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DMM Working Group                                                J. Auge
Internet-Draft                                             G. Carofiglio
Intended status: Informational                            L. Muscariello
Expires: December 22, 2018                                   M. Papalini
                                                      Cisco Systems Inc.
                                                           June 20, 2018

                    Anchorless mobility through hICN


   This document presents how mobility management is handled in Hybrid-
   ICN [I-D.muscariello-intarea-hicn].  The objective of the document is
   to present how end-points mobility is managed in two main cases: the
   end-point sends data (data producer ) or the end-point receive data
   (data consumer).  These two cases are taken into account entirely to
   provide anchorless mobility management in hICN.

Status of This Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 22, 2018.

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   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Anchors and anchorless mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Towards locator-independent network architectures . . . . . .   4
   3.  Information-Centric Networking (ICN)  . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.1.  Hybrid-ICN overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.2.  Consumer and producer mobility  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   4.  Hybrid-ICN Anchorless Mobility Management (hICN-AMM)  . . . .   7
     4.1.  Signalization messages; acknowledgements and
           retransmission  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.2.  Dynamic face creation and producer-triggered
           advertisements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.3.  Update protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.3.1.  Illustration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.3.2.  Message content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.3.3.  Processing at network routers . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.4.  Notifications and scoped discovery  . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.4.1.  Notification processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.4.2.  Illustration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   5.  Benefits  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     5.1.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     5.2.  Simplicity, scalability, efficiency . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     5.3.  Reduced latency through caching . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     5.4.  Improved reliability through caching  . . . . . . . . . .  15
     5.5.  Local mobility and recovery from common cache . . . . . .  16
     5.6.  Additional reliability through consumer multihoming . . .  17
     5.7.  Bandwidth aggregation with consumer multihoming . . . . .  19
     5.8.  Traffic and signalization offload . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   6.  Discussion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     6.1.  Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     6.2.  Interaction with non-hICN enabled routers . . . . . . . .  22
     6.3.  Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26

1.  Introduction

   Mobility has become a basic feature of network communications.
   Fueled by rapid advances in mobile technology and by the increasing
   digitization of network edge, mobile traffic has driven overall

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   Internet traffic growth in the last years and such trend is expected
   to continue.

   However, mobility was not considered in the original IP network
   design.  Current solutions provide mobility support by means of
   overlays added on top of the network as an afterthought.  Notable
   examples are IETF Mobile IP and its variants [RFC3344] and [RFC3775]
   3GPP GTP-based architecture [TS29.274], both based on tunnelling and

   With the deployments of novel applications such as mobile video, AR/
   VR or vehicular networking, mobile networks are more challenged than
   ever, and the currently centralized architectures show limitations in
   terms of performance and scalability.

   One identified difficulty in proposing mobility models in IP lies in
   the semantic overloading of IP addresses which are both host
   identifiers, and locators used for routing.  Starting with LISP, the
   identifier/locator split paradigm has shown promising results in
   virtue of its scalability properties with respect to routing tables
   entries, and the possibilities it offers in terms of mobility.
   Several solutions have been proposed around this concept, namely
   ILNP, ILSR, and ILA.

   The document proposes a mobility approach based on Hybrid ICN as
   described in [I-D.muscariello-intarea-hicn] and analyzes more in-
   depth mobility considerations in hICN, comparatively with state-of-
   the-art solutions, and how the hICN may allow for the expected
   performance from future networks, paving the way for innovation and
   new applications, while keeping the simplicity and end-to-end design
   of the current Internet.

1.1.  Anchors and anchorless mobility

   Because they are intrinsically bound to the topological location of a
   node, session established through locators require additional
   mechanisms to support mobility, including the presence of anchor
   points in the network.  The notion of _anchor_ and the resulting
   _anchorless_ properties of mobility schemes are prone to different
   interpretation depending on the context.  The following definitions
   attempt to reconcile those interpretations and propose a unifying
   terminology used throughout this document.

   Anchor  An anchor refers to a specialized node or service, possibly
      distributed, functionally required by a network architecture for
      forwarding or mobility.  This is in contrast to decentralized
      architectures.  Configuration of these anchors, including their
      location, will directly affect the overall scheme performance.  We

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      follow the classic distinction between control plane and user (or
      data, or forwarding) plane to distinguish control-plane anchors
      and user-plane anchors.

   User-plane anchor  A user-plane anchor is a node through which
      traffic is forced to pass.  An example of such anchor is the
      indirection point in Mobile IP.

   Control-plane anchor  A control-plane anchor refers to a node that is
      not responsible for carrying traffic, but is needed for the
      operation of the forwarding and/or the mobility architecture.  An
      example of such anchor is the resolution or mapping service of
      LISP.  We remark that while not being on path, such anchors might
      affect the performance of the user-plane due to resolution delays
      or indirection (following a mapping cache miss for instance).

   Anchorless  This term qualifies approaches that do not involve any
      user-plane not control-plane anchor.

2.  Towards locator-independent network architectures

   We distinguish network architectures based on their use of location
   independent identifiers (or names) and locators for forwarding.

   *Locator-based architectures*

   As mentioned earlier, IP architectures are typically operated based
   on locators corresponding to the IP addresses of the host interfaces
   in their respective network attachment, used also as session
   identifiers.  This results in a complex mobility architecture built
   on top, involving traffic anchors and tunnels to preserve the
   identifier exposed to the transport layer: IP/IP or GRE tunnels in
   Mobile IP, and GTP tunnels in 3GPP architectures.

