  Control and Signaling Message Protection  . . . . . . . .  18
     5.6.  Dynamic Performance Analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     5.7.  Mitigation Summary  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   6.  Association of Attacks to Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     6.1.  Use Cases by Common Themes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       6.1.1.  Network Layer - AVB/TSN Ethernet  . . . . . . . . . .  20
       6.1.2.  Central Administration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       6.1.3.  Hot Swap  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       6.1.4.  Data Flow Information Models  . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       6.1.5.  L2 and L3 Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       6.1.6.  End-to-End Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       6.1.7.  Proprietary Deterministic Ethernet Networks . . . . .  23
       6.1.8.  Replacement for Proprietary Fieldbuses  . . . . . . .  23
       6.1.9.  Deterministic vs Best-Effort Traffic  . . . . . . . .  23



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       6.1.10. Deterministic Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
       6.1.11. Unused Reserved Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
       6.1.12. Interoperability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
       6.1.13. Cost Reductions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       6.1.14. Insufficiently Secure Devices . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       6.1.15. DetNet Network Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       6.1.16. Multiple Hops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       6.1.17. Level of Service  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       6.1.18. Bounded Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       6.1.19. Low Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       6.1.20. Symmetrical Path Delays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       6.1.21. Reliability and Availability  . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       6.1.22. Redundant Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
       6.1.23. Security Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     6.2.  Attack Types by Use Case Common Theme . . . . . . . . . .  28
   7.  Appendix A: DetNet Draft Security-Related Statements  . . . .  30
     7.1.  Architecture (draft 8)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
       7.1.1.  Fault Mitigation (sec 4.5)  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
       7.1.2.  Security Considerations (sec 7) . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     7.2.  Data Plane Alternatives (draft 4) . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
       7.2.1.  Security Considerations (sec 7) . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     7.3.  Problem Statement (draft 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
       7.3.1.  Security Considerations (sec 5) . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     7.4.  Use Cases (draft 11)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       7.4.1.  (Utility Networks) Security Current Practices and
               Limitations (sec 3.2.1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       7.4.2.  (Utility Networks) Security Trends in Utility
               Networks (sec 3.3.3)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       7.4.3.  (BAS) Security Considerations (sec 4.2.4) . . . . . .  36
       7.4.4.  (6TiSCH) Security Considerations (sec 5.3.3)  . . . .  36
       7.4.5.  (Cellular radio) Security Considerations (sec 6.1.5)   36
       7.4.6.  (Industrial M2M) Communication Today (sec 7.2)  . . .  37
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
   10. Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38

1.  Introduction

   Security is of particularly high importance in DetNet networks
   because many of the use cases which are enabled by DetNet
   [I-D.ietf-detnet-use-cases] include control of physical devices
   (power grid components, industrial controls, building controls) which
   can have high operational costs for failure, and present potentially
   attractive targets for cyber-attackers.

   This situation is even more acute given that one of the goals of
   DetNet is to provide a "converged network", i.e. one that includes



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   both IT traffic and OT traffic, thus exposing potentially sensitive
   OT devices to attack in ways that were not previously common (usually
   because they were under a separate control system or otherwise
   isolated from the IT network).  Security considerations for OT
   networks is not a new area, and there are many OT networks today that
   are connected to wide area networks or the Internet; this draft
   focuses on the issues that are specific to the DetNet technologies
   and use cases.

   The DetNet technologies include ways to:

   o  Reserve data plane resources for DetNet flows in some or all of
      the intermediate nodes (e.g. bridges or routers) along the path of
      the flow

   o  Provide explicit routes for DetNet flows that do not rapidly
      change with the network topology

   o  Distribute data from DetNet flow packets over time and/or space to
      ensure delivery of each packet's data' in spite of the loss of a
      path

   This draft includes sections on threat modeling and analysis, threat
   impact and mitigation, and the association of attacks with use cases
   based on the Use Case Common Themes section of the DetNet Use Cases
   draft [I-D.ietf-detnet-use-cases].

   This draft also provides context for the DetNet security
   considerations by collecting into one place Section 7 the various
   remarks about security from the various DetNet drafts (Use Cases,
   Architecture, etc).  This text is duplicated here primarily because
   the DetNet working group has elected not to produce a Requirements
   draft and thus collectively these statements are as close as we have
   to "DetNet Security Requirements".

2.  Abbreviations

   IT         Information technology (the application of computers to
   store, study, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data or information,
   often in the context of a business or other enterprise - Wikipedia).

   OT         Operational Technology (the hardware and software
   dedicated to detecting or causing changes in physical processes
   through direct monitoring and/or control of physical devices such as
   valves, pumps, etc. - Wikipedia)

   MITM       Man in the Middle




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   SN         Sequence Number

   STRIDE       Addresses risk and severity associated with threat
   categories: Spoofing identity, Tampering with data, Repudiation,
   Information disclosure, Denial of service, Elevation of privilege.

   DREAD       Compares and prioritizes risk represented by these threat
   categories: Damage potential, Reproducibility, Exploitability, how
   many Affected users, Discoverability.

   PTP         Precision Time Protocol [IEEE1588]

3.  Security Threats

   This section presents a threat model, and analyzes the possible
   threats in a DetNet-enabled network.

   We distinguish control plane threats from data plane threats.  The
   attack surface may be the same, but the types of attacks as well as
   the motivation behind them, are different.  For example, a delay
   attack is more relevant to data plane than to control plane.  There
   is also a difference in terms of security solutions: the way you
   secure the data plane is often different than the way you secure the
   control plane.

3.1.  Threat Model

   The threat model used in this memo is based on the threat model of
   Section 3.1 of [RFC7384].  This model classifies attackers based on
   two criteria:

   o  Internal vs. external: internal attackers either have access to a
      trusted segment of the network or possess the encryption or
      authentication keys.  External attackers, on the other hand, do
      not have the keys and have access only to the encrypted or
      authenticated traffic.

   o  Man in the Middle (MITM) vs. packet injector: MITM attackers are
      located in a position that allows interception and modification of
      in-flight protocol packets, whereas a traffic injector can only
      attack by generating protocol packets.

   Care has also been taken to adhere to Section 5 of [RFC3552], both
   with respect to what attacks are considered out-of-scope for this
   document, but also what is considered to be the most common threats
   (explored furhter in Section 3.2.  Most of the direct threats to
   DetNet are Active attacks, but it is highly suggested that DetNet




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   application developers take appropriate measures to protect the
   content of the streams from passive attacks.

   DetNet-Service, one of the service scenarios described in
   [I-D.varga-detnet-service-model], is the case where a service
   connects DetNet networking islands, i.e. two or more otherwise
   independent DetNet network domains are connected via a link that is
   not intrinsically part of either network.  This implies that there
   could be DetNet traffic flowing over a non-DetNet link, which may
   provide an attacker with an advantageous opportunity to tamper with
   DetNet traffic.  The security properties of non-DetNet links are
   outside of the scope of DetNet Security, but it should be noted that
   use of non-DetNet services to interconnect DetNet networks merits
   security analysis to ensure the integrity of the DetNet networks
   involved.

3.2.  Threat Analysis

3.2.1.  Delay

3.2.1.1.  Delay Attack

   An attacker can maliciously delay DetNet data flow traffic.  By
   delaying the traffic, the attacker can compromise the service of
   applications that are sensitive to high delays or to high delay
   variation.

3.2.2.  DetNet Flow Modification or Spoofing

   An attacker can modify some header fields of en route packets in a
   way that causes the DetNet flow identification mechanisms to
   misclassify the flow.  Alternatively, the attacker can inject traffic
   that is tailored to appear as if it belongs to a legitimate DetNet
   flow.  The potential consequence is that the DetNet flow resource
   allocation cannot guarantee the performance that is expected when the
   flow identification works correctly.

