draft-ietf-mboned-multiaaa-framework-04.txt   draft-ietf-mboned-multiaaa-framework-05.txt 
Internet Draft AAA Framework for Multicasting Internet Draft AAA Framework for Multicasting November
2007
Hiroaki Satou, NTT Hiroaki Satou, NTT
Internet Draft Hiroshi Ohta, NTT Internet Draft Hiroshi Ohta, NTT
Expires: Jan 10, 2008 Christian Jacquenet, France Telecom Expires: May 17, Christian Jacquenet, France Telecom
Intended status: Informational Tsunemasa Hayashi, NTT 2008
Tsunemasa Hayashi, NTT
Haixiang He, Nortel Networks Haixiang He, Nortel Networks
July 9, 2007 November 19, 2007
AAA Framework for Multicasting AAA Framework for Multicasting
<draft-ietf-mboned-multiaaa-framework-04.txt> <draft-ietf-mboned-multiaaa-framework-05.txt>
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author
represents that any applicable patent or other IPR represents that any applicable patent or other IPR
claims of which he or she is aware have been or will claims of which he or she is aware have been or will
be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section
of BCP 79. 6 of BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Internet-Drafts are working documents of the
Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
working groups. Note that other groups may also and its working groups. Note that other groups may
distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a
maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced,
or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is
inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in material or to cite them other than as "work in
progress." progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed
at http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. at http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.
Internet Draft AAA Framework for Multicasting Internet Draft AAA Framework for Multicasting November
2007
The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be
accessed at http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. accessed at http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
This Internet-Draft will expire on January 10, 2008. This Internet-Draft will expire on May 17, 2008.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). This document Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). This document
is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein,
therein, the authors retain all their rights. the authors retain all their rights.
Abstract Abstract
IP multicast-based services, such as TV broadcasting IP multicast-based services, such as TV broadcasting
or videoconferencing raise the issue of making sure or videoconferencing raise the issue of making sure
that potential customers are fully entitled to access that potential customers are fully entitled to
the corresponding contents. There is indeed a need access the corresponding contents. There is indeed a
for service and content providers to identify (if not need for service and content providers to identify
authenticate, especially within the context of (if not authenticate, especially within the context
enforcing electronic payment schemes) and to invoice of enforcing electronic payment schemes) and to
such customers in a reliable and efficient manner. invoice such customers in a reliable and efficient
This memo describes the framework for specifying the manner. This memo describes the framework for
Authorization, Authentication and Accounting (AAA) specifying the Authorization, Authentication and
capabilities that could be activated within the Accounting (AAA) capabilities that could be
context of the deployment and the operation of IP activated within the context of the deployment and
multicast-based services. This framework addresses the operation of IP multicast-based services. This
the requirements presented in draft-ietf-mboned- framework addresses the requirements presented in
maccnt-req-04.txt, "Requirements for Accounting, draft-ietf-mboned-maccnt-req-04.txt, "Requirements
Authentication and Authorization in Well Managed IP for Accounting, Authentication and Authorization in
Multicasting Services". The memo provides a basic AAA Well Managed IP Multicasting Services". The memo
enabled model as well as an extended fully enabled provides a basic AAA enabled model as well as an
model with resource and admission control extended fully enabled model with resource and
coordination. admission control coordination.
STATUS OF THIS MEMO 1
COPYRIGHT NOTICE 2
ABSTRACT 2
1. INTRODUCTION 5
1.1 PURPOSE AND BACKGROUND 5
2. DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS 6
2.1 DEFINITIONS 6
2.2 ABBREVIATIONS 7
3. COMMON USE MODELS AND NETWORK ARCHITECTURE IMPLICATIONS 7
4. FRAMEWORK AND ROLES OF ENTITIES 8
4.1 FRAMEWORK FOR MULTICAST AAA 8
4.1.1 MULTIPLE CPS ARE CONNECTED TO MULTIPLE NSPS 9
4.1.2 MULTIPLE CPS ARE CONNECTED TO A SINGLE NSP 10
4.1.3 A SINGLE CP IS CONNECTED TO MULTIPLE NSPS 11
4.1.4 A SINGLE CP IS CONNECTED TO SINGLE NSP 11
4.2 USER ID 11
4.2.1 CP-ASSIGNED USER ID 12
4.2.2 NSP-ASSIGNED USER ID 12
4.3 ACCOUNTING 12
4.4 ACCESS CONTROL AND CP SELECTION BY NSP 13
4.5 ADMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION BY NSP 13
4.6 ACCESS CONTROL AND DISTINGUISHING OF USERS BY CP 14
4.7 AAA PROXY IN NSP 14
5.1 BASIC CONNECTION MODEL 14
5.2 CONSTITUENT LOGICAL FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS OF THE FULLY
ENABLED AAA FRAMEWORK 15
5.3 MODULARITY OF THE FRAMEWORK 19
6. IANA CONSIDERATIONS 19
7. SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS 19
8. CONCLUSION 19
NORMATIVE REFERENCES 19
AUTHORS' ADDRESSES 20
COMMENTS 20
FULL COPYRIGHT STATEMENT 21
COPYRIGHT (C) THE IETF TRUST (2007). 21
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY 21
EXPIRATION 21
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 22
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
1.1 Purpose and Background 1.1 Purpose and Background
IP multicasting is designed to serve cases of group IP multicasting is designed to serve cases of group
communication schemes of any kind, such as 1-to-n (case of communication schemes of any kind, such as 1-to-n (case of
TV broadcasting services for example) or n-to-p (case of TV broadcasting services for example) or n-to-p (case of
videoconferencing services, for example). videoconferencing services, for example).