   The limitations of locator-based schemes in terms of complexity,
   overhead and efficiency are well-recognized and led to other
   alternatives to be considered.

   *Locator-ID separation architectures*

   LISP [RFC6830] was the first proposal to distinguish between the
   usage of IP addresses as locators or identifiers by explicitly
   defining two namespaces, respectively used for endpoint
   identification and forwarding.  A mapping service is further used to
   bind an identifiers to a given location, and updated after mobility.
   From there, several approaches have been defined, either host-based
   like SHIM6 [RFC5533] or HIP [RFC4423]), or network-based, like LISP

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   [RFC6830], ILSR, ILNP [RFC6740] or ILA [I-D.herbert-intarea-ila] to
   cite a few.

   An overview of these approaches and their use in mobility is
   presented in {?I-D.bogineni-dmm-optimized-mobile-user-plane}}.

   The main challenge consists in maintaining a (distributed) mapping
   service at scale, including the synchronization of local caches
   required for scalability and efficiency.

   *ID-based architectures*

   A third class of approaches exists that redefines IP communication
   principles (i.e. network and transport layers) around location-
   independent network identifiers of node/traffic.  The interest of
   such architectures is highlighted in [I-D.vonhugo-5gangip-ip-issues]
   (referred to as ID-oriented Networking) for it removes the
   limitations introduced by locators and simplifies the management of
   mobility.  The draft however question the possibility to realize such
   an architecture where node status and mobility would not affect
   routing table stability.

   The work done around Information-Centric Networking (ICN) falls into
   such class of approaches that we refer to as purely ID-based, also
   known as name-based [I-D.irtf-icnrg-terminology], although as we will
   see, mobility management often departs from this principle.

3.  Information-Centric Networking (ICN)

   ICN is a new networking paradigm centering network communication
   around named data, rather that host location.  Network operations are
   driven by location-independent data names, rather than location
   identifiers (IP addresses) to gracefully enable user-to-content

   Although there exist a few proposals, they share the same set of core
   principles, resulting in several advantages including a simplified
   mobility management [RFC7476].  For clarify, this section we focus on
   hICN [I-D.muscariello-intarea-hicn] an ICN implementation for IPv6.

3.1.  Hybrid-ICN overview

   Hybrid ICN (hICN) is an ICN architecture that defines integration of
   ICN semantics within IPv6.  The goal of hICN is to ease ICN insertion
   in existing IP infrastructure by:

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   1.  selective insertion of hICN capabilities in a few network nodes
       at the edge (no need for pervasive fully hICN network

   2.  guaranteed transparent interconnection with hICN-unaware IPv6
       nodes, without using overlays;

   3.  minor modification to existing IP routers/endpoints;

   4.  re-use of existing IP control plane (e.g. for routing of IP
       prefixes carrying ID-semantics) along with performing mobility
       management and caching operations in forwarding plane;

   5.  fallback capability to tradition IP network/transport layer.

   hICN architecture is described in [I-D.muscariello-intarea-hicn].
   Together with MAP-Me [I-D.irtf-icnrg-mapme], it forms the basis for
   the mobility management architecture we describe in the rest of this

3.2.  Consumer and producer mobility

   *Consumer mobility* The consumer end-point is the logical
   communication termination that receives data.  Due to the pull-based
   and connection-less properties of hICN communications, consumer
   mobility comes natively with ICN.  It is indeed sufficient that the
   consumer reissues pending interests from the new point-of-attachment
   to continue the communication.  Consumer mobility is anchorless by
   design.  As will be discussed below, it is however necessary to have
   appropriate transport layer on top able to cope with the disruptions
   and path variations due to the mobility, at an eventual fine

   *Producer mobility* The producer end-point is the logical
   communication termination that sends data.  Producer mobility is not
   natively supported by the architecture, rather handled in different
   ways according to the selected producer mobility management scheme.,
   some of which diverge from the concept of pure ID-based architecture
   through their use of locators.

   In fact, many schemes proposed for ICN are adaptations to the vast
   amount of work made in IP over the last two decades [RFC6301].
   Surveys for the ICN family, resp. for CCN/NDN-specific solutions, are
   available in [SURVEYICN], respectively [SURVEY1] and [SURVEY2].
   There has been however a recent trend towards anchorless mobility
   management, facilitated by ICN design principles, that has led to new
   proposals and an extension of previous classifications in
   [I-D.irtf-icnrg-mapme] and [MAPME] to the four following categories:

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   o  _Resolution based_ solutions rely on dedicated rendez-vous nodes
      (similar to DNS) which map content names into routable location
      identifiers.  To maintain this mapping updated, the producer
      signals every movement to the mapping system.  Once the resolution
      is performed, packets can be correctly routed directly to the

   o  _Anchor-based_ proposals are inspired by Mobile IP, and maintain a
      mapping at network-layer by using a stable home address advertised
      by a rendez-vous node, or anchor.  This acts as a relay,
      forwarding through tunneling both interests to the producer, and
      data packets coming back.

   o  _Tracing-based_ solutions allow the mobile node to create a hop-
      by-hop forwarding reverse path from its RV back to itself by
      propagating and keeping alive traces stored by all involved
      routers.  Forwarding to the new location is enabled without

   o  _Anchorless_ approaches allow the mobile nodes to advertise their
      mobility to the network without requiring any specific node to act
      as a rendez-vous point.

4.  Hybrid-ICN Anchorless Mobility Management (hICN-AMM)

   The consumer end-point does not require mobility management.  So any
   time an end-host fetches data from a data source, mobility is managed
   by hICN without any impact the transport session.