3.2.3.  Resource Segmentation or Slicing

3.2.3.1.  Inter-segment Attack

   An attacker can inject traffic, consuming network device resources,
   thereby affecting DetNet flows.  This can be performed using non-
   DetNet traffic that affects DetNet traffic, or by using DetNet
   traffic from one DetNet flow that affects traffic from different
   DetNet flows.





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3.2.4.  Packet Replication and Elimination

3.2.4.1.  Replication: Increased Attack Surface

   Redundancy is intended to increase the robustness and survivability
   of DetNet flows, and replication over multiple paths can potentially
   mitigate an attack that is limited to a single path.  However, the
   fact that packets are replicated over multiple paths increases the
   attack surface of the network, i.e., there are more points in the
   network that may be subject to attacks.

3.2.4.2.  Replication-related Header Manipulation

   An attacker can manipulate the replication-related header fields
   (R-TAG).  This capability opens the door for various types of
   attacks.  For example:

   o  Forward both replicas - malicious change of a packet SN (Sequence
      Number) can cause both replicas of the packet to be forwarded.
      Note that this attack has a similar outcome to a replay attack.

   o  Eliminate both replicas - SN manipulation can be used to cause
      both replicas to be eliminated.  In this case an attacker that has
      access to a single path can cause packets from other paths to be
      dropped, thus compromising some of the advantage of path
      redundancy.

   o  Flow hijacking - an attacker can hijack a DetNet flow with access
      to a single path by systematically replacing the SNs on the given
      path with higher SN values.  For example, an attacker can replace
      every SN value S with a higher value S+C, where C is a constant
      integer.  Thus, the attacker creates a false illusion that the
      attacked path has the lowest delay, causing all packets from other
      paths to be eliminated.  Once the flow is hijacked the attacker
      can either replace en route packets with malicious packets, or
      simply injecting errors, causing the packets to be dropped at
      their destination.

3.2.5.  Path Choice

3.2.5.1.  Path Manipulation

   An attacker can maliciously change, add, or remove a path, thereby
   affecting the corresponding DetNet flows that use the path.







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3.2.5.2.  Path Choice: Increased Attack Surface

   One of the possible consequences of a path manipulation attack is an
   increased attack surface.  Thus, when the attack described in the
   previous subsection is implemented, it may increase the potential of
   other attacks to be performed.

3.2.6.  Control Plane

3.2.6.1.  Control or Signaling Packet Modification

   An attacker can maliciously modify en route control packets in order
   to disrupt or manipulate the DetNet path/resource allocation.

3.2.6.2.  Control or Signaling Packet Injection

   An attacker can maliciously inject control packets in order to
   disrupt or manipulate the DetNet path/resource allocation.

3.2.7.  Scheduling or Shaping

3.2.7.1.  Reconnaissance

   A passive eavesdropper can identify DetNet flows and then gather
   information about en route DetNet flows, e.g., the number of DetNet
   flows, their bandwidths, and their schedules.  The gathered
   information can later be used to invoke other attacks on some or all
   of the flows.

   Note that in some cases DetNet flows may be identified based on an
   explicit DetNet header, but in some cases the flow identification may
   be based on fields from the L3/L4 headers.  If L3/L4 headers are
   involved, for purposes of this draft we assume they are encrypted
   and/or integrity-protected from external attackers.

3.2.8.  Time Synchronization Mechanisms

   An attacker can use any of the attacks described in [RFC7384] to
   attack the synchronization protocol, thus affecting the DetNet
   service.

3.3.  Threat Summary

   A summary of the attacks that were discussed in this section is
   presented in Figure 1.  For each attack, the table specifies the type
   of attackers that may invoke the attack.  In the context of this
   summary, the distinction between internal and external attacks is
   under the assumption that a corresponding security mechanism is being



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   used, and that the corresponding network equipment takes part in this
   mechanism.


   +-----------------------------------------+----+----+----+----+
   | Attack                                  |   Attacker Type   |
   |                                         +---------+---------+
   |                                         |Internal |External |
   |                                         |MITM|Inj.|MITM|Inj.|
   +-----------------------------------------+----+----+----+----+
   |Delay attack                             | +  |    | +  |    |
   +-----------------------------------------+----+----+----+----+
   |DetNet Flow Modification or Spoofing     | +  | +  |    |    |
   +-----------------------------------------+----+----+----+----+
   |Inter-segment Attack                     | +  | +  |    |    |
   +-----------------------------------------+----+----+----+----+
   |Replication: Increased Attack Surface    | +  | +  | +  | +  |
   +-----------------------------------------+----+----+----+----+
   |Replication-related Header Manipulation  | +  |    |    |    |
   +-----------------------------------------+----+----+----+----+
   |Path Manipulation                        | +  | +  |    |    |
   +-----------------------------------------+----+----+----+----+
   |Path Choice: Increased Attack Surface    | +  | +  | +  | +  |
   +-----------------------------------------+----+----+----+----+
   |Control or Signaling Packet Modification | +  |    |    |    |
   +-----------------------------------------+----+----+----+----+
   |Control or Signaling Packet Injection    |    | +  |    |    |
   +-----------------------------------------+----+----+----+----+
   |Reconnaissance                           | +  |    | +  |    |
   +-----------------------------------------+----+----+----+----+
   |Attacks on Time Sync Mechanisms          | +  | +  | +  | +  |
   +-----------------------------------------+----+----+----+----+

                     Figure 1: Threat Analysis Summary

4.  Security Threat Impacts

   This section describes and rates the impact of the attacks described
   in Section 3.  In this section, the impacts as described assume that
   the associated mitigation is not present or has failed.  Mitigations
   are discussed in Section 5.

   In computer security, the impact (or consequence) of an incident can
   be measured in loss of confidentiality, integrity or availability of
   information.

   DetNet raises these stakes significantly for OT applications,
   particularly those which may have been designed to run in an OT-only



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   environment and thus may not have been designed for security in an IT
   environment with its associated devices, services and protocols.

   The severity of various components of the impact of a successful
   vulnerability exploit to use cases by industry is available in more
   detail in [I-D.ietf-detnet-use-cases].  Each of the use cases in the
   DetNet Use Cases draft is represented in the table below, including
   Pro Audio, Electrical Utilities, Industrial M2M (split into two
   areas, M2M Data Gathering and M2M Control Loop), and others.

   Components of Impact (left column) include Criticality of Failure,
   Effects of Failure, Recovery, and DetNet Functional Dependence.
   Criticality of failure summarizes the seriousness of the impact.  The
   impact of a resulting failure can affect many different metrics that
   vary greatly in scope and severity.  In order to reduce the number of
   variables, only the following were included: Financial, Health and
   Safety, People well being, Affect on a single organization, and
   affect on multiple organizations.  Recovery outlines how long it
   would take for an affected use case to get back to its pre-failure
   state (Recovery time objective, RTO), and how much of the original
   service would be lost in between the time of service failure and
   recovery to original state (Recovery Point Objective, RPO).  DetNet
   dependence maps how much the following DetNet service objectives
   contribute to impact of failure: Time dependency, data integrity,
   source node integrity, availability, latency/jitter.

   The scale of the Impact mappings is low, medium, and high.  In some
   use cases there may be a multitude of specific applications in which
   DetNet is used.  For simplicity this section attempts to average the
   varied impacts of different applications.  This section does not
   address the overall risk of a certain impact which would require the
   likelihood of a failure happening.

   In practice any such ratings will vary from case to case; the ratings
   shown here are given as examples.


