draft-ietf-mboned-ipv4-mcast-unusable-00.txt   draft-ietf-mboned-ipv4-mcast-unusable-01.txt 
Internet Draft B. Nickless Internet Draft B. Nickless
Document: draft-ietf-mboned-ipv4-mcast- Argonne National Document: draft-ietf-mboned-ipv4-mcast- Argonne National
unusable-00.txt Laboratory unusable-01.txt Laboratory
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IPv4 Multicast Unusable Group And Source Addresses IPv4 Multicast Unusable Group And Source Addresses
1. Status of this Memo 1. Status of this Memo
This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
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device access control lists. IANA should permanently reserve device access control lists. IANA should permanently reserve
certain address ranges. certain address ranges.
3. Table of Contents 3. Table of Contents
1. Status of this Memo.............................................1 1. Status of this Memo.............................................1
2. Abstract........................................................1 2. Abstract........................................................1
4. Conventions used in this document...............................2 4. Conventions used in this document...............................2
5. Background......................................................2 5. Background......................................................2
6. Specific (Source,Group) Restrictions............................2 6. Specific (Source,Group) Restrictions............................2
7. Unusable Locally................................................3 7. Unusable Locally................................................4
8. Unusable Inter-domain...........................................4 8. Unusable Inter-domain...........................................4
9. No Flooding of Knowledge of Active Sources......................5 9. No Flooding of Knowledge of Active Sources......................5
10. IANA Considerations............................................6 10. IANA Considerations............................................6
11. Security Considerations........................................6 11. Security Considerations........................................6
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12. Acknowledgements...............................................6 12. Acknowledgements...............................................6
13. References.....................................................6 13. References.....................................................6
12. Author's Address...............................................7 12. Author's Address...............................................7
4. Conventions used in this document 4. Conventions used in this document
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
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necessary) that have registered their interest in receiving these necessary) that have registered their interest in receiving these
packets. packets.
Some combinations of Source Address and Group Address SHOULD NOT be Some combinations of Source Address and Group Address SHOULD NOT be
routed for various reasons. This note describes those restrictions routed for various reasons. This note describes those restrictions
so they can be: so they can be:
- Avoided by applications, especially those that choose multicast - Avoided by applications, especially those that choose multicast
groups on a random or ad-hoc basis. groups on a random or ad-hoc basis.
- Properly reflected in network device restriction lists. - Properly reflected in network device restriction lists.
- Reserved by IANA.
6. Specific (Source,Group) Restrictions 6. Specific (Source,Group) Restrictions
Following is a list of (Source,Group) ranges that should not be used Following is a list of (Source,Group) ranges that should not be used
or routed in certain circumstances. Each range is associated with a or routed in certain circumstances. Each range is associated with a
brief explanation and a cross-reference to a fuller explanation to brief explanation and a cross-reference to a fuller explanation to
be found in following sections of this note. be found in following sections of this note.
(*,224.0.1.2/32) SGI-Dogfight Section 8.4 (*,224.0.1.2/32) SGI-Dogfight Section 8.4
(*,224.0.1.3/32) Rwhod Section 8.5 (*,224.0.1.3/32) Rwhod Section 8.5
(*,224.0.1.22/32) SVRLOC Section 8.4 (*,224.0.1.22/32) SVRLOC Section 8.4
(*,224.0.1.24/32) Microsoft-DS Section 8.4 (*,224.0.1.24/32) Microsoft-DS Section 8.4
(*,224.0.1.35/32) SVRLOC-DA Section 8.5 (*,224.0.1.35/32) SVRLOC-DA Section 8.5
(*,224.0.1.39/32) CISCO-RP-ANNOUNCE Section 8.5 (*,224.0.1.39/32) CISCO-RP-ANNOUNCE Section 8.5
(*,224.0.1.40/32) CISCO-RP-DISCOVERY Section 8.5 (*,224.0.1.40/32) CISCO-RP-DISCOVERY Section 8.5
(*,224.0.1.60/32) HP-DEVICE-DISC Section 8.5
(*,224.0.2.2/32) SUN-RPC Section 8.4 (*,224.0.2.2/32) SUN-RPC Section 8.4
(*,224.77.0.0/16) Norton Ghost Section 8.3 (*,224.77.0.0/16) Norton Ghost Section 8.3
(*,224.128.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1 (*,224.128.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1
(*,225.0.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1 (*,225.0.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1
(*,225.1.2.3/32) Altiris Section 8.3 (*,225.1.2.3/32) Altiris Section 8.3
(*,225.128.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1
(*,226.0.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1
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(*,225.128.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1
(*,226.0.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1
(*,226.77.0.0/16) Norton Ghost Section 8.3 (*,226.77.0.0/16) Norton Ghost Section 8.3
(*,226.128.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1 (*,226.128.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1