In these environments, IP multicast provides a better In these environments, IP multicast provides a better
resource optimization than using a unicast transmission resource optimization than using a unicast transmission
scheme, where data need to be replicated as many times as scheme, where data need to be replicated as many times as
skipping to change at page 3, line 43 skipping to change at page 5, line 42
This memo describes a framework for specifying the This memo describes a framework for specifying the
Authorization, Authentication and Accounting (AAA) Authorization, Authentication and Accounting (AAA)
capabilities that could be activated within the context of capabilities that could be activated within the context of
the deployment and the operation of IP multicast-based the deployment and the operation of IP multicast-based
services. This memo also describes a framework to realize services. This memo also describes a framework to realize
high-quality multicast transport using a Resource and high-quality multicast transport using a Resource and
Admission Control System (RACS) with multicast Admission Control System (RACS) with multicast
Authorization. Authorization.
Specifically, this framework addresses the requirements Specifically, this framework addresses the requirements
presented in draft-ietf-mboned-maccnt-req-04.txt, presented in draft-ietf-mboned-maccnt-req-05.txt,
"Requirements for Accounting, Authentication and "Requirements for Multicast AAA coordinated between Content
Authorization in Well Managed IP Multicasting Services" Provider(s) and Network Service Provider(s)" MACCNT-REQ-
MACCNT-REQ-draft describes the requirements in CDN services draft describes the requirements in CDN services using IP
using IP multicast[1]. The requirements are derived from: multicast[1]. The requirements are derived from:
- need for user tracking and billing capabilities - need for user tracking and billing capabilities
- need for network access control to satisfy the - need for network access control to satisfy the
requirements of the Network Service Provider (NSP) and/or requirements of the Network Service Provider (NSP) and/or
content access control to satisfy the requirements of the content access control to satisfy the requirements of the
Content Provider (CP) Content Provider (CP)
- methods for sharing information between the network - methods for sharing information between the network
service provider and content provider to make it possible service provider and content provider to make it possible
to fulfill the above two requirements. to fulfill the above two requirements.
Detailed requirements are presented in MACCNT-REQ-draft. Detailed requirements are presented in MACCNT-REQ-draft.
These requirements include mechanisms for recording end- These requirements include mechanisms for recording end-
user requests and provider responses for content-delivery, user requests and provider responses for content-delivery,
sharing user information (possibly anonymously depending on sharing user information (possibly anonymously depending on
the trust model) between content provider and network the trust model) between content provider and network
service provider, and protecting resources through the service provider, and protecting resources through the
prevention of network and content access by unauthorized prevention of network and content access by unauthorized
users, as well as other AAA related requirements. users, as well as other AAA related requirements.
The purpose of this memo is to provide a generalized framework The purpose of this memo is to provide a generalized
for specifying multicast-inferred AAA capabilities that can framework for
specifying multicast-inferred AAA capabilities that can
meet these requirements. This framework is to provide a meet these requirements. This framework is to provide a
basis for future work of investigating the applicability of basis for future work of investigating the applicability of
existing AAA protocols to provide these AAA capabilities in existing AAA protocols to provide these AAA capabilities in
IP multicast specific context and/or if deemed necessary, IP multicast specific context and/or if deemed necessary,
the refining or defining of protocols to provide these the refining or defining of protocols to provide these
capabilities. capabilities.
2. Definitions and Abbreviations 2. Definitions and Abbreviations
2.1 Definitions 2.1 Definitions
skipping to change at page 5, line 38 skipping to change at page 7, line 38
CAPCF: Conditional Access Policy Control Function CAPCF: Conditional Access Policy Control Function
CDN: Content Delivery Network CDN: Content Delivery Network
CDS: Content Delivery Services CDS: Content Delivery Services
CP: Content Provider CP: Content Provider
CPE: Customer Premise Equipment CPE: Customer Premise Equipment
mRACF: Multicast Resource and Admission Control Function MACF: Multicast Admission Control Function
NSP: Network Service Provider NSP: Network Service Provider
TS: Transport System TS: Transport System
3. Common use models and network architecture implications 3. Common use models and network architecture implications
In some cases a single entity may design and be responsible In some cases a single entity may design and be responsible
for a system that covers the various common high-level for a system that covers the various common high-level
requirements of a multicasting system such as 1) content requirements of a multicasting system such as 1) content
skipping to change at page 6, line 42 skipping to change at page 8, line 42
-Methods for sharing information between the NSP and -Methods for sharing information between the NSP and
CP to make the above two possible CP to make the above two possible
When the NSP and CP are the same single entity the general When the NSP and CP are the same single entity the general
requirements are as follows. requirements are as follows.
-Need for user tracking and user-billing capabilities -Need for user tracking and user-billing capabilities
-Need for access control and/or content protection at -Need for access control and/or content protection at
level the entity deems appropriate level the entity deems appropriate
4. Framework and Roles of Entities 4. Framework and Roles of Entities4.1 Framework for multicast
AAA
4.1 Framework for multicast AAA
A general high-level framework can be represented as A general high-level framework can be represented as
follows. follows.