   Table, Part One (of Two)
   +------------------+-----------------------------------------+-----+
   |                  | Pro A | Util | Bldg |Wire- | Cell |M2M  |M2M  |
   |                  |       |      |      | less |      |Data |Ctrl |
   +------------------+-----------------------------------------+-----+
   | Criticality      | Med   | Hi   | Low  | Med  | Med  | Med | Med |
   +------------------+-----------------------------------------+-----+
   | Effects
   +------------------+-----------------------------------------+-----+
   |  Financial       | Med   | Hi   | Med  | Med  | Low  | Med | Med |
   +------------------+-----------------------------------------+-----+



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   |  Health/Safety   | Med   | Hi   | Hi   | Med  | Med  | Med | Med |
   +------------------+-----------------------------------------+-----+
   |  People WB       | Med   | Hi   | Hi   | Low  | Hi   | Low | Low |
   +------------------+-----------------------------------------+-----+
   |  Effect 1 org    | Hi    | Hi   | Med  | Hi   | Med  | Med | Med |
   +------------------+-----------------------------------------+-----+
   |  Effect >1 org   | Med   | Hi   | Low  | Med  | Med  | Med | Med |
   +------------------+-----------------------------------------+-----+
   |Recovery
   +------------------+-----------------------------------------+-----+
   |  Recov Time Obj  | Med   | Hi   | Med  | Hi   | Hi   | Hi  | Hi  |
   +------------------+-----------------------------------------+-----+
   |  Recov Point Obj | Med   | Hi   | Low  | Med  | Low  | Hi  | Hi  |
   +------------------+-----------------------------------------+-----+
   |DetNet Dependence
   +------------------+-----------------------------------------+-----+
   |  Time Dependency | Hi    | Hi   | Low  | Hi   | Med  | Low | Hi  |
   +------------------+-----------------------------------------+-----+
   |  Latency/Jitter  | Hi    | Hi   | Med  | Med  | Low  | Low | Hi  |
   +------------------+-----------------------------------------+-----+
   |  Data Integrity  | Hi    | Hi   | Med  | Hi   | Low  | Hi  | Low |
   +------------------+-----------------------------------------+-----+
   |  Src Node Integ  | Hi    | Hi   | Med  | Hi   | Med  | Hi  | Hi  |
   +------------------+-----------------------------------------+-----+
   |  Availability    | Hi    | Hi   | Med  | Hi   | Low  | Hi  | Hi  |
   +------------------+-----------------------------------------+-----+

   Table, Part Two (of Two)
   +------------------+--------------------------+
   |                  | Mining | Block | Network |
   |                  |        | Chain | Slicing |
   +------------------+--------------------------+
   | Criticality      | Hi     | Med   | Hi      |
   +------------------+--------------------------+
   | Effects
   +------------------+--------------------------+
   |  Financial       | Hi     | Hi    | Hi      |
   +------------------+--------------------------+
   |  Health/Safety   | Hi     | Low   | Med     |
   +------------------+--------------------------+
   |  People WB       | Hi     | Low   | Med     |
   +------------------+--------------------------+
   |  Effect 1 org    | Hi     | Hi    | Hi      |
   +------------------+--------------------------+
   |  Effect >1 org   | Hi     | Low   | Hi      |
   +------------------+--------------------------+
   |Recovery
   +------------------+--------------------------+



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   |  Recov Time Obj  | Hi     | Low   | Hi      |
   +------------------+--------------------------+
   |  Recov Point Obj | Hi     | Low   | Hi      |
   +------------------+--------------------------+
   |DetNet Dependence
   +------------------+--------------------------+
   |  Time Dependency | Hi     | Low   | Hi      |
   +------------------+--------------------------+
   |  Latency/Jitter  | Hi     | Low   | Hi      |
   +------------------+--------------------------+
   |  Data Integrity  | Hi     | Hi    | Hi      |
   +------------------+--------------------------+
   |  Src Node Integ  | Hi     | Hi    | Hi      |
   +------------------+--------------------------+
   |  Availability    | Hi     | Hi    | Hi      |
   +------------------+--------------------------+


             Figure 2: Impact of Attacks by Use Case Industry

   The rest of this section will cover impact of the different groups in
   more detail.

4.1.  Delay-Attacks

4.1.1.  Data Plane Delay Attacks

   Severely delayed messages in a DetNet link can result in the same
   behavior as dropped messages in ordinary networks as the services
   attached to the stream has strict deterministic requirements.

   For a single path scenario, disruption is a real possibility, whereas
   in a multipath scenario, large delays or instabilities in one stream
   can lead to increased buffer and CPU resources on the elimination
   bridge.

4.1.2.  Control Plane Delay Attacks

   In and of itself, this is not directly a threat to the DetNet
   service, but the effects of delaying control messages can have quite
   adverse effects later.

   o  Delayed tear-down can lead to resource leakage, which in turn can
      result in failure to allocate new streams finally giving rise to a
      denial of service attack.






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   o  Failure to deliver, or severely delaying, signalling messages
      adding an end-point to a multicast-group will prevent the new EP
      from receiving expected frames thus disrupting expected behavior.

   o  Delaying messages removing an EP from a group can lead to loss of
      privacy as the EP will continue to receive messages even after it
      is supposedly removed.

4.2.  Flow Modification and Spoofing

4.2.1.  Flow Modification

   ToDo.

4.2.2.  Spoofing

4.2.2.1.  Dataplane Spoofing

   Spoofing dataplane messages can result in increased resource
   consumptions on the bridges throughout the network as it will
   increase buffer usage and CPU utilization.  This can lead to resource
   exhaustion and/or increased delay.

   If the attacker manages to create valid headers, the false messages
   can be forwarded through the network, using part of the allocated
   bandwidth.  This in turn can cause legitimate messages to be dropped
   when the budget has been exhausted.

   Finally, the endpoint will have to deal with invalid messages being
   delivered to the endpoint instead of (or in addition to) a valid
   message.

4.2.2.2.  Control Plane Spoofing

   A successful control plane spoofing-attack will potentionally have
   adverse effects.  It can do virtually anything from:

   o  modifying existing streams by changing the available bandwidth

   o  add or remove endpoints from a stream

   o  drop streams completly

   o  falsely create new streams (exhaust the systems resources, or to
      enable streams outside the Network engineer's control)






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4.3.  Segmentation attacks (injection)

4.3.1.  Data Plane Segmentation

   Injection of false messages in a DetNet stream could lead to
   exhaustion of the available bandwidth for a stream if the bridges
   accounts false messages to the stream's budget.

   In a multipath scenario, injected messages will cause increased CPU
   utilization in elimination bridges.  If enough paths are subject to
   malicious injection, the legitimate messages can be dropped.
   Likewise it can cause an increase in buffer usage.  In total, it will
   consume more resources in the bridges than normal, giving rise to a
   resource exhaustion attack on the bridges.

   If a stream is interrupted, the end application will be affected by
   what is now a non-deterministic stream.

4.3.2.  Control Plane segmentation

   A successful Control Plane segmentation attack control messages to be
   interpreted by nodes in the network, unbeknownst to the central
   controller or the network engineer.  This has the potential to create

   o  new streams (exhausting resources)

   o  drop existing (denial of service)

   o  add/remove end-stations to a multicast group (loss of privacy)

   o  modify the stream attributes (affecting available bandwidth

4.4.  Replication and Elimination

   The Replication and Elimination is relevant only to Data Plane
   messages as Signalling is not subject to multipath routing.

4.4.1.  Increased Attack Surface

   Covered briefly in Section 4.3

4.4.2.  Header Manipulation at Elimination Bridges

   Covered briefly in Section 4.3







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4.5.  Control or Signaling Packet Modification

   ToDo.

4.6.  Control or Signaling Packet Injection

   ToDo.

4.7.  Reconnaissance

   Of all the attacks, this is one of the most difficult to detect and
   counter.  Often, an attacker will start out by observing the traffic
   going through the network and use the knowledge gathered in this
   phase to mount future attacks.

   The attacker can, at their leisure, observe over time all aspects of
   the messaging and signalling, learning the intent and purpose of all
   traffic flows.  At some later date, possibly at an important time in
   an operational context, the attacker can launch a multi-faceted
   attack, possibly in conjunction with some demand for ransom.

   The flow-id in the header of the data plane-messages gives an
   attacker a very reliable identifier for DetNet traffic, and this
   traffic has a high probability of going to lucrative targets.