(*,227.0.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1 (*,227.0.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1
(*,227.128.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1 (*,227.128.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1
(*,228.0.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1 (*,228.0.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1
(*,228.128.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1 (*,228.128.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1
(*,229.0.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1 (*,229.0.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1
(*,229.128.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1 (*,229.128.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1
(*,230.0.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1 (*,230.0.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1
(*,230.128.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1 (*,230.128.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1
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(*,239.128.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1 (*,239.128.0.0/24) Control plane of IGMP snoopers Section 7.1
(0.0.0.0/0,*) Link Local Addresses Section 8.2 (0.0.0.0/0,*) Link Local Addresses Section 8.2
(10.0.0.0/8,*) Private Address Space Section 8.2 (10.0.0.0/8,*) Private Address Space Section 8.2
(127.0.0.0/8,*) Loopback Address Space Section 8.2 (127.0.0.0/8,*) Loopback Address Space Section 8.2
(169.254.0.0/8,*) Link Local Addresses Section 8.2 (169.254.0.0/8,*) Link Local Addresses Section 8.2
(172.16.0.0/12,*) Private Address Space Section 8.2 (172.16.0.0/12,*) Private Address Space Section 8.2
(192.0.2.0/24,*) Documentation/Example Section 8.2 (192.0.2.0/24,*) Documentation/Example Section 8.2
(192.168.0.0/16,*) Private Address Space Section 8.2 (192.168.0.0/16,*) Private Address Space Section 8.2
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7. Unusable Locally 7. Unusable Locally
Multicast datagrams that match the criteria in this section SHOULD Multicast datagrams that match the criteria in this section SHOULD
NOT be used, even on local, unrouted subnetworks. NOT be used, even on local, unrouted subnetworks.
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7.1 Groups processed in the control plane of IGMP-snooping switches. 7.1 Groups processed in the control plane of IGMP-snooping switches.
[MCAST] describes the mapping of IPv4 Multicast Group addresses to [MCAST] describes the mapping of IPv4 Multicast Group addresses to
Ethernet MAC addresses, as follows: Ethernet MAC addresses, as follows:
An IP host group address is mapped to an Ethernet multicast An IP host group address is mapped to an Ethernet multicast
address by placing the low-order 23-bits of the IP address address by placing the low-order 23-bits of the IP address
into the low-order 23 bits of the Ethernet multicast address into the low-order 23 bits of the Ethernet multicast address
01-00-5E-00-00-00 (hex). Because there are 28 significant 01-00-5E-00-00-00 (hex). Because there are 28 significant
bits in an IP host group address, more than one host group bits in an IP host group address, more than one host group
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domains. domains.
8.2 Special Use IPv4 Source Addresses 8.2 Special Use IPv4 Source Addresses
RFC 1918 [PRIVATE] defines certain ranges of IPv4 unicast addresses RFC 1918 [PRIVATE] defines certain ranges of IPv4 unicast addresses
that can be used within an administrative domain. Multicast that can be used within an administrative domain. Multicast
datagrams are no exception to the rule that datagrams addressed datagrams are no exception to the rule that datagrams addressed
within these ranges SHOULD NOT be passed between administrative within these ranges SHOULD NOT be passed between administrative
domains. domains.
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127.0.0.0/8 is widely used for internal host addressing, and is 127.0.0.0/8 is widely used for internal host addressing, and is
generally not valid on datagrams passed between hosts. generally not valid on datagrams passed between hosts.
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0.0.0.0/8 and 169.254.0.0/16 are valid only in the context of local 0.0.0.0/8 and 169.254.0.0/16 are valid only in the context of local
links. Such source addresses are not valid for datagrams passed links. Such source addresses are not valid for datagrams passed
between networks. [RFC 1700] [RFC 3330] between networks. [RFC 1700] [RFC 3330]
192.0.2.0/24 is reserved for documentation and example code. 192.0.2.0/24 is reserved for documentation and example code.
[RFC 3330] [RFC 3330]
8.3 Personal Computer Deployment and Control Applications 8.3 Personal Computer Deployment and Control Applications
The Norton Ghost [GHOST], Phoenix/StorageSoft ImageCast [IMCAST], The Norton Ghost [GHOST], Phoenix/StorageSoft ImageCast [IMCAST],
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Protocol (MSDP) [MSDP]. Protocol (MSDP) [MSDP].
Sections 7 and 8 are incorporated here by reference. Sections 7 and 8 are incorporated here by reference.
9.1 Source-Specific Multicast 9.1 Source-Specific Multicast
Multicast datagrams addressed within 232.0.0.0/8 (See [IANA]) are Multicast datagrams addressed within 232.0.0.0/8 (See [IANA]) are
used in the Source-Specific Multicast regime. Interested recipients used in the Source-Specific Multicast regime. Interested recipients
request traffic from specific sources using specific group request traffic from specific sources using specific group
addresses. Knowledge of active sources is not flooded throughout addresses. Knowledge of active sources is not flooded throughout
the Internet, as it is the responsibility of the application to
discover the active sources.