+------------------------------+ +------------------------------+
| user | | user |
| | | |
+------------------------------+ +------------------------------+
| Access ^ Response | Access ^ Response
| Request | & Multicast Data | Request |
V | V |
+------------------------------+ +------------------------------+
| NSP | | NSP |
| | | |
+------------------------------+ +------------------------------+
| Access ^ Response | Access ^ Response
| Request | (Success) | Request | (Success)
v | v |
+------------------------------+ +------------------------------+
| CP | | CP |
| | | |
+------------------------------+ +------------------------------+
Figure 1 Figure 1
For the sake of simplicity, the above diagram portrays a For the sake of simplicity, the above diagram portrays a
case where there is a single NSP entity and a single CP case where there is a single NSP entity and a single CP
entity, but multiple CPs can be connected to the same NSP. entity, but multiple CPs can be connected to a single NSP
It is also possible for the same CP to be connected to (e.g. NSP may provide connections to multiple CPs to
multiple NSP networks (e.g. network selection). In other provide a wide selection of content categories.) It is also
words the relationship of NSP:CP can be described as 1:1, possible for a single CP to be connected to multiple NSP
1:N or M:N. Furthermore it is possible that the NSP and CP networks (e.g. network selection). Furthermore it is
could be the same entity. possible that the NSP and CP could be the same entity. A
NSP and CP authenticate and authorize each other when they
establish connectivity. Below the general case of multiple
NSPs with multiple CPs is explained. Then, the various
combinations of single and multiple CPs and NSPs are
described in relation to the general case.
Description of Roles: 4.1.1 Multiple CPs are connected to multiple NSPs
The user (or the user's device) selects a CP and a NSP when The user subscribes to multiple NSPs and multiple CPs in
the user requests content. The NSP may be automatically this usage case. The user selects a CP and a NSP when the
selected by a user terminal: e.g. a fixed line NSP for STB user requests content. The NSP may be automatically
or a mobile NSP for mobile phone. In some usage cases it selected by a user terminal: e.g. a fixed line NSP by a set
is possible that the NSP used by the user terminal will not top box or a mobile NSP by a mobile phone. In some usage
always be the same. For example a user may have contracted cases it is possible that the NSP used by a certain user
with different NSPs for fixed line or mobile roaming access. will not always be the same. For example a user may have
contracted with more than one NSP: one for fixed line
access and another for mobile roaming access.
The CP is responsible for Authentication and Authorization The content may be associated with (or managed by) a
of users' access to content that the CP manages. The CP specific CP. In this case, when the user selects content,
hopes to collect accounting information related to the the CP is automatically selected.
access of their content. The CP may choose to authenticate
and authorize NSPs which are eligible to provide users The user should send an Access-Request to the selected NSP
access to its contents. When the CP cannot (e.g. error or with enough information not only for authentication by the
CP but also for CP selection and admission control by the
NSP.
When an NSP receives an Access-Request from a user, the NSP
selects the appropriate CP for the received Access-Request
and relays the content request. As the NSP is responsible
for managing its network resources, the NSP may perform
admission control.The NSP will allow access to the network
and contents conditional to both the CP's content
authorization result and the NSPs network availability.
That is, the NSP starts multicast flow only when it has
both 1) received an ĎĎacceptíí response from the CP and 2)
determined that the network resources (e.g. bandwidth) are
sufficient to serve the multicast channel. When neither of
these conditions are met, the NSP does not start the
requested multicast channel. When the NSP already knows
that network resources are insufficient or there is a
network failure, the NSP may choose to not relay the
Access-Request to the CP. The NSP is also responsible for
relaying the Response message from the CP to the user
whether the user is eligible to receive content (in
response to the corresponding Access-Request from the user
to the CP.) In cases that the NSP does not start multicast
because of its own network issues (e.g. lack of network
resources or network failure), the NSP notifies the user
with a reason for rejecting the request.
A CP receives an Access-Request relayed by the NSP. The CP
authenticates the NSPís identity and makes an authorization
decision regarding the NSPís eligibility to provide users
access to its contents. The CP is responsible for
Authentication and Authorization of users' access to
content that the CP manages. The CP hopes to collect
accounting information related to the access of their
content. The CP responds to the NSP regarding the relayed
Access-Request. When the CP cannot (e.g. error or
resource issues) or decides not (e.g. policy issues) to resource issues) or decides not (e.g. policy issues) to
deliver content, the CP is responsible for notifying the deliver content, the CP is responsible for notifying the
NSP of the reason. It is up to the NSP how to relay or NSP of the reason. It is up to the NSP how to relay or
translate the messages to the user. translate the reasons for rejection to the user.
The NSP is responsible for managing its network resources. 4.1.2 Multiple CPs are connected to a single NSP
The NSP may perform admission control. It is also
responsible for relaying the AAA messages from the CP
whether the user is eligible to receive content
(authentication by proxy), and the NSP's relevant AAA
server will allow access to the network and contents
conditional to both the CP AAA server's content
authorization result and the NSPs network utilization
authorization result. In certain cases the CP and NSP may
have a contractual relationship in which the NSP is
authorized to make the content authorization decision based
on mutually predetermined criteria: in such cases the NSP-
AAA may also make the content authorization decision
without querying the CP-AAA. When the NSP cannot or
decides not to multicast to users, the NSP may notify the
users of the reason. It is recommended that the NSP notify
eligible users of the reason for not multicasting content
when it is due network or content unavailability, for
example. The NSP may choose not to notify ineligible users
of the reason for any case.