4.8.  Attacks on Time Sync Mechanisms

   ToDo.

4.9.  Attacks on Path Choice

   This is covered in part in Section 4.3, and as with Replication and
   Elimination (Section 4.4, this is relevant for DataPlane messages.

5.  Security Threat Mitigation

   This section describes a set of measures that can be taken to
   mitigate the attacks described in Section 3.  These mitigations
   should be viewed as a toolset that includes several different and
   diverse tools.  Each application or system will typically use a
   subset of these tools, based on a system-specific threat analysis.

5.1.  Path Redundancy

   Description

      A DetNet flow that can be forwarded simultaneously over multiple
      paths.  Path replication and elimination



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      [I-D.ietf-detnet-architecture] provides resiliency to dropped or
      delayed packets.  This redundancy improves the robustness to
      failures and to man-in-the-middle attacks.

   Related attacks

      Path redundancy can be used to mitigate various man-in-the-middle
      attacks, including attacks described in Section 3.2.1,
      Section 3.2.2, Section 3.2.3, and Section 3.2.8.

5.2.  Integrity Protection

   Description

      An integrity protection mechanism, such as a Hash-based Message
      Authentication Code (HMAC) can be used to mitigate modification
      attacks.  Integrity protection can be used on the data plane
      header, to prevent its modification and tampering.  Integrity
      protection in the control plane is discussed in Section 5.5.

   Related attacks

      Integrity protection mitigates attacks related to modification and
      tampering, including the attacks described in Section 3.2.2 and
      Section 3.2.4.

5.3.  DetNet Node Authentication

   Description

      Source authentication verifies the authenticity of DetNet sources,
      allowing to mitigate spoofing attacks.  Note that while integrity
      protection (Section 5.2) prevents intermediate nodes from
      modifying information, authentication verfies the source of the
      information.

   Related attacks

      DetNet node authentication is used to mitigate attacks related to
      spoofing, including the attacks of Section 3.2.2, and
      Section 3.2.4.

5.4.  Encryption

   Description

      DetNet flows can be forwarded in encrypted form.




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   Related attacks

      While confidentiality is not considered an important goal with
      respect to DetNet, encryption can be used to mitigate recon
      attacks (Section 3.2.7).

5.5.  Control and Signaling Message Protection

   Description

      Control and sigaling messages can be protected using
      authentication and integrity protection mechanisms.

   Related attacks

      These mechanisms can be used to mitigate various attacks on the
      control plane, as described in Section 3.2.6, Section 3.2.8 and
      Section 3.2.5.

5.6.  Dynamic Performance Analytics

   Description

      Information about the network performance can be gathered in real-
      time in order to detect anomalies and unusual behavior that may be
      the symptom of a security attack.  The gathered information can be
      based, for example, on per-flow counters, bandwidth measurement,
      and monitoring of packet arrival times.  Unusual behavior or
      potentially malicious nodes can be reported to a management
      system, or can be used as a trigger for taking corrective actions.
      The information can be tracked by DetNet end systems and transit
      nodes, and exported to a management system, for example using
      NETCONF.

   Related attacks

      Performance analytics can be used to mitigate various attacks,
      including the ones described in Section 3.2.1, Section 3.2.3, and
      Section 3.2.8.

5.7.  Mitigation Summary

   The following table maps the attacks of Section 3 to the impacts of
   Section 4, and to the mitigations of the current section.  Each row
   specifies an attack, the impact of this attack if it is successfully
   implemented, and possible mitigation methods.





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   +----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
   | Attack               |      Impact         |     Mitigations     |
   +----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
   |Delay Attack          |-Non-deterministic   |-Path redundancy     |
   |                      | delay               |-Performance         |
   |                      |-Data disruption     | analytics           |
   |                      |-Increased resource  |                     |
   |                      | consumption         |                     |
   +----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
   |Reconnaissance        |-Enabler for other   |-Encryption          |
   |                      | attacks             |                     |
   +----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
   |DetNet Flow Modificat-|-Increased resource  |-Path redundancy     |
   |ion or Spoofing       | consumption         |-Integrity protection|
   |                      |-Data disruption     |-DetNet Node         |
   |                      |                     | authentication      |
   +----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
   |Inter-Segment Attack  |-Increased resource  |-Path redundancy     |
   |                      | consumption         |-Performance         |
   |                      |-Data disruption     | analytics           |
   +----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
   |Replication: Increased|-All impacts of other|-Integrity protection|
   |attack surface        | attacks             |-DetNet Node         |
   |                      |                     | authentication      |
   +----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
   |Replication-related   |-Non-deterministic   |-Integrity protection|
   |Header Manipulation   | delay               |-DetNet Node         |
   |                      |-Data disruption     | authentication      |
   +----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
   |Path Manipulation     |-Enabler for other   |-Control message     |
   |                      | attacks             | protection          |
   +----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
   |Path Choice: Increased|-All impacts of other|-Control message     |
   |Attack Surface        | attacks             | protection          |
   +----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
   |Control or Signaling  |-Increased resource  |-Control message     |
   |Packet Modification   | consumption         | protection          |
   |                      |-Non-deterministic   |                     |
   |                      | delay               |                     |
   |                      |-Data disruption     |                     |
   +----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
   |Control or Signaling  |-Increased resource  |-Control message     |
   |Packet Injection      | consumption         | protection          |
   |                      |-Non-deterministic   |                     |
   |                      | delay               |                     |
   |                      |-Data disruption     |                     |
   +----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
   |Attacks on Time Sync  |-Non-deterministic   |-Path redundancy     |



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   |Mechanisms            | delay               |-Control message     |
   |                      |-Increased resource  | protection          |
   |                      | consumption         |-Performance         |
   |                      |-Data disruption     | analytics           |
   +----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+

            Figure 3: Mapping Attacks to Impact and Mitigations

6.  Association of Attacks to Use Cases

   Different attacks can have different impact and/or mitigation
   depending on the use case, so we would like to make this association
   in our analysis.  However since there is a potentially unbounded list
   of use cases, we categorize the attacks with respect to the common
   themes of the use cases as identified in the Use Case Common Themes
   section of the DetNet Use Cases draft [I-D.ietf-detnet-use-cases].

   See also Figure 2 for a mapping of the impact of attacks per use case
   by industry.

6.1.  Use Cases by Common Themes

   In this section we review each theme and discuss the attacks that are
   applicable to that theme, as well as anything specific about the
   impact and mitigations for that attack with respect to that theme.
   The table Figure 5 then provides a summary of the attacks that are
   applicable to each theme.

6.1.1.  Network Layer - AVB/TSN Ethernet

   DetNet is expected to run over various transmission mediums, with
   Ethernet being explicitly supported.  Attacks such as Delay or
   Reconnaissance might be implemented differently on a different
   transmission medium, however the impact on the DetNet as a whole
   would be essentially the same.  We thus conclude that all attacks and
   impacts that would be applicable to DetNet over Ethernet (i.e. all
   those named in this draft) would also be applicable to DetNet over
   other transmission mediums.

   With respect to mitigations, some methods are specific to the
   Ethernet medium, for example time-aware scheduling using 802.1Qbv can
   protect against excessive use of bandwidth at the ingress - for other
   mediums, other mitigations would have to be implemented to provide
   analogous protection.







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6.1.2.  Central Administration

   A DetNet network is expected to be controlled by a centralized
   network configuration and control system (CNC).  Such a system may be
   in a single central location, or it may be distributed across
   multiple control entities that function together as a unified control
   system for the network.

   In this draft we distinguish between attacks on the DetNet Control
   plane vs. Data plane.  But is an attack affecting control plane
   packets synonymous with an attack on the CNC itself?  For purposes of
   this draft let us consider an attack on the CNC itself to be out of
   scope, and consider all attacks named in this draft which are
   relevant to control plane packets to be relevant to this theme,
   including Path Manipulation, Path Choice, Control Packet Modification
   or Injection, Reconaissance and Attacks on Time Sync Mechanisms.