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the Internet, as it is the responsibility of the application to
discover the active sources.
10. IANA Considerations 10. IANA Considerations
Due to the issue outlined in Section 7.1 with 233.0.0.0/24 and Due to the issue outlined in Section 7.1 with 233.0.0.0/24 and
233.128.0.0/24 above, IANA SHOULD NOT allocate AS 0 nor AS 32768 to 233.128.0.0/24 above, IANA SHOULD NOT allocate AS 0 nor AS 32768 to
any Autonomous System or Registry. any Autonomous System or Registry.
IANA SHOULD reserve the 31 address blocks referenced in Section 7. IANA SHOULD reserve the 31 address blocks referenced in Section 7.
11. Security Considerations 11. Security Considerations
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groups (see Section 8.4) can lead to compromise of host systems. groups (see Section 8.4) can lead to compromise of host systems.
12. Acknowledgements 12. Acknowledgements
The author relied heavily on a list of problematic groups maintained The author relied heavily on a list of problematic groups maintained
by Cisco Systems, especially Beau Williamson and his colleagues. by Cisco Systems, especially Beau Williamson and his colleagues.
Jay Ford and Alan Croswell provided references for the Norton Ghost Jay Ford and Alan Croswell provided references for the Norton Ghost
restriction. restriction.
Leonard Giuliano, John Kristoff, Alastair Matthews, and Pekka Savola Leonard Giuliano, John Kristoff, Alastair Matthews, Pekka Savola,
provided helpful comments, corrections, and suggestions. and Beau Williamson provided helpful comments, corrections, and
suggestions.
This work was supported by the Mathematical, Information, and This work was supported by the Mathematical, Information, and
Computational Sciences Division subprogram of the Office of Advanced Computational Sciences Division subprogram of the Office of Advanced
Scientific Computing Research, U.S. Department of Energy, under Scientific Computing Research, U.S. Department of Energy, under
Contract W-31-109-Eng-38. Contract W-31-109-Eng-38.
13. References 13. References
[RFC2119] RFC 2119: Key Words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] RFC 2119: Key Words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels. S. Bradner. March 1997. Requirement Levels. S. Bradner. March 1997.
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[MCAST] RFC 1112: Host extensions for IP multicasting. S.E. Deering. [MCAST] RFC 1112: Host extensions for IP multicasting. S.E. Deering.
Aug-01-1989. Aug-01-1989.
[CIDR] RFC 1519: Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR): an Address [CIDR] RFC 1519: Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR): an Address
Assignment and Aggregation Strategy. V. Fuller, T. Li, J. Yu, K. Assignment and Aggregation Strategy. V. Fuller, T. Li, J. Yu, K.
Varadhan. September 1993. Varadhan. September 1993.
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[ADMIN] RFC 2365: Administratively Scoped IP Multicast. D. Meyer. [ADMIN] RFC 2365: Administratively Scoped IP Multicast. D. Meyer.
July 1998. July 1998.
[PRIVATE] RFC 1918: Address Allocation for Private Internets. Y [PRIVATE] RFC 1918: Address Allocation for Private Internets. Y
Rekhter, B. Moskowitz, D. Karrenberg, G. J. de Groot, E. Lear. Rekhter, B. Moskowitz, D. Karrenberg, G. J. de Groot, E. Lear.
February 1996. February 1996.
[RFC 1700] Reynolds, J. and J. Postel, ˘Assigned Numbers÷, STD 2, [RFC 1700] Reynolds, J. and J. Postel, "Assigned Numbers", STD 2,
RFC 1700, October 1994. RFC 1700, October 1994.
[RFC 3330] ˘Special-Use IPv4 Addresses÷, IANA, RFC 3330, September [RFC 3330] "Special-Use IPv4 Addresses", IANA, RFC 3330, September
2002. 2002.
[GHOST] Symantec. [GHOST] Symantec.
http://service2.symantec.com/SUPPORT/ghost.nsf/docid/ http://service2.symantec.com/SUPPORT/ghost.nsf/docid/
1999033015222425 1999033015222425
[IMCAST] Phoenix Technologies. [IMCAST] Phoenix Technologies.
http://www.storagesoft.com/products/imagecast http://www.storagesoft.com/products/imagecast
[ALTIRIS] Altiris [ALTIRIS] Altiris
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[IANA] Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. [IANA] Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.
http://www.iana.org/assignments/multicast-addresses http://www.iana.org/assignments/multicast-addresses
14. Author's Address 14. Author's Address
Bill Nickless Bill Nickless
Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory
9700 South Cass Avenue #221 Phone: +1 630 252 7390 9700 South Cass Avenue #221 Phone: +1 630 252 7390
Argonne, IL 60439 Email: nickless@mcs.anl.gov Argonne, IL 60439 Email: nickless@mcs.anl.gov
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