4.2 Multiple User IDs The user subscribes to a single NSP which provides
multicasting of channels from multiple CPs in this usage
case. In this case the user does not select an NSP. The
user selects a CP when the user requests content. The
content may be associated with (or managed by) the specific
CP, when the user selects content, the CP is automatically
selected.
The user should send an Access-Request to the specific NSP
with enough information not only for authentication by the
CP but also for CP selection and admission control by the
NSP.
The role of the NSP is the same as that described in 4.1.1.
The role of a CP is the same as that described in 4.1.1.
4.1.3 A single CP is connected to multiple NSPs
A user subscribes to multiple NSPs but a single CP in this
usage case. A user selects the NSP when the user requests
content but the CP is fixed. The user should send an
Access-Request to the selected NSP with enough information
not only for authentication by the CP but also for
admission control by the NSP.
The role of the NSP is similar to the description in 4.1.1,
with the exception that when a NSP receives an Access-
Request from a user, NSP relays it to the CP without CP
selection.
The role of the CP is the same as that described in 4.1.1.
4.1.4 A single CP is connected to single NSP
In this case, a user subscribes to only one NSP and one
CP. The user does not select NSP and CP in this scenario.
The user should send an Access-Request to the NSP with
enough information not only for authentication by the CP
but also for admission control by the NSP.
The role for the NSP is the same as 4.1.3
The role of the CP is the same as the description in 4.1.1.
The NSP and CP could be the same entity. In this case, the
roles of the NSP and CP may be combined.
4.2 User ID
Users may hold multiple user IDs: IDs which have been Users may hold multiple user IDs: IDs which have been
separately assigned for each subscription they may have for separately assigned for each subscription they may have for
various NSPs and CPs. The NSPs and CPs control the user various NSPs and CPs. The NSPs and CPs manage the user IDs
IDs for their respective domains. The user IDs are only for their respective domains. A CP identifies a user by a
meaningful in the context of each domain. user ID assigned by CP itself. A NSP identifies a user by a
user ID assigned by NSP itself. The user IDs are only
meaningful in the context of each domain. Users may hold
multiple user IDs which have been separately assigned for
each subscription they may have for various NSPs and CPs.
When the user wants to access content, the user registers 4.2.1 CP-assigned user ID
the corresponding user ID (including its CP domain
information) with a request for content, etc: web
authentication is one possible method.
Each CP may identify users by the user IDs that it has CPs assign user IDs to their users. The user may have more
issued to them. than one CP-assigned user ID per a specific CP. A user
sends an Access-Request to a NSP, the CP-assigned user ID
should be indicated so that the CP can identify the user
requesting content access. A NSP should relay the CP-
assigned user ID from the user to the CP. A NSP should not
send a CP-assigned user ID to any CP except the one which
assigned it and should not relay it all if there is no
appropriate CP that assigned the user ID.
Terminal portability can be realized if the NSP 4.2.2 NSP-assigned user ID
authenticates a user using a NSP-assigned user ID. A NSP-
assigned user ID is an access-line independent unique ID
assigned to users which allows user identification from any
access point within the network and possibly roaming to
other networks. This allows the user to access the content
from various network access points.
The NSP and CP do not need to know the corresponding user NSPs assign user IDs to their users. A user may have more
id for the same user in the other provider's domain, and it than one NSP-assigned user ID per a specific NSP. A user
is not necessary that there is a one to one relationship. sends an Access-Request to a NSP, the NSP-assigned user ID
It is quite possible for one person to hold multiple user may be indicated in it so that the NSP can identify the
ids for the same provider. user. The NSP should not relay the NSP-assigned user ID to
the CP for security reasons. The NSP may identify the
multicast-access user by other methods than the NSP-
assigned userID, e.g. by the access port.
The actual mapping rules for NSPs and CPs to map user IDs The actual mapping rules for NSP-assigned user IDs with CP-
with the IDs in other provider domains is a matter for the user assigned IDs in account logs is a matter for the
providers. A solution should provide an API between the providers and out of the scope of this framework.
providers to flexibly support various mapping methods.
4.3 Accounting 4.3 Accounting
MACCNT-REQ-draft defines requirements for Accounting and There are some specific accounting issues for multicasting.
Billing. These include the requirement for the NSP to log A (S,G) should be recorded as a channel identifier. The
user behavior such as the join action and the leave action, last hop devices, such as a IGMP or MLD router and a IGMP
as well as the result of the access-control decision. or MLD proxy, notify a (S,G) to AAA function in the NSP.
(MACCNT-REQ-draft, 4.5) MACCNT-REQ-draft also specifies The (S,G) information should be notified to the CP as part
that there should be a standardized way to sharing with the of the accounting log.
CP the user behavior and content reception information
which the NSP is logging.(MACCNT-REQ-draft, 4.5.1)
Standardization of the logs or messages to share content
usage information is important to support a single NSP
sharing accounting information with multiple CPs or a
single CP receiving from multiple NSPs.