6.1.3.  Hot Swap

   A DetNet network is not expected to be "plug and play" - it is
   expected that there is some centralized network configuration and
   control system.  However, the ability to "hot swap" components (e.g.
   due to malfunction) is similar enough to "plug and play" that this
   kind of behavior may be expected in DetNet networks, depending on the
   implementation.

   An attack surface related to Hot Swap is that the DetNet network must
   at least consider input at runtime from devices that were not part of
   the initial configuration of the network.  Even a "perfect" (or
   "hitless") replacement of a device at runtime would not necessarily
   be ideal, since presumably one would want to distinguish it from the
   original for OAM purposes (e.g. to report hot swap of a failed
   device).

   This implies that an attack such as Flow Modification, Spoofing or
   Inter-segment (which could introduce packets from a "new" device
   (i.e. one heretofore unknown on the network) could be used to exploit
   the need to consider such packets (as opposed to rejecting them out
   of hand as one would do if one did not have to consider introduction
   of a new device).

   Similarly if the network was designed to support runtime replacement
   of a clock device, then presence (or apparent presence) and thus
   consideration of packets from a new such device could affect the
   network, or the time sync of the network, for example by initiating a
   new Best Master Clock selection process.  Thus attacks on time sync
   should be considered when designing hot swap type functionality.




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6.1.4.  Data Flow Information Models

   Data Flow Information Models specific to DetNet networks are to be
   specified by DetNet.  Thus they are "new" and thus potentially
   present a new attack surface.  Does the threat take advantage of any
   aspect of our new Data Flow Info Models?

   This is TBD, thus there are no specific entries in our table, however
   that does not imply that there could be no relevant attacks.

6.1.5.  L2 and L3 Integration

   A DetNet network integrates Layer 2 (bridged) networks (e.g.  AVB/TSN
   LAN) and Layer 3 (routed) networks via the use of well-known
   protocols such as IPv6, MPLS-PW, and Ethernet.  Presumably security
   considerations applicable directly to those individual protocols is
   not specific to DetNet, and thus out of scope for this draft.
   However enabling DetNet to coordinate Layer 2 and Layer 3 behavior
   will require some additions to existing protocols (see draft-dt-
   detnet-dp-alt) and any such new work can introduce new attack
   surfaces.

   This is TBD, thus there are no specific entries in our table, however
   that does not imply that there could be no relevant attacks.

6.1.6.  End-to-End Delivery

   Packets sent over DetNet are guaranteed not to be dropped by the
   network due to congestion.  (Packets may however be dropped for
   intended reasons, e.g. per security measures).

   A Data plane attack may force packets to be dropped, for example a
   "long" Delay or Replication/Elimination or Flow Modification attack.

   The same result might be obtained by a Control plane attack, e.g.
   Path Manipulation or Signaling Packet Modification.

   It may be that such attacks are limited to Internal MITM attackers,
   but other possibilities should be considered.

   An attack may also cause packets that should not be delivered to be
   delivered, such as by forcing packets from one (e.g. replicated) path
   to be preferred over another path when they should not be
   (Replication attack), or by Flow Modification, or by Path Choice or
   Packet Injection.  A Time Sync attack could cause a system that was
   expecting certain packets at certain times to accept unintended
   packets based on compromised system time or time windowing in the
   scheduler.



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6.1.7.  Proprietary Deterministic Ethernet Networks

   There are many proprietary non-interoperable deterministic Ethernet-
   based networks currently available; DetNet is intended to provide an
   open-standards-based alternative to such networks.  In cases where a
   DetNet intersects with remnants of such networks or their protocols,
   such as by protocol emulation or access to such a network via a
   gateway, new attack surfaces can be opened.

   For example an Inter-Segment or Control plane attack such as Path
   Manipulation, Path Choice or Control Packet Modification/Injection
   could be used to exploit commands specific to such a protocol, or
   that are interpreted differently by the different protocols or
   gateway.

6.1.8.  Replacement for Proprietary Fieldbuses

   There are many proprietary "field buses" used in today's industrial
   and other industries; DetNet is intended to provide an open-
   standards-based alternative to such buses.  In cases where a DetNet
   intersects with such fieldbuses or their protocols, such as by
   protocol emulation or access via a gateway, new attack surfaces can
   be opened.

   For example an Inter-Segment or Control plane attack such as Path
   Manipulation, Path Choice or Control Packet Modification/Injection
   could be used to exploit commands specific to such a protocol, or
   that are interpreted differently by the different protocols or
   gateway.

6.1.9.  Deterministic vs Best-Effort Traffic

   DetNet is intended to support coexistence of time-sensitive
   operational (OT, deterministic) traffic and information (IT, "best
   effort") traffic on the same ("unified") network.

   The presence of IT traffic on a network carrying OT traffic has long
   been considered insecure design [reference needed here].  With
   DetNet, this coexistance will become more common, and mitigations
   will need to be established.  The fact that the IT traffic on a
   DetNet is limited to a corporate controlled network makes this a less
   difficult problem compared to being exposed to the open Internet,
   however this aspect of DetNet security should not be underestimated.

   Most of the themes described in this draft address OT (reserved)
   streams - this item is intended to address issues related to IT
   traffic on a DetNet.




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   An Inter-segment attack can flood the network with IT-type traffic
   with the intent of disrupting handling of IT traffic, and/or the goal
   of interfering with OT traffic.  Presumably if the stream reservation
   and isolation of the DetNet is well-designed (better-designed than
   the attack) then interference with OT traffic should not result from
   an attack that floods the network with IT traffic.

   However the DetNet's handling of IT traffic may not (by design) be as
   resilient to DOS attack, and thus designers must be otherwise
   prepared to mitigate DOS attacks on IT traffic in a DetNet.

6.1.10.  Deterministic Flows

   Reserved bandwidth data flows (deterministic flows) must provide the
   allocated bandwidth, and must be isolated from each other.

   A Spoofing or Inter-segment attack which adds packet traffic to a
   bandwidth-reserved stream could cause that stream to occupy more
   bandwidth than it is allocated, resulting in interference with other
   deterministic flows.

   A Flow Modification or Spoofing or Header Manipulation or Control
   Packet Modification attack could cause packets from one flow to be
   directed to another flow, thus breaching isolation between the flows.

6.1.11.  Unused Reserved Bandwidth

   If bandwidth reservations are made for a stream but the associated
   bandwidth is not used at any point in time, that bandwidth is made
   available on the network for best-effort traffic.  If the owner of
   the reserved stream then starts transmitting again, the bandwidth is
   no longer available for best-effort traffic, on a moment-to-moment
   basis.  (Such "temporarily available" bandwidth is not available for
   time-sensitive traffic, which must have its own reservation).

   An Inter-segment attack could flood the network with IT traffic,
   interfering with the intended IT traffic.

   A Flow Modification or Spoofing or Control Packet Modification or
   Injection attack could cause extra bandwidth to be reserved by a new
   or existing stream, thus making it unavailable for use by best-effort
   traffic.

6.1.12.  Interoperability

   The DetNet network specifications are intended to enable an ecosystem
   in which multiple vendors can create interoperable products, thus
   promoting device diversity and potentially higher numbers of each



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   device manufactured.  Does the threat take advantage of differences
   in implementation of "interoperable" products made by different
   vendors?

   This is TBD, thus there are no specific entries in our table, however
   that does not imply that there could be no relevant attacks.

6.1.13.  Cost Reductions

   The DetNet network specifications are intended to enable an ecosystem
   in which multiple vendors can create interoperable products, thus
   promoting higher numbers of each device manufactured, promoting cost
   reduction and cost competition among vendors.  Does the threat take
   advantage of "low cost" HW or SW components or other "cost-related
   shortcuts" that might be present in devices?