   Producer mobility is not natively supported by hICN, and additional
   procedures have to be performed to maintain reachability as it moves
   in the network.

   In an hICN network, regular routing protocols such as BGP, ISIS or
   OSPF can be used for propagating all prefix announcements and
   populate routers' FIBs.  However, these protocols are not appropriate
   and should not be used to manage name prefix mobility, for
   scalability and consistency reasons.

   The default mobility management for hICN is designed following the
   same principles and protocols as MAP-Me, an anchorless producer
   mobility management protocol initially proposed for ICN
   [I-D.irtf-icnrg-mapme] [MAPME].  It builds on an initial forwarding
   state bootstrapped by the routing protocol, and performs a
   lightweight path repair process as the producer moves.  For
   simplicity, we refer to it as simply MAP-Me in the rest of the

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   In the rest of this section, we describe the specific realization of
   the protocol in an hICN context.  Additional background and details
   are available in [I-D.irtf-icnrg-mapme] and [MAPME].

4.1.  Signalization messages; acknowledgements and retransmission

   Signalization messages follow hICN design principles and use data
   plane packets for signalization.  Signalization messages and
   acknowledgement are respectively Interest and Data packet (requests
   and replies) according to hICN terminology
   [I-D.muscariello-intarea-hicn].  Upon processing of those
   advertisements, the network will send an acknowledgement back to the
   producer using the name prefix as the source and the locator of the
   producer as the destination, plus the sequence number allowing the
   producer to match which update has been acknowledged.

   Pending signalization interests that are not acknowledged are
   retransmitted after a given timeout.

4.2.  Dynamic face creation and producer-triggered advertisements

   The producer is responsible for mobility updates and should be hICN-
   enabled.  It stores a sequence number incremented at each mobility

   Faces in the producer are assumed synchronized with layer 2
   adjacencies, upon joining a new point-of-attachment, a new face
   should be created.  Face creation will trigger the increase of the
   sequence number, and per-prefix advertisement packets to be sent to
   the joined network.

   Those advertisements should contain:

   o  the name prefix as the destination address, plus a field
      indicating the associated prefix length;

   o  the locator of the producer as the source address, that will serve
      for receiving acknowledgements;

   o  a sequence number sequentially increased by the producer after
      each movement;

   o  a security token (see Section 6.3).

   Upon producer departures from a PoA, the corresponding face is
   destroyed.  If this leads to the removal of the last next hop, then
   faces that were previously saved are restored in FIB to preserve the
   original forwarding tree and thus global connectivity.

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4.3.  Update protocol

   Based on the information transmitted in the packet, and its local the
   network's local policy, the network might decide to update its
   forwarding state to reflect this change.

   The update process consists in updating a few routers on the path
   between the new and a former point-of-attachment.  More precisely,
   this is done in a purely anchorless fashion by sending a signalling
   message from the new location towards the name prefix itself.  This
   packet will be forwarded based on the now-stale FIB entries, and will
   update forwarding entries to point to the ingress interfaces of each
   traversed router.

4.3.1.  Illustration

   {fig-mapme-update}} illustrates the situation of a P moving between
   access routers AR1 and AR2 while serving user requests:

   1.  A first interest towards the producer originates from remote.
       The producer answers with a Data packet.

   2.  Following this, the producer detaches from AR1 and moves to AR2.

   3.  As soon as it is attached to AR2, the producer sends an Interest
       Update towards its own prefix, which is forwarded from AR2
       following the FIB towards AR1 (one of its former positions in the
       general case).

   4.  At each hop, the message fixes the FIB to point towards the
       ingress face, until the message cannot be further forwarded in

   5.  A subsequent message from remote will follow the updated FIB and
       correctly reach the producer's new location in AR2.

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     P (radio link) AR1             AR2             GW          Internet
     |               |               |               |              |
 1   |               |               |               |<~~~~~~~~~~~~~|
     |               |<~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|  Interest    |
     |<~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|               |               |              |
     |-------------->|               |               |              |
 2  []    Data       |---------------|-------------->|              |
   / |               |               |               |------------->|
   | |(attach to AR2)|               |               |              |
   -X]...............|...............|               |              |
 3   |===============|==============>o FIB update    |              |
     | Update        |               |==============>o FIB update   |
 4   |               o<==============|===============|              |
     |    FIB update |               |               |              |
 5   |               |               |               |<~~~~~~~~~~~~~|
     |               |               |<~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|              |
     |<~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|               |              |
     |---------------|-------------->|               |              |
     |               |               |-------------->|              |
     |               |               |               |------------->|
     |               |               |               |              |

         Figure 1: Signalization during producer mobility (MAP-Me)

   Through this process, MAP-Me trades-off path optimality for a fast,
   lightweight and loop-free forwarding update.  It has been shown in
   [MAPME] that stretch is bounded and typically kept low in scenarios
   of interest.  This results from the fact that MAP-Me operations
   preserve the initial structure of the forwarding tree/DAG (direct
   acyclic graph), by only flipping its edges toward the new producer

   MAP-Me does not perform a routing update.  The protocol is
   complementary to the routing protocol in that it can run in between
   routing updates to handle producer mobility, at a faster timescale,
   and with a lower overhead.  Routing updates can be performed at a
   lower-pace, to re-optimize routes once a node has relocated for

4.3.2.  Message content

   The update messages should contain :

   o  the name prefix as the destination address, plus a field
      indicating the associated prefix length;

   o  the locator of the producer as the source address, that will serve
      for receiving acknowledgements;

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   o  a sequence number sequentially increased by the producer after
      each movement;

   o  an optional security token.