In order to provide the granularity of user-behavior and
actual content reception information as specified in
MACCNT-REQ-draft, the NSP should not manage multicast
states on a subnet basis, but on a user basis (see in
MACCNT-REQ-draft, 4.1 "User identification") because the
NSP needs to be able to notify the CP of a user's start and
stop times for accounting purposes. This means that the NSP
sends to the CP AAA an indication for Join and Leave on a
user basis. User-based multicast state management is
equivalent to explicit membership tracking in RFC3376 and
per-host tracking in RFC3810.
This framework specifies an accounting API provided by the A NSP records accounting start corresponding to only the
NSP and accessed by the CP to allow for sharing user- first Join for a specific user access session. A NSP should
behavior and content-reception information between the NSP not treat a Query-responded Join as the accounting start.
AAA and CP AAA. This accounting API should be configurable
to allow the CP to request only the logging information it
actually requires. Such an API would allow for realtime
accounting information sharing by the NSP to the CP. When
logging information is shared through the accounting API,
it is important that the CP be able to match the user as
described in the database operated by the NSP to the user
as described in the database operated by the CP.
The NSP requires the capability to log both user and host A NSP records accounting stop triggered by not only user
information for each join and leave, indicating the requested Leave but also timeout of a multicast state or
corresponding multicast source for each action. When either re-authentication failure. A NSP may also record an
a CP source stops sending, or the NSP stops multicasting, accounting stop due to network availability reasons such as
in an unsolicited manner, there is also a need to notify failure. The NSP logs the reason for each accounting stop.
the AAA servers accordingly about the users who are
impacted by this event.
Also, intermittent logs between the join and leave would Also, intermittent logs between the join and leave would
allow for finer diagnostics and therefore could serve allow for finer diagnostics and therefore could serve
useful in billing discrepancies, and provide for a better useful in billing discrepancies, and provide for a finer
estimation of the time span that content was multicasted in estimation of the time spent for delivering the content in
the even that users disconnect without sending leave the event that users disconnect without sending leave
messages. messages.
4.4 Access Control and CP selection by NSP 4.4 Access Control and CP selection by NSP
When a NSP receives an access request from a user, it is When a NSP receives an access request from a user, the NSP
necessary for the NSP to determine to which CP the request determines to which CP the request is to be directed. The
is to be directed. It is necessary for the NSP to ensure NSP may select a CP based on CP-assigned userID with CP
that it is not spoofed by an inappropriate CP or user. domain name or channel identifier (S,G). The user should
include in the request sufficient information for CP
selection.
4.5 API for Admission Control Information by NSP 4.5 Admission Control Information by NSP
After authorizing a user request, the NSP may have further After authorizing a user request, the NSP may have further
conditions for determining its admission control decision. conditions for determining its admission control decision.
MACCNT-REQ-draft defines requirements for providing the
network capability to conduct admission control based on The NSP needs to know traffic parameters of a multicast
the network bandwidth usage status and bandwidth management channel for admission control. The traffic parameter
policy. (MACCNT-REQ-draft, 4.2.2, 4.2.3 & 4.9) Such QoS information may be either indicated by the user or CP
measurement and policy mechanisms themselves are out of the within the access request and responses, or otherwise
scope of this memo. However the NSP's AAA Server should be shared between the NSP and CP outside the access-request
provided with an Admission control API that allows for message mechanism:
interfacing so that additional conditions can be added to - A user may declare traffic parameters for each
the admission control decision. Access-Request.
- A CP may notify a mapping between the channel
identifier (S,G) and traffic parameters in the Response
message when the CP authorizes an access request.
- The NSP may maintain a mapping between channel
identifier (S,G) and traffic parameters in advance, for
example pre-configured by agreement between the CP and NSP
on a per channel basis.
A NSPs admission control may manage integrated network
resources for unicast usage, such as VoIP or unicast
streaming, and multicast usage. Alternatively, it may
manage network resources separately for unicast and
multicast usage. In either case, AAA and admission control
framework for multicast usage is independent of unicast
admission control.
Such QoS measurement and policy mechanisms themselves
depend on NSP policies and are out of the scope of this
memo.
4.6 Access Control and Distinguishing of Users by CP 4.6 Access Control and Distinguishing of Users by CP
The user ID and authentication information are forwarded The user ID and authentication information are forwarded
transparently by the NSP so that the CP can distinguish the transparently by the NSP so that the CP can distinguish the
user, as well as authenticate and authorize the request. user, as well as authenticate and authorize the request.
4.7 Caching of AAA results 4.7 AAA proxy in NSP
An NSP should be able to cache AAA results based upon an A NSP may act as AAA proxy of a CP based upon an agreement
agreement between the NSP and a CP. The AAA cache would between the NSP and the CP. The AAA proxy would store
store information about permissions of a specific user to information about permissions of a specific user to receive
receive multicast data from specified channel(s) up to multicast data from specified channel(s) up to specified
specified expiration date(s) and time(s). expiration date(s) and time(s).
If such caching is implemented, a method must exist for the If such proxying is implemented, the NSP may receive
CP to communicate this permission information to the NSP. authorization conditions from a CP in advance and
The NSP refers to the AAA cache and if the cache indicates statically hold them, or a CP may send them dynamically in
that the user has permission to receive multicast data from the Response message. The user has permission to receive
a specific channel at that time, the NSP may forward the multicast channel at that time. The NSP starts the
data without querying the CP. multicasting without querying the CP.