   This is TBD, thus there are no specific entries in our table, however
   that does not imply that there could be no relevant attacks.

6.1.14.  Insufficiently Secure Devices

   The DetNet network specifications are intended to enable an ecosystem
   in which multiple vendors can create interoperable products, thus
   promoting device diversity and potentially higher numbers of each
   device manufactured.  Does the threat attack "naivete" of SW, for
   example SW that was not designed to be sufficiently secure (or secure
   at all) but is deployed on a DetNet network that is intended to be
   highly secure?  (For example IoT exploits like the Mirai video-camera
   botnet ([MIRAI]).

   This is TBD, thus there are no specific entries in our table, however
   that does not imply that there could be no relevant attacks.

6.1.15.  DetNet Network Size

   DetNet networks range in size from very small, e.g. inside a single
   industrial machine, to very large, for example a Utility Grid network
   spanning a whole country.

   The size of the network might be related to how the attack is
   introduced into the network, for example if the entire network is
   local, there is a threat that power can be cut to the entire network.
   If the network is large, perhaps only a part of the network is
   attacked.

   A Delay attack might be as relevant to a small network as to a large
   network, although the amount of delay might be different.




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   Attacks sourced from IT traffic might be more likely in large
   networks, since more people might have access to the network.
   Similarly Path Manipulation, Path Choice and Time Sync attacks seem
   more likely relevant to large networks.

6.1.16.  Multiple Hops

   Large DetNet networks (e.g. a Utility Grid network) may involve many
   "hops" over various kinds of links for example radio repeaters,
   microwave links, fiber optic links, etc..

   An attack that takes advantage of flaws (or even normal operation) in
   the device drivers for the various links (through internal knowledge
   of how the individual driver or firmware operates, perhaps like the
   Stuxnet attack) could take proportionately greater advantage of this
   topology.  We don't currently have an attack like this defined; we
   have only "protocol" (time or packet) based attacks.  Perhaps we need
   to define an attack like this?  Or is that out of scope for DetNet?

   It is also possible that this DetNet topology will not be in as
   common use as other more homogeneous topologies so there may be more
   opportunity for attackers to exploit software and/or protocol flaws
   in the implementations which have not been wrung out by extensive
   use, particularly in the case of early adopters.

   Of the attacks we have defined, the ones identified above as relevant
   to "large" networks seem to be most relevant.

6.1.17.  Level of Service

   A DetNet is expected to provide means to configure the network that
   include querying network path latency, requesting bounded latency for
   a given stream, requesting worst case maximum and/or minimum latency
   for a given path or stream, and so on.  It is an expected case that
   the network cannot provide a given requested service level.  In such
   cases the network control system should reply that the requested
   service level is not available (as opposed to accepting the parameter
   but then not delivering the desired behavior).

   Control plane attacks such as Signaling Packet Modification and
   Injection could be used to modify or create control traffic that
   could interfere with the process of a user requesting a level of
   service and/or the network's reply.

   Reconnaissance could be used to characterize flows and perhaps target
   specific flows for attack via the Control plane as noted above.





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6.1.18.  Bounded Latency

   DetNet provides the expectation of guaranteed bounded latency.

   Delay attacks can cause packets to miss their agreed-upon latency
   boundaries.

   Time Sync attacks can corrupt the system's time reference, resulting
   in missed latency deadlines (with respect to the "correct" time
   reference).

6.1.19.  Low Latency

   Applications may require "extremely low latency" however depending on
   the application these may mean very different latency values; for
   example "low latency" across a Utility grid network is on a different
   time scale than "low latency" in a motor control loop in a small
   machine.  The intent is that the mechanisms for specifying desired
   latency include wide ranges, and that architecturally there is
   nothing to prevent arbitrarily low latencies from being implemented
   in a given network.

   Attacks on the Control plane (as described in the Level of Service
   theme) and Delay and Time attacks (as described in the Bounded
   Latency theme) both apply here.

6.1.20.  Symmetrical Path Delays

   Some applications would like to specify that the transit delay time
   values be equal for both the transmit and return paths.

   Delay attacks can cause path delays to differ.

   Time Sync attacks can corrupt the system's time reference, resulting
   in differing path delays (with respect to the "correct" time
   reference).

6.1.21.  Reliability and Availability

   DetNet based systems are expected to be implemented with essentially
   arbitrarily high availability (for example 99.9999% up time, or even
   12 nines).  The intent is that the DetNet designs should not make any
   assumptions about the level of reliability and availability that may
   be required of a given system, and should define parameters for
   communicating these kinds of metrics within the network.

   Any attack on the system, of any type, can affect its overall
   reliability and availability, thus in our table we have marked every



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   attack.  Since every DetNet depends to a greater or lesser degree on
   reliability and availability, this essentially means that all
   networks have to mitigate all attacks, which to a greater or lesser
   degree defeats the purpose of associating attacks with use cases.  It
   also underscores the difficulty of designing "extremely high
   reliability" networks.  I hope that in future drafts we can say
   something more useful here.

6.1.22.  Redundant Paths

   DetNet based systems are expected to be implemented with essentially
   arbitrarily high reliability/availability.  A strategy used by DetNet
   for providing such extraordinarily high levels of reliability is to
   provide redundant paths that can be seamlessly switched between, all
   the while maintaining the required performance of that system.

   Replication-related attacks are by definition applicable here.
   Control plane attacks can also interfere with the configuration of
   redundant paths.

6.1.23.  Security Measures

   A DetNet network must be made secure against devices failures,
   attackers, misbehaving devices, and so on.  Does the threat affect
   such security measures themselves, e.g. by attacking SW designed to
   protect against device failure?

   This is TBD, thus there are no specific entries in our table, however
   that does not imply that there could be no relevant attacks.

6.2.  Attack Types by Use Case Common Theme

   The following table lists the attacks of Section 3, assigning a
   number to each type of attack.  That number is then used as a short
   form identifier for the attack in Figure 5.
















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   +--+----------------------------------------+----------------------+
   |  | Attack                                 |       Section        |
   +--+----------------------------------------+----------------------+
   | 1|Delay Attack                            |  Section 3.2.1       |
   +--+----------------------------------------+----------------------+
   | 2|DetNet Flow Modification or Spoofing    |  Section 3.2.2       |
   +--+----------------------------------------+----------------------+
   | 3|Inter-Segment Attack                    |  Section 3.2.3       |
   +--+----------------------------------------+----------------------+
   | 4|Replication: Increased attack surface   |  Section 3.2.4.1     |
   +--+----------------------------------------+----------------------+
   | 5|Replication-related Header Manipulation |  Section 3.2.4.2     |
   +--+----------------------------------------+----------------------+
   | 6|Path Manipulation                       |  Section 3.2.5.1     |
   +--+----------------------------------------+----------------------+
   | 7|Path Choice: Increased Attack Surface   |  Section 3.2.5.2     |
   +--+----------------------------------------+----------------------+
   | 8|Control or Signaling Packet Modification|  Section 3.2.6.1     |
   +--+----------------------------------------+----------------------+
   | 9|Control or Signaling Packet Injection   |  Section 3.2.6.2     |
   +--+----------------------------------------+----------------------+
   |10|Reconnaissance                          |  Section 3.2.7       |
   +--+----------------------------------------+----------------------+
   |11|Attacks on Time Sync Mechanisms         |  Section 3.2.8       |
   +--+----------------------------------------+----------------------+

                         Figure 4: List of Attacks

   The following table maps the use case themes presented in this memo
   to the attacks of Figure 4.  Each row specifies a theme, and the
   attacks relevant to this theme are marked with a '+'.