4.3.3.  Processing at network routers

   At the reception of advertisement/update packets, each router
   performs a name-based Longest Prefix Match lookup in FIB to compare
   sequence number from the received packet and from FIB}. According to
   that comparison:

   o  if the packet carries a higher sequence number, the existing next
      hops associated to the lower sequence number in FIB are used to
      forward it further and temporarily stored to avoid loss of such
      information before completion of the acknowledgement process.

   o  If the packet carries the same sequence number as in the FIB, its
      originating face is added to the existing ones in FIB without
      additional packet processing or propagation.  This may occur in
      presence of multiple forwarding paths.

   o  If the packet carries a lower sequence number than the one in the
      FIB, FIB entry is not updated as it already stores 'fresher
      information'.  To advertise the latest update through the path
      followed by the packet, this one is re-sent through the
      originating face after having updated its sequence number with the
      value stored in FIB.

4.4.  Notifications and scoped discovery

   The update protocol is responsible for reestablishing global
   connectivity with minimal changes to the FIBs.  In order to further
   improve the reactivity of the scheme and better support QoS
   constraints of latency-sensitive traffic, we propose an additional
   mechanism named *Notifications*. It assumes hICN-enabled routers at
   the edge, and the existence of links between access routers, which
   are typically used for handover, and proposes to exploit them during
   mobility events, or to delay updates when possible.

4.4.1.  Notification processing

   Upon receiving a valid advertisement, the point-of-attachment will
   remember the presence of the producer, update its corresponding FIB
   entry but send no update.  Previous next hops should be saved and
   restored upon face deletion so as to preserve the forwarding tree/DAG

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   The rationale is that during mobility events, the producer will move
   access connected and neighbouring base stations.  It will be then
   sufficient to make a scoped discovery around the last position known
   to forwarding to find the producer within a few hops.

4.4.2.  Illustration

   Figure 2 illustrate such as situation where an Interest is sent to
   the producer before it had the time to complete the update.

     P (radio link) AR1             AR2             GW          Internet
     |               |               |               |              |
 1   |               |               |               |<~~~~~~~~~~~~~|
     |               |<~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|   Interest   |
     |<~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|               |               |              |
     |-------------->|               |               |              |
 2  [].....Data.....-)---------------|-------------->|              |
   / |               |               |               |------------->|
   | |(attach to AR2)|               |               |              |
   -Y]...............|...............+               |              |
 3   |               |               |               |<~~~~~~~~~~~~~|
 4   |            X--|<~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|              |
     |               |               |               |              |
 5   |===============|==============>o FIB update    |              |
     | Notification  |               |               |              |
     |               |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>| (scoped discovery)           |
 6   |<~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|               |              |
 7   |---------------|-------------->|               |              |
     |               |<--------------|               |              |
     |               |---------------|-------------->|              |
     |               |               |               |------------->|
     |               |               |               |              |

            Figure 2: Scoped discovery during producer mobility

   1.  A first interest towards the producer originates from remote.
       The producer answers with a Data packet.

   2.  Following this, the producer detaches from AR1 and moves to AR2.

   3.  A subsequent message from remote arrives before the update could
       take place, and is thus forwarded to AR1.

   4.  AR1 has no valid face anymore towards the producer, and enters
       discovery mode by broadcasting the interest to neighbours.

   5.  In the meantime, we assume the notification reaches AR2.

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   6.  Because the producer is attached to AR2, the producer can be
       directly reachable.  Otherwise, AR2 would iterate the discovery
       to neighbours only if it had more recent information about the
       producer location than its predecessor (based on sequencing of
       regular Interests and Interest Updates).

   7.  The Data packet follows the reverse path to the consumer as

5.  Benefits

   We now review the potential benefits of the general architecture we
   have presented using features from the hICN data plane for supporting
   consumer and producer mobility.

5.1.  Overview

   *Native mobility* : This mobility management process follows and
   exploits hICN design principles.  It makes producer mobility native
   in the architecture by preserving all benefits of hICN even when
   consumers and/or producers are moving.

   *Anchorless mobility* : Such approach belongs to the category of pure
   ID-based mobility management schemes whose objective is (i) to
   overcome the limitations of traditional locator-based solutions like
   Mobile IP (conf)using locators as identifiers and requiring tunnels,
   and (ii) to remove the need for a global mapping system as the one
   required by locator-identifier separation solutions.  The result is a
   fully anchorless solution both in the data plane and in the control

   *Local and decentralized mobility management* : Mobility updates are
   handled locally and the routers that are affected are those on path
   between successive positions of the producer.  In particular, remote
   endpoints are not affected by the event.  Mobility is managed in a
   fully distributed manner and no third party is required.  This does
   not prevent any centralized control (as discussed in
   [I-D.auge-dmm-hicn-mobility-deployment-options]), but makes the
   network robust to disconnectivity events.

   The next section will discuss more in depth the following advantages

5.2.  Simplicity, scalability, efficiency

   As emerges from the points raised in the previous section, consumer
   mobility is transparently supported by an hICN network in virtue of
   the pull-based model and the way the forwarding path works.  After
   moving, a consumer can just reissue pending interests once attached

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   to the new access router at layer 2, without requiring any more
   information from L3 and above.  This ensures a fast and simple
   handover, which can be further enhanced through additional mechanisms
   such as in-network caching.  Consumer mobility is fully anchorless
   with hICN, and does not incur any signalization nor tunneling

   This is particularly interesting considering that most mobile users
   are consumers only (e.g. linear video distribution, or large scale
   video conferencing where we typically have few presenters and most
   users are simply consumers).