It should be possible for a CP to send unsolicited requests The CP may send unsolicited requests to the NSP to refresh
to the NSP to refresh or change the permissions for a user or change the permissions for a user for specific
for specific channel(s). channel(s).
When a user is receiving multicast content and the When a user is receiving multicast content and the
permission is about to expire, the NSP may send a permission is about to expire, the NSP may send a
notification to the user client that his session is about notification to the user client that his session is about
to expire, and that he will need to re-connect. The user to expire, and that he will need to reauthenticate. In such
will have to reestablish a connection. In the case that a case, the user will have to send the Access-Request. In
the user still has permission to the content, they should the case that the user still has permission to the content,
be able to continue to receive the content without they should be able to continue to receive the content
interruption. without interruption.
When re-authentication fails, the NSP should stop the
multicast channel and record accounting stop.
5. Network Connection Model and Functional Components 5. Network Connection Model and Functional Components
Section 3.1 introduces the high-level AAA framework for Section 3.1 introduces the high-level AAA framework for
multicasting. This section provides more detail on the multicasting. This section provides more details on the
network connection model and constituent functional network connection model and constituent functional
components. components.
5.1 Basic Connection Model 5.1 Basic Connection Model
In the simple case represented in Figure 1 the NSP is the In the simple case represented in Figure 1 the NSP is the
sole entity providing network resources including network sole entity providing network resources including network
access to the User. First a user that requests content access to the User. First a user that requests content
sends an Access request to an NSP which then forwards it on sends an Access request to an NSP which then forwards it on
to the appropriate CP for Authentication and Authorization to the appropriate CP for Authentication and Authorization
skipping to change at page 12, line 4 skipping to change at page 15, line 19
response and stream multicast data to the user. response and stream multicast data to the user.
In this model the user selects the NSP to which to send its In this model the user selects the NSP to which to send its
content request. Based on this request the NSP selects an content request. Based on this request the NSP selects an
appropriate CP to which it forwards the request. The CP appropriate CP to which it forwards the request. The CP
responds to the NSP's request: it may not respond to responds to the NSP's request: it may not respond to
another NSP in regards to the request. another NSP in regards to the request.
In this model, as described in section 3.1, the In this model, as described in section 3.1, the
relationship between NSP and CP can be 1:1, 1:N or M:N. relationship between NSP and CP can be 1:1, 1:N or M:N.
Users may connect to multiple networks, and networks have Users may connect to multiple networks, and networks have
multiple users. multiple users.
5.2 Constituent Logical Functional Components of the fully 5.2 Constituent Logical Functional Components of the fully
enabled AAA Framework enabled AAA Framework
MACCNT-REQ-draft defined requirements for "well managed" Requirements for "fully AAA and QoS enabled" IP
multicasting which this memo calls "AAA enabled" multicasting networks were defined in MACCNT-REQ-draft. To
multicasting. "Fully enabled AAA" multicasting in this memo allow for levels of enablement, this memo defines two
means "AAA enabled" with added QoS functions. models within the framework: "AAA enabled" multicasting and
"Fully enabled AAA" multicasting which means "AAA enabled"
with added admission control functions.
Section 3.1 introduces the high-level AAA framework for Section 3.1 introduces the high-level AAA framework for
multicasting. Below is a diagram of a AAA enabled multicasting. Below is a diagram of a AAA enabled
multicasting network with AAA, including the logical multicasting network with AAA, including the logical
components within the various entities. components within the various entities.
AAA enabled framework (basic model) AAA enabled framework (basic model)
+-------------------------------+ +-------------------------------+
| user | | user |
|+- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -+| |+- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -+|
skipping to change at page 13, line 40 skipping to change at page 16, line 10
| NSP | | | NSP | |
|+- - - - - |- -_+ | |+- - - - - |- -_+ |
||TS | | | ||TS | | |
| +------|-+ | | +------|-+ |
|| | AN | | | || | AN | | |
| | | | | | | |
|| +------|-+ | | || +------|-+ | |
| | IFb | | | IFb |
|| +------|-+ | | +---------+| || +------|-+ | | +---------+|
| | |----|-|mAAA || | | |----|-|mAAA ||
|| | NAS | | | | (CAPCF*)|| * optional || | NAS | | | |(MACF *) || * optional
| +--------+ +---------+| | +--------+ +---------+|
||+- - - - - - - + | | ||+- - - - - - - + | |
+-----------------------|--------+ +-----------------------|--------+
| |
-------|------ IFc -------|------ IFc
| |
+-----------------------|-------+ +-----------------------|-------+
| CP +---------+ | | CP +---------+ |
| | CP-AAA | | | | CP-AAA | |
| +---------+ | | +---------+ |
skipping to change at page 14, line 4 skipping to change at page 16, line 23
+-----------------------|--------+ +-----------------------|--------+
| |
-------|------ IFc -------|------ IFc
| |
+-----------------------|-------+ +-----------------------|-------+
| CP +---------+ | | CP +---------+ |
| | CP-AAA | | | | CP-AAA | |
| +---------+ | | +---------+ |
+-------------------------------+ +-------------------------------+
Figure 2 Figure 2
The user entity includes the CPE (Customer Premise The user entity includes the CPE (Customer Premise
Equipment) which includes the user host(s) and optionally a Equipment) which includes the user host(s) and optionally a
multicast proxy (not shown in the Figure 2.) multicast proxy (not shown in the Figure 2.)