   +----------------------------+--------------------------------+
   | Theme                      |             Attack             |
   |                            +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |                            | 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9|10|11|
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Network Layer - AVB/TSN Eth.| +| +| +| +| +| +| +| +| +| +| +|
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Central Administration      |  |  |  |  |  | +| +| +| +| +| +|
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Hot Swap                    |  | +| +|  |  |  |  |  |  |  | +|
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Data Flow Information Models|  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |L2 and L3 Integration       |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+



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   |End-to-end Delivery         | +| +| +| +| +| +| +| +| +|  | +|
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Proprietary Deterministic   |  |  | +|  |  | +| +| +| +|  |  |
   |Ethernet Networks           |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Replacement for Proprietary |  |  | +|  |  | +| +| +| +|  |  |
   |Fieldbuses                  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Deterministic vs. Best-     |  |  | +|  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   |Effort Traffic              |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Deterministic Flows         |  | +| +|  | +| +|  | +|  |  |  |
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Unused Reserved Bandwidth   |  | +| +|  |  |  |  | +| +|  |  |
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Interoperability            |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Cost Reductions             |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Insufficiently Secure       |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   |Devices                     |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |DetNet Network Size         | +|  |  |  |  | +| +|  |  |  | +|
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Multiple Hops               | +| +|  |  |  | +| +|  |  |  | +|
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Level of Service            |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | +| +| +|  |
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Bounded Latency             | +|  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | +|
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Low Latency                 | +|  |  |  |  |  |  | +| +| +| +|
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Symmetric Path Delays       | +|  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | +|
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Reliability and Availability| +| +| +| +| +| +| +| +| +| +| +|
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Redundant Paths             |  |  |  | +| +|  |  | +| +|  |  |
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |Security Measures           |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   +----------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+

               Figure 5: Mapping Between Themes and Attacks

7.  Appendix A: DetNet Draft Security-Related Statements

   This section collects the various statements in the currently
   existing DetNet Working Group drafts.  For each draft, the section
   name and number of the quoted section is shown.  The text shown here



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   is the work of the original draft authors, quoted verbatim from the
   drafts.  The intention is to explicitly quote all relevant text, not
   to summarize it.

7.1.  Architecture (draft 8)

7.1.1.  Fault Mitigation (sec 4.5)

   One key to building robust real-time systems is to reduce the
   infinite variety of possible failures to a number that can be
   analyzed with reasonable confidence.  DetNet aids in the process by
   providing filters and policers to detect DetNet packets received on
   the wrong interface, or at the wrong time, or in too great a volume,
   and to then take actions such as discarding the offending packet,
   shutting down the offending DetNet flow, or shutting down the
   offending interface.

   It is also essential that filters and service remarking be employed
   at the network edge to prevent non-DetNet packets from being mistaken
   for DetNet packets, and thus impinging on the resources allocated to
   DetNet packets.

   There exist techniques, at present and/or in various stages of
   standardization, that can perform these fault mitigation tasks that
   deliver a high probability that misbehaving systems will have zero
   impact on well-behaved DetNet flows, except of course, for the
   receiving interface(s) immediately downstream of the misbehaving
   device.  Examples of such techniques include traffic policing
   functions (e.g.  [RFC2475]) and separating flows into per-flow rate-
   limited queues.

7.1.2.  Security Considerations (sec 7)

   Security in the context of Deterministic Networking has an added
   dimension; the time of delivery of a packet can be just as important
   as the contents of the packet, itself.  A man-in-the-middle attack,
   for example, can impose, and then systematically adjust, additional
   delays into a link, and thus disrupt or subvert a real-time
   application without having to crack any encryption methods employed.
   See [RFC7384] for an exploration of this issue in a related context.

   Furthermore, in a control system where millions of dollars of
   equipment, or even human lives, can be lost if the DetNet QoS is not
   delivered, one must consider not only simple equipment failures,
   where the box or wire instantly becomes perfectly silent, but bizarre
   errors such as can be caused by software failures.  Because there is
   essential no limit to the kinds of failures that can occur,
   protecting against realistic equipment failures is indistinguishable,



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   in most cases, from protecting against malicious behavior, whether
   accidental or intentional.

   Security must cover:

   o  Protection of the signaling protocol

   o  Authentication and authorization of the controlling nodes

   o  Identification and shaping of the flows

7.2.  Data Plane Alternatives (draft 4)

7.2.1.  Security Considerations (sec 7)

   This document does not add any new security considerations beyond
   what the referenced technologies already have.

7.3.  Problem Statement (draft 5)

7.3.1.  Security Considerations (sec 5)

   Security in the context of Deterministic Networking has an added
   dimension; the time of delivery of a packet can be just as important
   as the contents of the packet, itself.  A man-in-the-middle attack,
   for example, can impose, and then systematically adjust, additional
   delays into a link, and thus disrupt or subvert a real-time
   application without having to crack any encryption methods employed.
   See [RFC7384] for an exploration of this issue in a related context.

   Typical control networks today rely on complete physical isolation to
   prevent rogue access to network resources.  DetNet enables the
   virtualization of those networks over a converged IT/OT
   infrastructure.  Doing so, DetNet introduces an additional risk that
   flows interact and interfere with one another as they share physical
   resources such as Ethernet trunks and radio spectrum.  The
   requirement is that there is no possible data leak from and into a
   deterministic flow, and in a more general fashion there is no
   possible influence whatsoever from the outside on a deterministic
   flow.  The expectation is that physical resources are effectively
   associated with a given flow at a given point of time.  In that
   model, Time Sharing of physical resources becomes transparent to the
   individual flows which have no clue whether the resources are used by
   other flows at other times.

   Security must cover:

   o  Protection of the signaling protocol



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   o  Authentication and authorization of the controlling nodes

   o  Identification and shaping of the flows

   o  Isolation of flows from leakage and other influences from any
      activity sharing physical resources

7.4.  Use Cases (draft 11)

7.4.1.  (Utility Networks) Security Current Practices and Limitations
        (sec 3.2.1)

   Grid monitoring and control devices are already targets for cyber
   attacks, and legacy telecommunications protocols have many intrinsic
   network-related vulnerabilities.  For example, DNP3, Modbus,
   PROFIBUS/PROFINET, and other protocols are designed around a common
   paradigm of request and respond.  Each protocol is designed for a
   master device such as an HMI (Human Machine Interface) system to send
   commands to subordinate slave devices to retrieve data (reading
   inputs) or control (writing to outputs).  Because many of these
   protocols lack authentication, encryption, or other basic security
   measures, they are prone to network-based attacks, allowing a
   malicious actor or attacker to utilize the request-and-respond system
   as a mechanism for command-and-control like functionality.  Specific
   security concerns common to most industrial control, including
   utility telecommunication protocols include the following:

   o  Network or transport errors (e.g. malformed packets or excessive
      latency) can cause protocol failure.

   o  Protocol commands may be available that are capable of forcing
      slave devices into inoperable states, including powering-off
      devices, forcing them into a listen-only state, disabling
      alarming.

   o  Protocol commands may be available that are capable of restarting
      communications and otherwise interrupting processes.

   o  Protocol commands may be available that are capable of clearing,
      erasing, or resetting diagnostic information such as counters and
      diagnostic registers.

   o  Protocol commands may be available that are capable of requesting
      sensitive information about the controllers, their configurations,
      or other need-to-know information.






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   o  Most protocols are application layer protocols transported over
      TCP; therefore it is easy to transport commands over non-standard
      ports or inject commands into authorized traffic flows.

   o  Protocol commands may be available that are capable of
      broadcasting messages to many devices at once (i.e. a potential
      DoS).

   o  Protocol commands may be available to query the device network to
      obtain defined points and their values (i.e. a configuration
      scan).

   o  Protocol commands may be available that will list all available
      function codes (i.e. a function scan).

   o  These inherent vulnerabilities, along with increasing connectivity
      between IT an OT networks, make network-based attacks very
      feasible.

   o  Simple injection of malicious protocol commands provides control
      over the target process.  Altering legitimate protocol traffic can
      also alter information about a process and disrupt the legitimate
      controls that are in place over that process.  A man-in-the-middle
      attack could provide both control over a process and
      misrepresentation of data back to operator consoles.

7.4.2.  (Utility Networks) Security Trends in Utility Networks (sec
        3.3.3)

   Although advanced telecommunications networks can assist in
   transforming the energy industry by playing a critical role in
   maintaining high levels of reliability, performance, and
   manageability, they also introduce the need for an integrated
   security infrastructure.  Many of the technologies being deployed to
   support smart grid projects such as smart meters and sensors can
   increase the vulnerability of the grid to attack.  Top security
   concerns for utilities migrating to an intelligent smart grid
   telecommunications platform center on the following trends:

   o  Integration of distributed energy resources

   o  Proliferation of digital devices to enable management, automation,
      protection, and control

   o  Regulatory mandates to comply with standards for critical
      infrastructure protection





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   o  Migration to new systems for outage management, distribution
      automation, condition-based maintenance, load forecasting, and
      smart metering

   o  Demand for new levels of customer service and energy management

   This development of a diverse set of networks to support the
   integration of microgrids, open-access energy competition, and the
   use of network-controlled devices is driving the need for a converged
   security infrastructure for all participants in the smart grid,
   including utilities, energy service providers, large commercial and
   industrial, as well as residential customers.  Securing the assets of
   electric power delivery systems (from the control center to the
   substation, to the feeders and down to customer meters) requires an
   end-to-end security infrastructure that protects the myriad of
   telecommunications assets used to operate, monitor, and control power
   flow and measurement.

   "Cyber security" refers to all the security issues in automation and
   telecommunications that affect any functions related to the operation
   of the electric power systems.  Specifically, it involves the
   concepts of:

   o  Integrity : data cannot be altered undetectably

   o  Authenticity : the telecommunications parties involved must be
      validated as genuine

   o  Authorization : only requests and commands from the authorized
      users can be accepted by the system

   o  Confidentiality : data must not be accessible to any
      unauthenticated users

   When designing and deploying new smart grid devices and
   telecommunications systems, it is imperative to understand the
   various impacts of these new components under a variety of attack
   situations on the power grid.  Consequences of a cyber attack on the
   grid telecommunications network can be catastrophic.  This is why
   security for smart grid is not just an ad hoc feature or product,
   it's a complete framework integrating both physical and Cyber
   security requirements and covering the entire smart grid networks
   from generation to distribution.  Security has therefore become one
   of the main foundations of the utility telecom network architecture
   and must be considered at every layer with a defense-in-depth
   approach.  Migrating to IP based protocols is key to address these
   challenges for two reasons:




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   o  IP enables a rich set of features and capabilities to enhance the
      security posture

   o  IP is based on open standards, which allows interoperability
      between different vendors and products, driving down the costs
      associated with implementing security solutions in OT networks.

   Securing OT (Operation technology) telecommunications over packet-
   switched IP networks follow the same principles that are foundational
   for securing the IT infrastructure, i.e., consideration must be given
   to enforcing electronic access control for both person-to-machine and
   machine-to-machine communications, and providing the appropriate
   levels of data privacy, device and platform integrity, and threat
   detection and mitigation.

7.4.3.  (BAS) Security Considerations (sec 4.2.4)

   When BAS field networks were developed it was assumed that the field
   networks would always be physically isolated from external networks
   and therefore security was not a concern.  In today's world many BASs
   are managed remotely and are thus connected to shared IP networks and
   so security is definitely a concern, yet security features are not
   available in the majority of BAS field network deployments .

   The management network, being an IP-based network, has the protocols
   available to enable network security, but in practice many BAS
   systems do not implement even the available security features such as
   device authentication or encryption for data in transit.

7.4.4.  (6TiSCH) Security Considerations (sec 5.3.3)

   On top of the classical requirements for protection of control
   signaling, it must be noted that 6TiSCH networks operate on limited
   resources that can be depleted rapidly in a DoS attack on the system,
   for instance by placing a rogue device in the network, or by
   obtaining management control and setting up unexpected additional
   paths.

7.4.5.  (Cellular radio) Security Considerations (sec 6.1.5)

   Establishing time-sensitive streams in the network entails reserving
   networking resources for long periods of time.  It is important that
   these reservation requests be authenticated to prevent malicious
   reservation attempts from hostile nodes (or accidental
   misconfiguration).  This is particularly important in the case where
   the reservation requests span administrative domains.  Furthermore,
   the reservation information itself should be digitally signed to




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   reduce the risk of a legitimate node pushing a stale or hostile
   configuration into another networking node.

   Note: This is considered important for the security policy of the
   network, but does not affect the core DetNet architecture and design.

7.4.6.  (Industrial M2M) Communication Today (sec 7.2)

   Industrial network scenarios require advanced security solutions.
   Many of the current industrial production networks are physically
   separated.  Preventing critical flows from be leaked outside a domain
   is handled today by filtering policies that are typically enforced in
   firewalls.

8.  IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no requests from IANA.

9.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations of DetNet networks are presented
   throughout this document.

10.  Informative References

   [ARINC664P7]
              ARINC, "ARINC 664 Aircraft Data Network, Part 7, Avionics
              Full-Duplex Switched Ethernet Network", 2009.

   [I-D.ietf-detnet-architecture]
              Finn, N., Thubert, P., Varga, B., and J. Farkas,
              "Deterministic Networking Architecture", draft-ietf-
              detnet-architecture-04 (work in progress), October 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-detnet-use-cases]
              Grossman, E., "Deterministic Networking Use Cases", draft-
              ietf-detnet-use-cases-15 (work in progress), April 2018.

   [I-D.varga-detnet-service-model]
              Varga, B. and J. Farkas, "DetNet Service Model", draft-
              varga-detnet-service-model-02 (work in progress), May
              2017.

   [IEEE1588]
              IEEE, "IEEE 1588 Standard for a Precision Clock
              Synchronization Protocol for Networked Measurement and
              Control Systems Version 2", 2008.




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   [MIRAI]    krebsonsecurity.com, "https://krebsonsecurity.com/2016/10/
              hacked-cameras-dvrs-powered-todays-massive-internet-
              outage/", 2016.

   [RFC3552]  Rescorla, E. and B. Korver, "Guidelines for Writing RFC
              Text on Security Considerations", BCP 72, RFC 3552,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3552, July 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3552>.

   [RFC7384]  Mizrahi, T., "Security Requirements of Time Protocols in
              Packet Switched Networks", RFC 7384, DOI 10.17487/RFC7384,
              October 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7384>.

Authors' Addresses

   Tal Mizrahi
   Marvell

   Email: talmi@marvell.com


   Ethan Grossman (editor)
   Dolby Laboratories, Inc.
   1275 Market Street
   San Francisco, CA  94103
   USA

   Phone: +1 415 645 4726
   Email: ethan.grossman@dolby.com
   URI:   http://www.dolby.com


   Andrew J. Hacker
   MistIQ Technologies, Inc
   Harrisburg, PA
   USA

   Email: ajhacker@mistiqtech.com
   URI:   http://www.mistiqtech.com


   Subir Das
   Applied Communication Sciences
   150 Mount Airy Road, Basking Ridge
   New Jersey, 07920
   USA

   Email: sdas@appcomsci.com



Mizrahi, et al.         Expires October 25, 2018               [Page 38]


Internet-Draft               DetNet Security                  April 2018


   John Dowdell
   Airbus Defence and Space
   Celtic Springs
   Newport  NP10 8FZ
   United Kingdom

   Email: john.dowdell.ietf@gmail.com


   Henrik Austad
   Cisco Systems
   Philip Pedersens vei 1
   Lysaker  1366
   Norway

   Email: henrik@austad.us


   Kevin Stanton
   Intel

   Email: kevin.b.stanton@intel.com


   Norman Finn
   Huawei

   Email: norman.finn@mail01.huawei.com























Mizrahi, et al.         Expires October 25, 2018               [Page 39]


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