   Another aspect of using the unifying hICN architecture in replacement
   of the traditional tunnel-based mobile core is that it removes the
   need to maintain state for consumers and producers which are not
   mobile (eg.  IoT sensors), or not currently moving.

5.3.  Reduced latency through caching

   While this is not strictly linked to mobility, we first illustrate
   the benefits of caching content close to the edge to reduce user
   latencies.  This is particularly important for wireless networks such
   as WiFi or LTE which have non-negligible latencies especially during
   connection setup, or after an idle period.  The characteristics of
   those radio networks are thus of interest for the performance of the
   mobility architecture as a whole.

   The example in Figure 3 considers a mobile node that can move access
   two accesses linked to Access Routers (AR) AR1 and AR2, both
   connected to the Internet though a common gateway (GW).  This same
   setup will be later used to illustrate the flow of packets during
   mobility events, eventually specializing AR into AP or eNB when it
   makes more sense.

             +-----+                        .-~-.
         _,--+ AR1 +--,             .- ~ ~-(     )_ _
+-----+ /    +-----+   \ +----+    |                  ~-.        +-----+
|  C  +=                =+ GW +----+       Internet       \--//--+  P  |
+-----+ \_   +-----+   / +----+     \                    .'      +-----+
          '--+ AR2 +--'              ~- . ___________.-~

           Figure 3: Simple topology with a multi-homed consumer

   We represent in Figure 4 a simple data flow between the different
   entities involved in the communication between the mobile node M, and
   a remote producer available over the Internet.

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     C              AR1             AR2             GW          Internet
     |               |               |               |              |
 1   |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>|               |               |              |
     |  Interest X   |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>|              |
     |               |               |               |~~~~~~~~~~~~~>|
     |               |               |               |              |...
     |               |               |               |<-------------|
     |     Data X    |<--------------|---------------|              |
     |<--------------|               |               |              |
     |               |               |               |              |
 2   |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>|               |               |              |
 3   |  Interest Y   |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>X Cache hit    |
     |               |<--------------|---------------X              |
     |<--------------|               |               |              |
     |    Data Y     |               |               |              |

 ~~~~>: Interest     <---- Data     ====> Signalization
 ....-: L2 detach    .....+ L2 attach         X failure    o event

                 Figure 4: Reduced latency through caching

   Numbers on the left refer to the following comments relative to the
   data flow:

   1.  The consumer issues a first interest towards name prefix X, which
       is transported up to the producer.  A Data packet comes back
       following the reverse path and populating intermediate caches.
       Latency of the exchange can be seen by the distance between lines
       on the vertical axis.

   2.  The consumer now requests content B, which has previously been
       requested by another consumer located on the same gateway.
       Interest B thus hits the cache, refreshes the entry, and allows a
       lower round-trip latency to content both for consumer C and any
       subsequent request of the same content.

5.4.  Improved reliability through caching

   Mobile networks might consist in unreliable access technologies, such
   as WiFi, responsible for packet losses.  Figure 5 considers a similar
   scenario with a lossy channel (eg.  WiFi) between the mobile and the
   first access router.

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    C (radio link) AR1             AR2             GW          Internet
    |               |               |               |              |
1   |~~~~~~~X       |               |               |              |
2   |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>|               |               |              |
    |  Interest     |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>|              |
    |               |               |               |~~~~~~~~~~~~~>|
    |               |               |               |              | ...
    |               |               |               |<-------------|
    |     Data      |<--------------|---------------|              |
3   |       X-------|               |               |              |
    |               |               |               |              |
4   |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>X Cache hit     |               |              |
    |<--------------X               |               |              |
    |               |               |               |              |

                     Figure 5: IU propagation example

   1.  The first issued interest is lost due to bad radio conditions.

   2.  Upon detection (either after a timeout, the consumer can just
       reissue the lost Interest.

   3.  This time the remote producer successfully replies but the Data
       packet is lost on the radio link.

   4.  Upon a similar detection, the consumer can reissue the lost
       Interest that will hit a locally stored copy at the router where
       the loss occurred (or again use a detection mechanism to
       retransmit the Data packet).

5.5.  Local mobility and recovery from common cache

   The same mechanism can be used to recover from mobility losses after
   the consumer reconnects to the new network as the content will
   already be available in the cache at the junction router between the
   two accesses.  This is particularly interesting in case of micro-
   mobility between access routers that are topologically close in the

   This is also the opportunity to manage those losses on behalf of the
   transport protocol, so that only losses due to congestion are exposed
   to it, and don't perturb the feedback loop by unnecessarily reducing
   the transfer rate.

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     C (radio link) AR1             AR2             GW          Internet
     |               |               |               |              |
 1   |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>|               |               |              |
     |  Interest     |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>|              |
     |               |               |               |~~~~~~~~~~~~~>|
     |(detach fm AR1)|               |               |              |
 2 ..|...............-               |               |<-------------|
     |               |<--------------|---------------|              |
 3   |        Data X-|               |               |              |
     |               |               |               |              |
     |(attach to AR2 |               |               |              |
 4 ..|...............|...............+               |              |
 5   |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>|               |              |
 6   |               |               |~~~~~~~~~~~~~~>X Cache hit    |
     |               |               |<--------------X              |
     |---------------|---------------|               |              |
     |               |               |               |              |

                     Figure 6: IU propagation example

   1.  The consumer issues an interest before moving to a new location

   2.  It detaches from the first Access Router AR1

   3.  This causes the returning data packet to be lost as there is no
       more a valid face towards the consumer.

   4.  The consumer has finished attachment to the new access router

   5.  It can retransmit pending interests immediately.

   6.  The interests will hit the cache at the first junction point
       between AR1 and AR2 which have previously seen the data packet
       coming back.

5.6.  Additional reliability through consumer multihoming

   Because mobility is implemented at layer 3 and is thus agnostic to
   the physical layer, this allows a mobile consumer to seamlessly
   switch to a different access layer, eg.  WiFi to LTE, following the
   unreachability of the preferred radio access.

   Figure 7 illustrates a fallback to LTE which can be performed
   transparently for the application.

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   C          WiFi          GW         LTE enB        PGW       Internet
   |            |            |            |            |            |
1  |~~~~~~~~~~~>|            |            |            |            |
   |            |~~~~~~~~~~~>|            |            |            |
   |            |            |~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~>|
   |            |            |            |            |            |
   |            |            |<-----------|------------|------------|
   |            |<-----------|            |            |            |
   |<-----------|            |            |            |            |
2  |            X            |            |            |            |
3  |~~~~~~~~~~~~X~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~>|            |            |
   |            X            |            |~~~~~~~~~~~>|            |
   |            X            |            |            |~~~~~~~~~~~>|
   |            |            |            |            |            |
   |            |            |            |            |<-----------|
   |            |            |            |<-----------|            |
   |<-----------|------------|------------|            |            |
4  |~~~~~~~~~~~>|...         |            |            |            |
   |            |            |            |            |            |

                                 Figure 7

   1.  First interest is sent on the WiFi link.

   2.  WiFi unavailability due to failure for instance.

   3.  The application seamlessly switches to the LTE link.

   4.  Upon recovery, the traffic can be brought back on the WiFi

   hICN handles consumer mobility from one access to the other (e.g.
   WiFi to LTE or vice-versa) without any a-priori knowledge of the
   multiple networks to use as it is the case of MPTCP or QUIC
   approaches.  Moving rate and congestion control at the receiver end
   results to be a significant advantage w.r.t. all existing
   alternatives in controlling dynamically multiple and new discovered
   network accesses in presence of mobility.

   This use case highlights the importance of having a compatible
   transport, as the WiFi and LTE paths will have much different
   characteristics in terms of delay, jitter and capacity.

   Evaluations of the scheme have shown this scheme to preserve the
   performance of flows like mobile video distribution up to very high
   switching rates in the order of a second, not even considering
   optimization occurring from network support.

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   Mobility is handled transparently at the network layer with very fast
   handover times, due to the connection-less property of hICN.  This
   makes it possible to offer reliable WiFi connectivity, besides its
   lossy nature as observed in previous use case and besides the
   frequency of mobility from one network access to the other.

5.7.  Bandwidth aggregation with consumer multihoming

   Bandwidth aggregation can be realized dynamically through a
   congestion-aware load-balancing forwarding strategy at the client,
   with no a priori knowledge of paths.  This is done similarly in the
   network by hICN forwarders, allowing a combination of multi-homing,
   multipath and multi-source data transfers.  As all the paths are used
   at the same time, hICN offers the full network capacity to the users
   and tends to smooth fluctuations due to the radio channels.

   Over an heterogeneous network access, hICN also offers a simple and
   cost-effective realization of heterogeneous channel bonding allowing
   an user to seamlessly roam across different radios or fixed lines
   (for increased reliability or reduced costs), or aggregate their
   bandwidth for high-throughput applications such as video streaming.

   We illustrate a simplified data flows with one mobile consumer C
   alternating interests between a WiFi and LTE access points.  The load
   balancing strategy would in that case optimize the split ratio
   between the two access to realize an optimal split.  Note that in
   that case the relative distances on the vertical axis have not been
   respected here for readability.

   C          WiFi          GW         LTE enB        PGW       Internet
   |            |            |            |            |            |
   |~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~>|            |            |
   |~~~~~~~~~~~>|            |            |~~~~~~~~~~~>|~~~~~~~~~~~>|
   |            |~~~~~~~~~~~>|            |            |            |
   |            |            |~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~>|
   |            |            |            |            |            |
   |            |            |            |            |<-----------|
   |            |            |            |<-----------|            |
   |<-----------|------------|------------|            |            |
   |            |            |<-----------|------------|------------|
   |            |<-----------|            |            |            |
   |<-----------|            |            |            |            |
   |            |            |            |            |            |
   |            |            |            |            |            |

   Fine grained control from the application allows fully exploiting
   available bandwidth, resulting in an aggregated throughput equal to

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   the sum of access throughputs, which is hard to achieve with existing

5.8.  Traffic and signalization offload

   As a natural consequence of its anchorless behavior, an hICN network
   can continue to operate in disconnected mode, for local mobility,
   even though no upstream entity is available.

   In order to illustrate this, we slightly extend the previous topology
   in Figure 8 with an additional access network.  To show that local
   mobility induces no traffic on upstream links, we further assume a
   failure on the link between the gateway (GW) and the Internet.

            _,--+ AR1 +--,
   +-----+ /    +-----+   \                         .-~~~-.
   |  P  +=                \                .- ~ ~-(       )_ _
   +-----+ \_   +-----+     +----+         |                     ~ -.
             '--+ AR2 +-----+ GW +----X----+        Internet         \
                +-----+     +----+   FAIL   \                       .'
                           /                 ~- . _____________ . -~
   +-----+      +-----+  /
   |  C  +------+ AR3 +-'
   +-----+      +-----+

              Figure 8: Access network disconnected from core

   The data flow represented in Figure 9 illustrates the communication
   between a consumer connected to AR3, and a mobile producer moving
   from AR1 to AR2.

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 C         P         AR1        AR2        AR3         GW  X    Internet
 |         |          |          |          |          |   X         |
 |~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~>|          |   X         |
 |         |          |          |          |~~~~~~~~~>|   X         |
 |         |          |<~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~|   X         |
 |         |<~~~~~~~~~|          |          |          |   X         |
 |         |--------->|          |          |          |   X         |
 |         |          |----------|----------|--------->|   X         |
 |         |          |          |          |<---------|   X         |
 |<--------|----------|----------|----------|          |   X         |
 |         |          |          |          |          |   X         |
 |         |..........-          |          |          |   X         |
 |         |..........|..........+          |          |   X         |
 |         |==========|=========>o          |          |   X   NO    |
 |         | Update   |          |==========|=========>o   X TRAFFIC |
 |         |          o<=========|==========|==========|   X         |
 |         |          |          |          |          |   X         |
 |~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~>|          |   X         |
 |         |          |          |          |~~~~~~~~~>|   X         |
 |         |          |          |<~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~|   X         |
 |         |<~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~|          |          |   X         |
 |         |----------|--------->|          |          |   X         |
 |         |          |          |----------|--------->|   X         |
 |         |          |          |          |<---------|   X         |
 |<--------|----------|----------|----------|          |   X         |
 |         |          |          |          |          |   X         |

      Figure 9: Anchorless mobility in network disconnected from core

   We see that both the data and the signalization remain local to the
   zone where the mobility occurs, and that communications during
   mobility are not affected by the failure of the link upstream.  This
   is a sign that the mobile core is not loaded with unnecessary
   traffic, and that communications remain local, thus improving user
   flow latencies.  The offload of both data and signalization allows
   reducing the cost of the infrastructure by increasing the diversity
   of resources used at edge, mutualizing their capacity, and lower
   requiring network and compute capacity in the mobile core.  A direct
   consequence is also a more robust and reliable network.

6.  Discussion

6.1.  Scope

   Both consumer and producer mobility support multiple paths, however
   the support of mobility for a multihomed producer, is left for future
   updates of the present document.

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   Similarly, the proposed producer mobility solution is appropriate for
   the management of micro-mobility; its extension to multiple domains
   is out of scope.

6.2.  Interaction with non-hICN enabled routers

   The realization of the architecture in a partial hICN deployment
   where some routers are not extended to support hICN mechanisms
   requires either to introduce additional functionalities or protocol
   support, or to reuse existing protocols achieving similar objectives
   (following hICN design).

   One such example is the combination of ICMP redirect messages and
   Neighbour Discovery Proxies (NDProxy), that partially realizes the
   objectives of the update process:

   o  ICMP packets do not include sequence numbers however they can be
      transported as part of the payload; verification is deferred to
      the next hICN node which should send the packet backwards in case
      of verification failure to fix the incorrect path update.

   o  multipath is not supported in the pure-IP part of the network
      (which is the expected behaviour)

   Identified concerns might be about the unexpected use of such
   protocols, the lack of available implementation for NDProxy, and
   security aspect related to redirect messages.  The latter shares the
   fate of source routing, which has long been advocated against, and
   has recently gained popularity within the SPRING context.  A proper
   security scheme is certainly the right way to address this problem,
   and we believe the set of benefits that we have listed are worth
   reconsidering such aspects.

6.3.  Security considerations

   As indicated in previous sections, signalization messages transmitted
   across trust boundaries must be secured.  The choice of the solution
   will intimately depend on the selected protocols.

   The use of ICMP packet might allow reusing existing security schemes
   such as AH headers [RFC4302], or SEND [RFC3971] (and its proxy
   extensions [RFC6496], [RFC5909]).

   Alternatively, [SEC] has reviewed standard approaches from the
   literature and proposes a fast, lightweight and distributed approach
   that can be applied to MAP-Me and fits its design principles.

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7.  IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no request to IANA.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC3344]  Perkins, C., Ed., "IP Mobility Support for IPv4",
              RFC 3344, DOI 10.17487/RFC3344, August 2002,

   [RFC3775]  Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support
              in IPv6", RFC 3775, DOI 10.17487/RFC3775, June 2004,

   [RFC3971]  Arkko, J., Ed., Kempf, J., Zill, B., and P. Nikander,
              "SEcure Neighbor Discovery (SEND)", RFC 3971,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3971, March 2005,

   [RFC4302]  Kent, S., "IP Authentication Header", RFC 4302,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4302, December 2005,

   [RFC4423]  Moskowitz, R. and P. Nikander, "Host Identity Protocol
              (HIP) Architecture", RFC 4423, DOI 10.17487/RFC4423, May
              2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4423>.

   [RFC5533]  Nordmark, E. and M. Bagnulo, "Shim6: Level 3 Multihoming
              Shim Protocol for IPv6", RFC 5533, DOI 10.17487/RFC5533,
              June 2009, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5533>.

   [RFC5909]  Combes, J-M., Krishnan, S., and G. Daley, "Securing
              Neighbor Discovery Proxy: Problem Statement", RFC 5909,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5909, July 2010,

   [RFC6301]  Zhu, Z., Wakikawa, R., and L. Zhang, "A Survey of Mobility
              Support in the Internet", RFC 6301, DOI 10.17487/RFC6301,
              July 2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6301>.

   [RFC6496]  Krishnan, S., Laganier, J., Bonola, M., and A. Garcia-
              Martinez, "Secure Proxy ND Support for SEcure Neighbor
              Discovery (SEND)", RFC 6496, DOI 10.17487/RFC6496,
              February 2012, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6496>.

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   [RFC6740]  Atkinson, RJ. and SN. Bhatti, "Identifier-Locator Network
              Protocol (ILNP) Architectural Description", RFC 6740,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6740, November 2012,

   [RFC6830]  Farinacci, D., Fuller, V., Meyer, D., and D. Lewis, "The
              Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP)", RFC 6830,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6830, January 2013,

   [RFC7476]  Pentikousis, K., Ed., Ohlman, B., Corujo, D., Boggia, G.,
              Tyson, G., Davies, E., Molinaro, A., and S. Eum,
              "Information-Centric Networking: Baseline Scenarios",
              RFC 7476, DOI 10.17487/RFC7476, March 2015,

8.2.  Informative References

              Auge, J., Carofiglio, G., Muscariello, L., and M.
              Papalini, "Anchorless mobility management through hICN
              (hICN-AMM): Deployment options", draft-auge-dmm-hicn-
              mobility-deployment-options-00 (work in progress), June

              Herbert, T. and P. Lapukhov, "Identifier-locator
              addressing for IPv6", draft-herbert-intarea-ila-01 (work
              in progress), March 2018.

              Auge, J., Carofiglio, G., Muscariello, L., and M.
              Papalini, "MAP-Me : Managing Anchorless Mobility in
              Content Centric Networking", draft-irtf-icnrg-mapme-00
              (work in progress), March 2018.

              Wissingh, B., Wood, C., Afanasyev, A., Zhang, L., Oran,
              D., and C. Tschudin, "Information-Centric Networking
              (ICN): CCN and NDN Terminology", draft-irtf-icnrg-
              terminology-00 (work in progress), December 2017.

              Muscariello, L., Carofiglio, G., Auge, J., and M.
              Papalini, "Hybrid Information-Centric Networking", draft-
              muscariello-intarea-hicn-00 (work in progress), June 2018.

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              Hugo, D. and B. Sarikaya, "Review on issues in discussion
              of next generation converged networks (5G) from an IP
              point of view", draft-vonhugo-5gangip-ip-issues-03 (work
              in progress), March 2017.

   [KITE]     Zhang, Y., Zhang, H., and L. Zhang, "Kite", Proceedings of
              the 1st international conference on Information-centric
              networking - INC '14, DOI 10.1145/2660129.2660159, 2014.

   [MAPME]    Auge, J., Carofiglio, G., Grassi, G., Muscariello, L.,
              Pau, G., and X. Zeng, "MAP-Me: Managing Anchor-Less
              Producer Mobility in Content-Centric Networks", IEEE
              Transactions on Network and Service Management Vol. 15,
              pp. 596-610, DOI 10.1109/tnsm.2018.2796720, June 2018.

              Ravindran, R., Chakraborti, A., Amin, S., Azgin, A., and
              G. Wang, "5G-ICN: Delivering ICN Services over 5G Using
              Network Slicing", IEEE Communications Magazine Vol. 55,
              pp. 101-107, DOI 10.1109/mcom.2017.1600938, May 2017.

   [SEC]      Compagno, A., Zeng, X., Muscariello, L., Carofiglio, G.,
              and J. Auge, "Secure producer mobility in information-
              centric network", Proceedings of the 4th ACM Conference on
              Information-Centric Networking - ICN '17,
              DOI 10.1145/3125719.3125725, 2017.

   [SURVEY1]  Zhang, Y., Afanasyev, A., Burke, J., and L. Zhang, "A
              survey of mobility support in Named Data Networking", 2016
              IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops
              (INFOCOM WKSHPS), DOI 10.1109/infcomw.2016.7562050, April

   [SURVEY2]  Feng, B., Zhou, H., and Q. Xu, "Mobility support in Named
              Data Networking: a survey", EURASIP Journal on Wireless
              Communications and Networking Vol. 2016,
              DOI 10.1186/s13638-016-0715-0, September 2016.

              Ren, Y., Li, J., Shi, S., Li, L., Wang, G., and B. Zhang,
              "Congestion control in named data networking - A survey",
              Computer Communications Vol. 86, pp. 1-11,
              DOI 10.1016/j.comcom.2016.04.017, July 2016.

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              Tyson, G., Sastry, N., Rimac, I., Cuevas, R., and A.
              Mauthe, "A survey of mobility in information-centric
              networks", Proceedings of the 1st ACM workshop on Emerging
              Name-Oriented Mobile Networking Design - Architecture,
              Algorithms, and Applications - NoM '12,
              DOI 10.1145/2248361.2248363, 2012.

              3gpp-23.501, "Technical Specification Group Services and
              System Aspects; System Architecture for the 5G System
              (Rel.15)", n.d..

              3gpp-29.274, "3GPP Evolved Packet System (EPS); Evolved
              General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Tunnelling Protocol
              for Control plane (GTPv2-C); Stage 3", n.d..

Authors' Addresses

   Jordan Auge
   Cisco Systems Inc.

   Email: augjorda@cisco.com

   Giovanna Carofiglio
   Cisco Systems Inc.

   Email: gcarofig@cisco.com

   Luca Muscariello
   Cisco Systems Inc.

   Email: lumuscar@cisco.com

   Michele Papalini
   Cisco Systems Inc.

   Email: micpapal@cisco.com

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