The NSP (Network Service Provider) in the basic model The NSP (Network Service Provider) in the basic model
includes the transport system and a logical element for includes the transport system and a logical element for
multicast AAA functionality. The transport system is multicast AAA functionality. The transport system is
comprised of the access node and NAS (network access comprised of the access node and NAS (network access
server.) Descriptions of AN and its interfaces are out of server) An AN may be connected directly to mAAA or a NAS
scope for this memo. The multicast AAA function may be relays AAA information between an AN and a mAAA
provided by a multicast AAA server (mAAA) which may include Descriptions of AN and its interfaces are out of scope for
a function by which the access policy is downloaded to the this memo. The multicast AAA function may be provided by a
NAS (conditional access policy control function.) The multicast AAA server (mAAA) which may include the function
interface between mAAA and NAS is labeled IFb in Figure 2. by which the access policy is downloaded to the NAS
Over IFb the NAS makes an access request to the NSP-mAAA (Multicast access control function.) The interface between
and the mAAA replies. The mAAA may push conditional access mAAA and the NAS is labeled IFb in Figure 2. Over IFb the
policy to the NAS. NAS makes an access request to the NSP-mAAA and the mAAA
replies. The mAAA may push conditional access policy to the
NAS.
The content provider may have its own AAA server which has The content provider may have its own AAA server which has
the authority over access policy for its contents. the authority over access policy for its contents.
The interface between the user and the NSP is labeled IFa The interface between the user and the NSP is labeled IFa
in Figure 2. Over IFa the user makes a multicasting in Figure 2. Over IFa the user makes a multicasting
request to the NSP. The NSP may in reply send multicast request to the NSP. The NSP may in reply send multicast
traffic depending on the NSP and CP's policy decisions. traffic depending on the NSP and CPís policy decisions.
The interface between the NSP and CP is labeled IFc. Over The interface between the NSP and CP is labeled IFc. Over
IFc the NSP requests to the CP-AAA for access to contents IFc the NSP requests to the CP-AAA for access to contents
and the CP replies. CP may also send conditional access and the CP replies. CP may also send conditional access
policy over this interface for AAA-caching. policy over this interface within the context of proxying
multicast AAA messagescaching.
Fully enabled framework (c) Fully enabled framework
+-------------------------------+ +-------------------------------+
| user | | user |
|+- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -+| |+- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -+|
|| CPE || || CPE ||
|| || || ||
|+- - - - - | - - - - - - - - -+| |+- - - - - | - - - - - - - - -+|
+-----------|-------------------+ +-----------|-------------------+
| |
-------|------ IFa -------|------ IFa
| |
+-----------|-----------------------+ +-----------|-----------------------+
|+- - - - - |- - _+ + - - - - - + | |+- - - - - |- - _+ + - - - - - + |
||TS | | | | | | ||TS | | | | | |
| +------|-+ | +--------+ | | +------|-+ | +--------+ |
|| | AN | | | | | mRACF || | || | AN | | | | | MACF || |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | |
|| +------|-+ | | | +---|----+| | || +------|-+ | | | +---|----+| |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| | | | IFd----- | | | | | | IFd----- | |
| | | IFb | | | | | | IFb | | |
|| +------|---+ | | | +---|----+| | || +------|---+ | | | +---|----+| |
| | |---|---| mAAA | | | | |---|---| mAAA | |
|| | NAS | | | | |(CAPCF*)|| | * optional || | NAS | | | | |(MACF *)|| | * optional
| +----------+ | +--------+ | | +----------+ | +--------+ |
||+- - - - - - - -+ - - |- - - - -+ | ||+- - - - - - - -+ - - |- - - - -+ |
+-----------------------|-----------+ +-----------------------|-----------+
| |
-------|------ IFc -------|------ IFc
| |
+-----------------------|-------+ +-----------------------|-------+
| CP +---------+ | | CP +---------+ |
| | CP-AAA | | | | CP-AAA | |
| +---------+ | | +---------+ |
+-------------------------------+ +-------------------------------+
Figure 3 Figure 3
In the fully enabled model the NSP also includes a In the fully enabled model the NSP also includes a
component that provides network resource management (e.g. component that provides network resource management (e.g.
QoS management), as described in section 3.4, "Network QoS management), as described in section 3.4, "Network
Resource Management by NSP". In the fully enabled model Resource Management by NSP". In the fully enabled model
(Figure 3) resource management and admission control is (Figure 3) resource management and admission control is
provided by mRACF (multicast resource and admission control provided by MACF (multicast admission control function).
function.) This means that mRACF and Authorization portion Before replying to the user's multicast request the mAAA
of mAAA comprise RACS. Before replying to the user's queries the MACF for a network resource access decision
multicast request the mAAA queries the mRACF for a network over the interface IFd. The MACF is responsible for
resource access decision over the interface IFd. The mRACF allocating network resources for multicast traffic. To
is responsible for allocating network resources for multicast provide MACF with the relevant network resource
traffic. So that mRACF has the necessary network resource availability information, NAS notifies MACF via mAAA that
availability information, NAS notifies mRACF via mAAA of the sending multicast traffic has ceased.
stopping of multicast traffic.
5.3 Modularity of the framework 5.3 Modularity of the framework
In the interest of flexibility, this framework is modular In the interest of flexibility, this framework is modular
so that it is possible that partially enabled versions of so that it is possible that partially enabled versions of
the models are supported. A AAA-enabled version provides the models are supported. An AAA-enabled version provides
AAA functionality without Network Resource management. A AAA functionality without Network Resource management. A
Network-Resource-Management-enabled (QoS-enabled) version Network-Resource-Management-enabled (QoS-enabled) version
provides Network Resource management without AAA provides Network Resource management without AAA
functionality. Similarly, the possibility of one or more functionality. Similarly, the possibility of one or more
layers of transit provision between an NSP and CP is in the layers of transit provision between an NSP and CP is in the
interest of modularity and extendibility. interest of modularity and extendibility.
6. IANA considerations 6. IANA considerations
This memo does not raise any IANA consideration issues. This memo does not raise any IANA consideration issues.
skipping to change at page 17, line 33 skipping to change at page 19, line 35
Refer to section 3.3. Also the user information related to Refer to section 3.3. Also the user information related to
authentication with the CP must be protected in some way. authentication with the CP must be protected in some way.
Otherwise, this memo does not raise any new security issues Otherwise, this memo does not raise any new security issues
which are not already addressed by the original protocols. which are not already addressed by the original protocols.
Enhancement of multicast access control capabilities should Enhancement of multicast access control capabilities should
enhance security performance. enhance security performance.
8. Conclusion 8. Conclusion
This memo provides a generalized framework for solution This memo provides a generalized framework for solution
standards to meet the requirements presented in MACCNT-REQ- standards to meet the requirements. Further work should be
draft. Further work should be done to specify the done to specify the interfaces between the user and NSP,
interfaces between the user and NSP, NAS and mAAA, mAAA and NAS and mAAA, mAAA and MACF and NSP-mAAA and CP-AAA
mRACF and NSP-mAAA and CP-AAA (presented in 5.2.) (presented in 5.2.)
Normative References Normative References
[1] Hayashi, et. al., "Accounting, Authentication and [1] Hayashi, et. al., Requirements for Multicast AAA
Authorization Issues in Well Managed IP Multicasting coordinated between Content Provider(s) and Network
Services", draft-ietf-mboned-maccnt-req-04.txt, Service Provider(s)", draft-ietf-mboned-maccnt-req-
February 2006, Work in Progress. 05.txt, September 2007, Work in Progress.
[2] RFC-3810, Vida, R. and L. Costa, "Multicast Listener [2] RFC-3810, Vida, R. and L. Costa, "Multicast Listener
Discovery Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", June 2004. Discovery Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", June 2004.
[3] RFC-3376, Cain B., et.al., "Internet Group Management [3] RFC-3376, Cain B., et.al., "Internet Group Management
Protocol, Version 3", October 2002. Protocol, Version 3", October 2002.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Hiroaki Satou Hiroaki Satou
skipping to change at page 18, line 25 skipping to change at page 20, line 25
Email : satou.hiroaki@lab.ntt.co.jp Email : satou.hiroaki@lab.ntt.co.jp
Hiroshi Ohta Hiroshi Ohta
NTT Network Service Systems Laboratories NTT Network Service Systems Laboratories
3-9-11 Midoricho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo, 180-8585 3-9-11 Midoricho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo, 180-8585
Japan Japan
Phone : +81 422 59 3617 Phone : +81 422 59 3617
Email: ohta.hiroshi@lab.ntt.co.jp Email: ohta.hiroshi@lab.ntt.co.jp
Christian Jacquenet Christian Jacquenet
France Telecom France Telecom R&D
3, avenue Francois Chateau 4, rue du Clos Courtel -
CS 36901, 35069 Rennes Cedex, France - BP 91226
Phone: +33 2 99 87 63 31 35512 Cesson-SťvignĀECedex, France
Email: christian.jacquenet@francetelecom.com Phone: +33 2 99 12 49 40
Email: christian.jacquenet@orange-ftgroup.com
Tsunemasa Hayashi Tsunemasa Hayashi
NTT Network Innovation Laboratories NTT Network Innovation Laboratories
1-1 Hikari-no-oka, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa, 239-0847 1-1 Hikari-no-oka, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa, 239-0847
Japan Japan
Phone: +81 46 859 8790 Phone: +81 46 859 8790
Email: tsunemasa@gmail.com Email: tsunemasa@gmail.com
Haixiang He Haixiang He
Nortel Nortel
skipping to change at page 19, line 51 skipping to change at page 21, line 51
http://www.ietf.org/ipr. http://www.ietf.org/ipr.
The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its
attention any copyrights, patents or patent applications, attention any copyrights, patents or patent applications,
or other proprietary rights that may cover technology that or other proprietary rights that may cover technology that
may be required to implement this standard. Please may be required to implement this standard. Please
address the information to the IETF at ietf-ipr@ietf.org. address the information to the IETF at ietf-ipr@ietf.org.
Expiration Expiration
This Internet-Draft will expire on January 10, 2008. This Internet-Draft will expire on May 17, 2008.
Acknowledgement Acknowledgement
Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided
by the Internet Society. by the Internet Society.
 End of changes. 57 change blocks. 
236 lines changed or deleted 354 lines changed or added

This html diff was produced by rfcdiff 1.34. The latest version is available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcdiff/