draft-ietf-mboned-interdomain-peering-bcp-04.txt   draft-ietf-mboned-interdomain-peering-bcp-05.txt 
MBONED Working Group Percy S. Tarapore MBONED Working Group Percy S. Tarapore
Internet Draft Robert Sayko Internet Draft Robert Sayko
Intended status: BCP AT&T Intended status: BCP AT&T
Expires: January 28, 2017 Greg Shepherd Expires: March 30, 2017 Greg Shepherd
Toerless Eckert Toerless Eckert
Cisco Cisco
Ram Krishnan Ram Krishnan
Brocade Brocade
July 28, 2016 September 30, 2016
Use of Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points Use of Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points
draft-ietf-mboned-interdomain-peering-bcp-04.txt draft-ietf-mboned-interdomain-peering-bcp-05.txt
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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This Internet-Draft will expire on January 28, 2017. This Internet-Draft will expire on March 30, 2017.
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IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
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This document examines the use of multicast across inter-domain This document examines the use of multicast across inter-domain
peering points. The objective is to describe the setup process for peering points. The objective is to describe the setup process for
multicast-based delivery across administrative domains and document multicast-based delivery across administrative domains and document
supporting functionality to enable this process. supporting functionality to enable this process.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction...................................................3 1. Introduction...................................................3
2. Overview of Inter-domain Multicast Application Transport.......4 2. Overview of Inter-domain Multicast Application Transport.......4
3. Inter-domain Peering Point Requirements for Multicast..........5 3. Inter-domain Peering Point Requirements for Multicast..........6
3.1. Native Multicast..........................................5 3.1. Native Multicast..........................................6
3.2. Peering Point Enabled with GRE Tunnel.....................7 3.2. Peering Point Enabled with GRE Tunnel.....................8
3.3. Peering Point Enabled with an AMT - Both Domains Multicast 3.3. Peering Point Enabled with an AMT - Both Domains Multicast
Enabled........................................................8 Enabled........................................................9
3.4. Peering Point Enabled with an AMT - AD-2 Not Multicast 3.4. Peering Point Enabled with an AMT - AD-2 Not Multicast
Enabled.......................................................10 Enabled.......................................................10
3.5. AD-2 Not Multicast Enabled - Multiple AMT Tunnels Through 3.5. AD-2 Not Multicast Enabled - Multiple AMT Tunnels Through
AD-2..........................................................12 AD-2..........................................................12
4. Supporting Functionality......................................14 4. Supporting Functionality......................................14
4.1. Network Interconnection Transport and Security Guidelines15 4.1. Network Interconnection Transport and Security Guidelines15
4.2. Routing Aspects and Related Guidelines...................15 4.2. Routing Aspects and Related Guidelines...................15
4.2.1 Native Multicast Routing Aspects..................16 4.2.1 Native Multicast Routing Aspects..................16
4.2.2 GRE Tunnel over Interconnecting Peering Point.....17 4.2.2 GRE Tunnel over Interconnecting Peering Point.....17
4.2.3 Routing Aspects with AMT Tunnels.....................17 4.2.3 Routing Aspects with AMT Tunnels.....................17
4.3. Back Office Functions - Provisioning and Logging Guidelines 4.3. Back Office Functions - Provisioning and Logging Guidelines
..............................................................19 ..............................................................19
4.3.1 Provisioning Guidelines...........................20 4.3.1 Provisioning Guidelines...........................20
4.3.2 Application Accounting Guidelines.................21 4.3.2 Application Accounting Guidelines.................21
4.3.3 Log Management Guidelines.........................21 4.3.3 Log Management Guidelines.........................22
4.4. Operations - Service Performance and Monitoring Guidelines22 4.4. Operations - Service Performance and Monitoring Guidelines22
4.5. Client Reliability Models/Service Assurance Guidelines...24 4.5. Client Reliability Models/Service Assurance Guidelines...25
5. Troubleshooting and Diagnostics...............................25 5. Troubleshooting and Diagnostics...............................25
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
6. Security Considerations.......................................26 6. Security Considerations.......................................26
7. IANA Considerations...........................................26 7. IANA Considerations...........................................27
8. Conclusions...................................................27 8. Conclusions...................................................27
9. References....................................................27 9. References....................................................27
9.1. Normative References.....................................27 9.1. Normative References.....................................27
9.2. Informative References...................................28 9.2. Informative References...................................28
10. Acknowledgments..............................................28 10. Acknowledgments..............................................28
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Several types of applications (e.g., live video streaming, software Several types of applications (e.g., live video streaming, software
downloads) are well suited for delivery via multicast means. The use downloads) are well suited for delivery via multicast means. The use
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The scope and assumptions for this document are stated as follows: The scope and assumptions for this document are stated as follows:
o For the purpose of this document, the term "peering point" o For the purpose of this document, the term "peering point"
refers to an interface between two networks/administrative refers to an interface between two networks/administrative
domains over which traffic is exchanged between them. A domains over which traffic is exchanged between them. A
Network-Network Interface (NNI) is an example of a peering Network-Network Interface (NNI) is an example of a peering
point. point.
o Administrative Domain 1 (AD-1) is enabled with native o Administrative Domain 1 (AD-1) is enabled with native
multicast. A peering point exists between AD-1 and AD-2. multicast. A peering point exists between AD-1 and AD-2.
o It is understood that several protocols are available for this o It is understood that several protocols are available for this
purpose including PIM-SM, Protocol Independent Multicast - purpose including PIM-SM [RFC4609], Protocol Independent
Source Specific Multicast (PIM-SSM) [RFC4607], Internet Group Multicast - Source Specific Multicast (PIM-SSM) [RFC4607],
Management Protocol (IGMP) [RFC4604], Multicast Listener Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) [RFC4604], and
Discovery (MLD) [RFC4604]. Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) [RFC4604].
o As described in Section 2, the source IP address of the o As described in Section 2, the source IP address of the
multicast stream in the originating AD (AD-1) is known. Under multicast stream in the originating AD (AD-1) is known. Under
this condition, PIM-SSM use is beneficial for the reasons
stated in [draft-acq], e.g., it allows the receiver's router IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
to directly send a JOIN message to the source without the need
of invoking an intermediate Rendezvous Point (RP). Hence, in this condition, PIM-SSM use is beneficial as it allows the
the case of inter-domain peering, it is recommended to use receiver's upstream router to directly send a JOIN message to
only SSM protocols. the source without the need of invoking an intermediate
Rendezvous Point (RP). Use of SSM also presents an improved
threat mitigation profile against attack, as described in
[RFC4609]. Hence, in the case of inter-domain peering, it is
recommended to use only SSM protocols.
o AD-1 and AD-2 are assumed to adopt compatible protocols. The o AD-1 and AD-2 are assumed to adopt compatible protocols. The
use of different protocols is beyond the scope of this use of different protocols is beyond the scope of this
document. document.
o An Automatic Multicast Tunnel (AMT) [RFC7450] is setup at the o An Automatic Multicast Tunnel (AMT) [RFC7450] is setup at the
peering point if either the peering point or AD-2 is not peering point if either the peering point or AD-2 is not
multicast enabled. It is assumed that an AMT Relay will be multicast enabled. It is assumed that an AMT Relay will be
available to a client for multicast delivery. The selection of available to a client for multicast delivery. The selection of
an optimal AMT relay by a client is out of scope for this an optimal AMT relay by a client is out of scope for this
document. Note that AMT use is necessary only when native document. Note that AMT use is necessary only when native
multicast is unavailable in the peering point (Use Case 3.3) multicast is unavailable in the peering point (Use Case 3.3)
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2. Overview of Inter-domain Multicast Application Transport 2. Overview of Inter-domain Multicast Application Transport
A multicast-based application delivery scenario is as follows: A multicast-based application delivery scenario is as follows:
o Two independent administrative domains are interconnected via a o Two independent administrative domains are interconnected via a
peering point. peering point.
o The peering point is either multicast enabled (end-to-end o The peering point is either multicast enabled (end-to-end
native multicast across the two domains) or it is connected by native multicast across the two domains) or it is connected by
one of two possible tunnel types: one of two possible tunnel types:
o A Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Tunnel [RFC2784] o A Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Tunnel [RFC2784]
allowing multicast tunneling across the peering point, or allowing multicast tunneling across the peering point, or
o An Automatic Multicast Tunnel (AMT) [RFC7450].
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
o An Automatic Multicast Tunnel (AMT) [RFC7450].
o The application stream originates at a source in Domain 1. The o The application stream originates at a source in Domain 1. The
source IP address is known. source IP address is known.
o An End User associated with Domain 2 requests the application. o An End User associated with Domain 2 requests the application.
It is assumed that the application is suitable for delivery via It is assumed that the application is suitable for delivery via
multicast means (e.g., live steaming of major events, software multicast means (e.g., live steaming of major events, software
downloads to large numbers of end user devices, etc.) downloads to large numbers of end user devices, etc.)
o The request is communicated to the application source which o The request is communicated to the application source which
provides the relevant multicast delivery information to the EU provides the relevant multicast delivery information to the EU
device via a "manifest file". At a minimum, this file contains device. This information is in the form of appropriate
the {Source, Group} or (S,G) information relevant to the metadata. At a minimum, this metadata includes the {Source,
multicast stream. Group} or (S,G) information relevant to the multicast stream.
It may also contain additional information that the application
client can use to locate the source and join the stream. The
delivery method by which the source transmits this information
is determined via arrangements between the source and the two
Administrative Domains. The description of the delivery method
and the format of the metadata is out of scope for this
document.
o The application client in the EU device then joins the o The application client in the EU device then joins the
multicast stream distributed by the application source in multicast stream distributed by the application source in
domain 1 utilizing the (S,G) information provided in the domain 1 utilizing the (S,G) information provided in the
manifest file. The manifest file may also contain additional manifest file.
information that the application client can use to locate the
source and join the stream.
Note that domain 2 may be an independent network domain (e.g., Tier Note that domain 2 may be an independent network domain (e.g., Tier
1 network operator domain) or it could also be an Enterprise network 1 network operator domain) or it could also be an Enterprise network
operated by a single customer. The peering point architecture and operated by a single customer. The peering point architecture and
requirements may have some unique aspects associated with the requirements may have some unique aspects associated with the
Enterprise case. Enterprise case.
The Use Cases describing various architectural configurations for The Use Cases describing various architectural configurations for
the multicast distribution along with associated requirements is the multicast distribution along with associated requirements is
described in section 3. Unique aspects related to the Enterprise described in section 3. Unique aspects related to the Enterprise
network possibility will be described in this section. A network possibility will be described in this section. A
comprehensive list of pertinent information that needs to be comprehensive list of pertinent information that needs to be
exchanged between the two domains to support various functions exchanged between the two domains to support various functions
enabling the application transport is provided in section 4. enabling the application transport is provided in section 4.
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
3. Inter-domain Peering Point Requirements for Multicast 3. Inter-domain Peering Point Requirements for Multicast
The transport of applications using multicast requires that the The transport of applications using multicast requires that the
inter-domain peering point is enabled to support such a process. inter-domain peering point is enabled to support such a process.
There are five possible Use Cases for consideration. There are five possible Use Cases for consideration.
3.1. Native Multicast 3.1. Native Multicast
This Use Case involves end-to-end Native Multicast between the two This Use Case involves end-to-end Native Multicast between the two
administrative domains and the peering point is also native administrative domains and the peering point is also native
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Advantages of this configuration are: Advantages of this configuration are:
o Most efficient use of bandwidth in both domains o Most efficient use of bandwidth in both domains
o Fewer devices in the path traversed by the multicast stream when o Fewer devices in the path traversed by the multicast stream when
compared to unicast transmissions. compared to unicast transmissions.
From the perspective of AD-1, the one disadvantage associated with From the perspective of AD-1, the one disadvantage associated with
native multicast into AD-2 instead of individual unicast to every EU native multicast into AD-2 instead of individual unicast to every EU
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
in AD-2 is that it does not have the ability to count the number of in AD-2 is that it does not have the ability to count the number of
End Users as well as the transmitted bytes delivered to them. This End Users as well as the transmitted bytes delivered to them. This
information is relevant from the perspective of customer billing and information is relevant from the perspective of customer billing and
operational logs. It is assumed that such data will be collected by operational logs. It is assumed that such data will be collected by
the application layer. The application layer mechanisms for the application layer. The application layer mechanisms for
generating this information need to be robust enough such that all generating this information need to be robust enough such that all
pertinent requirements for the source provider and the AD operator pertinent requirements for the source provider and the AD operator
are satisfactorily met. The specifics of these methods are beyond are satisfactorily met. The specifics of these methods are beyond
the scope of this document. the scope of this document.
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in AD-2 is assumed to be collected by available capabilities in in AD-2 is assumed to be collected by available capabilities in
the application layer. The precise nature and formats of the the application layer. The precise nature and formats of the
collected information will be determined by directives from the collected information will be determined by directives from the
source owner and the domain operators. source owner and the domain operators.
e. The interconnection of AD-1 and AD-2 should minimally follow e. The interconnection of AD-1 and AD-2 should minimally follow
guidelines for traffic filtering between autonomous systems guidelines for traffic filtering between autonomous systems
[BCP38]. Filtering guidelines specific to the multicast control- [BCP38]. Filtering guidelines specific to the multicast control-
plane and data-plane are described in section 6. plane and data-plane are described in section 6.
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
3.2. Peering Point Enabled with GRE Tunnel 3.2. Peering Point Enabled with GRE Tunnel
The peering point is not native multicast enabled in this Use Case. The peering point is not native multicast enabled in this Use Case.
There is a Generic Routing Encapsulation Tunnel provisioned over the There is a Generic Routing Encapsulation Tunnel provisioned over the
peering point. In this case, the interconnection I1 between AD-1 and peering point. In this case, the interconnection I1 between AD-1 and
AD-2 in Figure 1 is multicast enabled via a Generic Routing AD-2 in Figure 1 is multicast enabled via a Generic Routing
Encapsulation Tunnel (GRE) [RFC2784] and encapsulating the multicast Encapsulation Tunnel (GRE) [RFC2784] and encapsulating the multicast
protocols across the interface. The routing configuration is protocols across the interface. The routing configuration is
basically unchanged: Instead of BGP (SAFI2) across the native IP basically unchanged: Instead of BGP (SAFI2) across the native IP
multicast link between AD-1 and AD-2, BGP (SAFI2) is now run across multicast link between AD-1 and AD-2, BGP (SAFI2) is now run across
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Architectural guidelines for this configuration include the Architectural guidelines for this configuration include the
following: following:
Guidelines (a) through (d) are the same as those described in Use Guidelines (a) through (d) are the same as those described in Use
Case 3.1. Two additional guidelines are as follows: Case 3.1. Two additional guidelines are as follows:
e. GRE tunnels are typically configured manually between peering e. GRE tunnels are typically configured manually between peering
points to support multicast delivery between domains points to support multicast delivery between domains
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
f. It is recommended that the GRE tunnel (tunnel server) f. It is recommended that the GRE tunnel (tunnel server)
configuration in the source network is such that it only configuration in the source network is such that it only
advertises the routes to the application sources and not to the advertises the routes to the application sources and not to the
entire network. This practice will prevent unauthorized delivery entire network. This practice will prevent unauthorized delivery
of applications through the tunnel (e.g., if application - e.g., of applications through the tunnel (e.g., if application - e.g.,
content - is not part of an agreed inter-domain partnership). content - is not part of an agreed inter-domain partnership).
3.3. Peering Point Enabled with an AMT - Both Domains Multicast 3.3. Peering Point Enabled with an AMT - Both Domains Multicast
Enabled Enabled
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Figure 2 - AMT Interconnection between AD-1 and AD-2 Figure 2 - AMT Interconnection between AD-1 and AD-2
Advantages of this configuration: Advantages of this configuration:
o Highly efficient use of bandwidth in AD-1. o Highly efficient use of bandwidth in AD-1.
o AMT is an existing technology and is relatively simple to o AMT is an existing technology and is relatively simple to
implement. Attractive properties of AMT include the following: implement. Attractive properties of AMT include the following:
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
o Dynamic interconnection between Gateway-Relay pair across o Dynamic interconnection between Gateway-Relay pair across
the peering point. the peering point.
o Ability to serve clients and servers with differing o Ability to serve clients and servers with differing
policies. policies.
Disadvantages of this configuration: Disadvantages of this configuration:
o Per Use Case 3.1 (AD-2 is native multicast), current router o Per Use Case 3.1 (AD-2 is native multicast), current router
technology cannot count the number of end users or the number of technology cannot count the number of end users or the number of
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across the peering points once the Gateway in AD-2 receives the across the peering points once the Gateway in AD-2 receives the
(S, G) information from the EU. (S, G) information from the EU.
3.4. Peering Point Enabled with an AMT - AD-2 Not Multicast Enabled 3.4. Peering Point Enabled with an AMT - AD-2 Not Multicast Enabled
In this AMT Use Case, the second administrative domain AD-2 is not In this AMT Use Case, the second administrative domain AD-2 is not
multicast enabled. This implies that the interconnection between AD- multicast enabled. This implies that the interconnection between AD-
2 and the End User is also not multicast enabled as depicted in 2 and the End User is also not multicast enabled as depicted in
Figure 3. Figure 3.
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
------------------- ------------------- ------------------- -------------------
/ AD-1 \ / AD-2 \ / AD-1 \ / AD-2 \
/ (Multicast Enabled) \ / (Non-Multicast \ / (Multicast Enabled) \ / (Non-Multicast \
/ \ / Enabled) \ / \ / Enabled) \
| +----+ | | | | +----+ | | |
| | | +------+ | | | +----+ | | | +------+ | | | +----+
| | AS |------>| AR |-|---------|-----------------------|-->|EU/G| | | AS |------>| AR |-|---------|-----------------------|-->|EU/G|
| | | +------+ | | |I2 +----+ | | | +------+ | | |I2 +----+
\ +----+ / \ / \ +----+ / \ /
\ / \ / \ / \ /
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o Dynamic interconnection between Gateway-Relay pair across o Dynamic interconnection between Gateway-Relay pair across
the peering point. the peering point.
o Ability to serve clients and servers with differing o Ability to serve clients and servers with differing
policies. policies.
o Each AMT tunnel serves as a count for each End User and is also o Each AMT tunnel serves as a count for each End User and is also
able to track data usage (bytes) delivered to the EU. able to track data usage (bytes) delivered to the EU.
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
Disadvantages of this configuration: Disadvantages of this configuration:
o Additional devices (AMT Gateway and Relay pairs) are introduced o Additional devices (AMT Gateway and Relay pairs) are introduced
into the transport path. into the transport path.
o Assuming multiple peering points between the domains, the EU o Assuming multiple peering points between the domains, the EU
Gateway needs to be able to find the "correct" AMT Relay in AD- Gateway needs to be able to find the "correct" AMT Relay in AD-
1. 1.
Architectural guidelines for this configuration are as follows: Architectural guidelines for this configuration are as follows:
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G) information to the Gateway for this purpose. G) information to the Gateway for this purpose.
e. The AMT tunnel capabilities are expected to be sufficient for e. The AMT tunnel capabilities are expected to be sufficient for
the purpose of collecting relevant information on the multicast the purpose of collecting relevant information on the multicast
streams delivered to End Users in AD-2. streams delivered to End Users in AD-2.
3.5. AD-2 Not Multicast Enabled - Multiple AMT Tunnels Through AD-2 3.5. AD-2 Not Multicast Enabled - Multiple AMT Tunnels Through AD-2
This is a variation of Use Case 3.4 as follows: This is a variation of Use Case 3.4 as follows:
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
------------------- ------------------- ------------------- -------------------
/ AD-1 \ / AD-2 \ / AD-1 \ / AD-2 \
/ (Multicast Enabled) \ / (Non-Multicast \ / (Multicast Enabled) \ / (Non-Multicast \
/ \ / Enabled) \ / \ / Enabled) \
| +----+ | |+--+ +--+ | | +----+ | |+--+ +--+ |
| | | +------+ | ||AG| |AG| | +----+ | | | +------+ | ||AG| |AG| | +----+
| | AS |------>| AR |-|-------->||AR|------------->|AR|-|-->|EU/G| | | AS |------>| AR |-|-------->||AR|------------->|AR|-|-->|EU/G|
| | | +------+ | I1 ||1 | I2 |2 | |I3 +----+ | | | +------+ | I1 ||1 | I2 |2 | |I3 +----+
\ +----+ / \+--+ +--+ / \ +----+ / \+--+ +--+ /
\ / \ / \ / \ /
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o Provisioning of strategically located AMT nodes at the edges of o Provisioning of strategically located AMT nodes at the edges of
AD-2. An AMT node comprises co-location of an AMT Gateway and an AD-2. An AMT node comprises co-location of an AMT Gateway and an
AMT Relay. One such node is at the AD-2 side of the peering point AMT Relay. One such node is at the AD-2 side of the peering point
(node AGAR1 in Figure 4). (node AGAR1 in Figure 4).
o Single AMT tunnel established across peering point linking AMT o Single AMT tunnel established across peering point linking AMT
Relay in AD-1 to the AMT Gateway in the AMT node AGAR1 in AD-2. Relay in AD-1 to the AMT Gateway in the AMT node AGAR1 in AD-2.
o AMT tunnels linking AMT node AGAR1 at peering point in AD-2 to o AMT tunnels linking AMT node AGAR1 at peering point in AD-2 to
other AMT nodes located at the edges of AD-2: e.g., AMT tunnel I2 other AMT nodes located at the edges of AD-2: e.g., AMT tunnel I2
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
linking AMT Relay in AGAR1 to AMT Gateway in AMT node AGAR2 in linking AMT Relay in AGAR1 to AMT Gateway in AMT node AGAR2 in
Figure 4. Figure 4.
o AMT tunnels linking EU device (via Gateway client embedded in o AMT tunnels linking EU device (via Gateway client embedded in
device) and AMT Relay in appropriate AMT node at edge of AD-2: device) and AMT Relay in appropriate AMT node at edge of AD-2:
e.g., I3 linking EU Gateway in device to AMT Relay in AMT node e.g., I3 linking EU Gateway in device to AMT Relay in AMT node
AGAR2. AGAR2.
The advantage for such a chained set of AMT tunnels is that the The advantage for such a chained set of AMT tunnels is that the
total number of unicast streams across AD-2 is significantly reduced total number of unicast streams across AD-2 is significantly reduced
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4. Supporting Functionality 4. Supporting Functionality
Supporting functions and related interfaces over the peering point Supporting functions and related interfaces over the peering point
that enable the multicast transport of the application are listed in that enable the multicast transport of the application are listed in
this section. Critical information parameters that need to be this section. Critical information parameters that need to be
exchanged in support of these functions are enumerated along with exchanged in support of these functions are enumerated along with
guidelines as appropriate. Specific interface functions for guidelines as appropriate. Specific interface functions for
consideration are as follows. consideration are as follows.
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
4.1. Network Interconnection Transport and Security Guidelines 4.1. Network Interconnection Transport and Security Guidelines
The term "Network Interconnection Transport" refers to the The term "Network Interconnection Transport" refers to the
interconnection points between the two Administrative Domains. The interconnection points between the two Administrative Domains. The
following is a representative set of attributes that will need to be following is a representative set of attributes that will need to be
agreed to between the two administrative domains to support agreed to between the two administrative domains to support
multicast delivery. multicast delivery.
o Number of Peering Points o Number of Peering Points
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o Connection Mode - Direct connectivity between the two AD's or via o Connection Mode - Direct connectivity between the two AD's or via
another ISP another ISP
o Peering Point Protocol Support - Multicast protocols that will be o Peering Point Protocol Support - Multicast protocols that will be
used for multicast delivery will need to be supported at these used for multicast delivery will need to be supported at these
points. Examples of protocols include eBGP [RFC4271] and MBGP points. Examples of protocols include eBGP [RFC4271] and MBGP
[RFC4271]. [RFC4271].
o Bandwidth Allocation - If shared with other services, then there o Bandwidth Allocation - If shared with other services, then there
needs to be a determination of the share of bandwidth reserved needs to be a determination of the share of bandwidth reserved
for multicast delivery. for multicast delivery. When determining the appropriate
bandwidth allocation, parties should consider that design of a
multicast protocol suitable for live video streaming which is
consistent with Congestion Control Principles [BCP41], especially
in the presence of potentially malicious receivers, is still an
open research problem.
o QoS Requirements - Delay/latency specifications that need to be o QoS Requirements - Delay/latency specifications that need to be
specified in an SLA. specified in an SLA.
o AD Roles and Responsibilities - the role played by each AD for o AD Roles and Responsibilities - the role played by each AD for
provisioning and maintaining the set of peering points to support provisioning and maintaining the set of peering points to support
multicast delivery. multicast delivery.
4.2. Routing Aspects and Related Guidelines 4.2. Routing Aspects and Related Guidelines
The main objective for multicast delivery routing is to ensure that The main objective for multicast delivery routing is to ensure that
the End User receives the multicast stream from the "most optimal" the End User receives the multicast stream from the "most optimal"
source [INF_ATIS_10] which typically: source [INF_ATIS_10] which typically:
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
o Maximizes the multicast portion of the transport and minimizes o Maximizes the multicast portion of the transport and minimizes
any unicast portion of the delivery, and any unicast portion of the delivery, and
o Minimizes the overall combined network(s) route distance. o Minimizes the overall combined network(s) route distance.
This routing objective applies to both Native and AMT; the actual This routing objective applies to both Native and AMT; the actual
methodology of the solution will be different for each. Regardless, methodology of the solution will be different for each. Regardless,
the routing solution is expected to be: the routing solution is expected to be:
o Scalable o Scalable
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4.2.1 Native Multicast Routing Aspects 4.2.1 Native Multicast Routing Aspects
Native multicast simply requires that the Administrative Domains Native multicast simply requires that the Administrative Domains
coordinate and advertise the correct source address(es) at their coordinate and advertise the correct source address(es) at their
network interconnection peering points(i.e., border routers). An network interconnection peering points(i.e., border routers). An
example of multicast delivery via a Native Multicast process across example of multicast delivery via a Native Multicast process across
two administrative Domains is as follows assuming that the two administrative Domains is as follows assuming that the
interconnecting peering points are also multicast enabled: interconnecting peering points are also multicast enabled:
o Appropriate information is obtained by the EU client who is a o Appropriate information is obtained by the EU client who is a
subscriber to AD-2 (see Use Case 3.1). This is usually done via subscriber to AD-2 (see Use Case 3.1). This information is in
an appropriate file transfer - this file is typically known as the form of metadata and it contains instructions directing the
the manifest file. It contains instructions directing the EU EU client to launch an appropriate application if necessary, and
client to launch an appropriate application if necessary, and
also additional information for the application about the source also additional information for the application about the source
location and the group (or stream) id in the form of the "S,G" location and the group (or stream) id in the form of the "S,G"
data. The "S" portion provides the name or IP address of the data. The "S" portion provides the name or IP address of the
source of the multicast stream. The file may also contain source of the multicast stream. The metadata may also contain
alternate delivery information such as specifying the unicast alternate delivery information such as specifying the unicast
address of the stream. address of the stream.
o The client uses the join message with S,G to join the multicast o The client uses the join message with S,G to join the multicast
stream [RFC4604]. stream [RFC4604].
To facilitate this process, the two AD's need to do the following: To facilitate this process, the two AD's need to do the following:
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
o Advertise the source id(s) over the Peering Points o Advertise the source id(s) over the Peering Points
o Exchange relevant Peering Point information such as Capacity and o Exchange relevant Peering Point information such as Capacity and
Utilization (Other??) Utilization (Other??)
o Implement compatible multicast protocols to ensure proper o Implement compatible multicast protocols to ensure proper
multicast delivery across the peering points. multicast delivery across the peering points.
4.2.2 GRE Tunnel over Interconnecting Peering Point 4.2.2 GRE Tunnel over Interconnecting Peering Point
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o AMT Relays: These serve the purpose of tunneling UDP multicast o AMT Relays: These serve the purpose of tunneling UDP multicast
traffic to the receivers (i.e., End Points). The AMT Relay will traffic to the receivers (i.e., End Points). The AMT Relay will
receive the traffic natively from the multicast media source and receive the traffic natively from the multicast media source and
will replicate the stream on behalf of the downstream AMT will replicate the stream on behalf of the downstream AMT
Gateways, encapsulating the multicast packets into unicast Gateways, encapsulating the multicast packets into unicast
packets and sending them over the tunnel toward the AMT Gateway. packets and sending them over the tunnel toward the AMT Gateway.
In addition, the AMT Relay may perform various usage and In addition, the AMT Relay may perform various usage and
activity statistics collection. This results in moving the activity statistics collection. This results in moving the
replication point closer to the end user, and cuts down on replication point closer to the end user, and cuts down on
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
traffic across the network. Thus, the linear costs of adding traffic across the network. Thus, the linear costs of adding
unicast subscribers can be avoided. However, unicast replication unicast subscribers can be avoided. However, unicast replication
is still required for each requesting endpoint within the is still required for each requesting endpoint within the
unicast-only network. unicast-only network.
o AMT Gateway (GW): The Gateway will reside on an on End-Point - o AMT Gateway (GW): The Gateway will reside on an on End-Point -
this may be a Personal Computer (PC) or a Set Top Box (STB). The this may be a Personal Computer (PC) or a Set Top Box (STB). The
AMT Gateway receives join and leave requests from the AMT Gateway receives join and leave requests from the
Application via an Application Programming Interface (API). In Application via an Application Programming Interface (API). In
this manner, the Gateway allows the endpoint to conduct itself this manner, the Gateway allows the endpoint to conduct itself
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an optimal solution in terms of scalability. an optimal solution in terms of scalability.
Use Cases 3.4 and 3.5 describe more complicated AMT situations as Use Cases 3.4 and 3.5 describe more complicated AMT situations as
AD-2 is not multicast enabled. For these cases, the End User device AD-2 is not multicast enabled. For these cases, the End User device
needs to be able to setup an AMT tunnel in the most optimal manner. needs to be able to setup an AMT tunnel in the most optimal manner.
Using an Anycast IP address for AMT Relays allows for all AMT Using an Anycast IP address for AMT Relays allows for all AMT
Gateways to find the "closest" AMT Relay - the nearest edge of the Gateways to find the "closest" AMT Relay - the nearest edge of the
multicast topology of the source. An example of a basic delivery multicast topology of the source. An example of a basic delivery
via an AMT Multicast process for these two Use Cases is as follows: via an AMT Multicast process for these two Use Cases is as follows:
o The manifest file is obtained by the EU client application. This o Appropriate metadata is obtained by the EU client application. The
file contains instructions directing the EU client to an ordered metadata contains instructions directing the EU client to an
list of particular destinations to seek the requested stream and, ordered list of particular destinations to seek the requested
for multicast, specifies the source location and the group (or stream and, for multicast, specifies the source location and the
stream) ID in the form of the "S,G" data. The "S" portion provides group (or stream) ID in the form of the "S,G" data. The "S"
the URI (name or IP address) of the source of the multicast stream portion provides the URI (name or IP address) of the source of the
and the "G" identifies the particular stream originated by that multicast stream and the "G" identifies the particular stream
source. The manifest file may also contain alternate delivery originated by that source. The metadata may also contain alternate
information such as the address of the unicast form of the content delivery information such as the address of the unicast form of
to be used, for example, if the multicast stream becomes the content to be used, for example, if the multicast stream
unavailable. becomes unavailable.
o Using the information in the manifest file, and possibly IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
information provisioned directly in the EU client, a DNS query is
initiated in order to connect the EU client/AMT Gateway to an AMT o Using the information from the metadata, and possibly information
Relay. provisioned directly in the EU client, a DNS query is initiated in
order to connect the EU client/AMT Gateway to an AMT Relay.
o Query results are obtained, and may return an Anycast address or a o Query results are obtained, and may return an Anycast address or a
specific unicast address of a relay. Multiple relays will specific unicast address of a relay. Multiple relays will
typically exist. The Anycast address is a routable "pseudo- typically exist. The Anycast address is a routable "pseudo-
address" shared among the relays that can gain multicast access to address" shared among the relays that can gain multicast access to
the source. the source.
o If a specific IP address unique to a relay was not obtained, the o If a specific IP address unique to a relay was not obtained, the
AMT Gateway then sends a message (e.g., the discovery message) to AMT Gateway then sends a message (e.g., the discovery message) to
the Anycast address such that the network is making the routing the Anycast address such that the network is making the routing
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to the EU. to the EU.
Note: Further routing discussion on optimal method to find "best AMT Note: Further routing discussion on optimal method to find "best AMT
Relay/GW combination" and information exchange between AD's to be Relay/GW combination" and information exchange between AD's to be
provided. provided.
4.3. Back Office Functions - Provisioning and Logging Guidelines 4.3. Back Office Functions - Provisioning and Logging Guidelines
Back Office refers to the following: Back Office refers to the following:
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o Servers and Content Management systems that support the delivery o Servers and Content Management systems that support the delivery
of applications via multicast and interactions between ADs. of applications via multicast and interactions between ADs.
o Functionality associated with logging, reporting, ordering, o Functionality associated with logging, reporting, ordering,
provisioning, maintenance, service assurance, settlement, etc. provisioning, maintenance, service assurance, settlement, etc.
4.3.1 Provisioning Guidelines 4.3.1 Provisioning Guidelines
Resources for basic connectivity between ADs Providers need to be Resources for basic connectivity between ADs Providers need to be
provisioned as follows: provisioned as follows:
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all supporting back-offices of the ADs as appropriate. This all supporting back-offices of the ADs as appropriate. This
includes activating proper security treatment for these back- includes activating proper security treatment for these back-
office connections (gateways, firewalls, etc) as appropriate. office connections (gateways, firewalls, etc) as appropriate.
o Routing protocols as needed, e.g. configuring routers to support o Routing protocols as needed, e.g. configuring routers to support
these. these.
Provisioning aspects related to Multicast-Based inter-domain Provisioning aspects related to Multicast-Based inter-domain
delivery are as follows. delivery are as follows.
The ability to receive requested application via multicast is The ability to receive requested application via multicast is
triggered via the manifest file. Hence, this file must be provided triggered via receipt of the necessary metadata. Hence, this
to the EU regarding multicast URL - and unicast fallback if metadata must be provided to the EU regarding multicast URL - and
applicable. AD-2 must build manifest and provision capability to unicast fallback if applicable. AD-2 must enable the delivery of
provide the file to the EU. this metadata to the EU and provision appropriate resources for this
purpose.
Native multicast functionality is assumed to be available across Native multicast functionality is assumed to be available across
many ISP backbones, peering and access networks. If however, native many ISP backbones, peering and access networks. If however, native
multicast is not an option (Use Cases 3.4 and 3.5), then: multicast is not an option (Use Cases 3.4 and 3.5), then:
o EU must have multicast client to use AMT multicast obtained either o EU must have multicast client to use AMT multicast obtained either
from Application Source (per agreement with AD-1) or from AD-1 or from Application Source (per agreement with AD-1) or from AD-1 or
AD-2 (if delegated by the Application Source). AD-2 (if delegated by the Application Source).
o If provided by AD-1/AD-2, then the EU could be redirected to a o If provided by AD-1/AD-2, then the EU could be redirected to a
client download site (note: this could be an Application Source client download site (note: this could be an Application Source
site). If provided by the Application Source, then this Source site). If provided by the Application Source, then this Source
would have to coordinate with AD-1 to ensure the proper client is would have to coordinate with AD-1 to ensure the proper client is
provided (assuming multiple possible clients). provided (assuming multiple possible clients).
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
o Where AMT Gateways support different application sets, all AD-2 o Where AMT Gateways support different application sets, all AD-2
AMT Relays need to be provisioned with all source & group AMT Relays need to be provisioned with all source & group
addresses for streams it is allowed to join. addresses for streams it is allowed to join.
o DNS across each AD must be provisioned to enable a client GW to o DNS across each AD must be provisioned to enable a client GW to
locate the optimal AMT Relay (i.e. longest multicast path and locate the optimal AMT Relay (i.e. longest multicast path and
shortest unicast tunnel) with connectivity to the content's shortest unicast tunnel) with connectivity to the content's
multicast source. multicast source.
Provisioning Aspects Related to Operations and Customer Care are Provisioning Aspects Related to Operations and Customer Care are
stated as follows. stated as follows.
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associated with the account(s) utilized for delivered applications. associated with the account(s) utilized for delivered applications.
Supporting guidelines are as follows: Supporting guidelines are as follows:
o A unique identifier is recommended to designate each master o A unique identifier is recommended to designate each master
account. account.
o AD-2 is expected to set up "accounts" (logical facility generally o AD-2 is expected to set up "accounts" (logical facility generally
protected by login/password/credentials) for use by AD-1. Multiple protected by login/password/credentials) for use by AD-1. Multiple
accounts and multiple types/partitions of accounts can apply, e.g. accounts and multiple types/partitions of accounts can apply, e.g.
customer accounts, security accounts, etc. customer accounts, security accounts, etc.
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
4.3.3 Log Management Guidelines 4.3.3 Log Management Guidelines
Successful delivery of applications via multicast between pairs of Successful delivery of applications via multicast between pairs of
interconnecting ADs requires that appropriate logs will be exchanged interconnecting ADs requires that appropriate logs will be exchanged
between them in support. Associated guidelines are as follows. between them in support. Associated guidelines are as follows.
AD-2 needs to supply logs to AD-1 per existing contract(s). Examples AD-2 needs to supply logs to AD-1 per existing contract(s). Examples
of log types include the following: of log types include the following:
o Usage information logs at aggregate level. o Usage information logs at aggregate level.
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agreement) agreement)
4.4. Operations - Service Performance and Monitoring Guidelines 4.4. Operations - Service Performance and Monitoring Guidelines
Service Performance refers to monitoring metrics related to Service Performance refers to monitoring metrics related to
multicast delivery via probes. The focus is on the service provided multicast delivery via probes. The focus is on the service provided
by AD-2 to AD-1 on behalf of all multicast application sources by AD-2 to AD-1 on behalf of all multicast application sources
(metrics may be specified for SLA use or otherwise). Associated (metrics may be specified for SLA use or otherwise). Associated
guidelines are as follows: guidelines are as follows:
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
o Both AD's are expected to monitor, collect, and analyze service o Both AD's are expected to monitor, collect, and analyze service
performance metrics for multicast applications. AD-2 provides performance metrics for multicast applications. AD-2 provides
relevant performance information to AD-1; this enables AD-1 to relevant performance information to AD-1; this enables AD-1 to
create an end-to-end performance view on behalf of the multicast create an end-to-end performance view on behalf of the multicast
application source. application source.
o Both AD's are expected to agree on the type of probes to be used o Both AD's are expected to agree on the type of probes to be used
to monitor multicast delivery performance. For example, AD-2 may to monitor multicast delivery performance. For example, AD-2 may
permit AD-1's probes to be utilized in the AD-2 multicast service permit AD-1's probes to be utilized in the AD-2 multicast service
footprint. Alternately, AD-2 may deploy its own probes and relay footprint. Alternately, AD-2 may deploy its own probes and relay
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for the AMT Use Cases, one or more AMT Relays may be experiencing for the AMT Use Cases, one or more AMT Relays may be experiencing
difficulties. AD-2 may be able to fix the problem by rerouting difficulties. AD-2 may be able to fix the problem by rerouting
the multicast streams via alternate AMT Relays. If the fix is not the multicast streams via alternate AMT Relays. If the fix is not
successful and multicast service delivery degrades, then AD-2 successful and multicast service delivery degrades, then AD-2
needs to report the issue to AD-1. needs to report the issue to AD-1.
o When problem notification is received from a multicast o When problem notification is received from a multicast
application source, AD-1 determines whether the cause of the application source, AD-1 determines whether the cause of the
problem is within its own network or within the AD-2 domain. If problem is within its own network or within the AD-2 domain. If
the cause is within the AD-2 domain, then AD-1 supplies all the cause is within the AD-2 domain, then AD-1 supplies all
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
necessary information to AD-2. Examples of supporting information necessary information to AD-2. Examples of supporting information
include the following: include the following:
o Kind of problem(s) o Kind of problem(s)
o Starting point & duration of problem(s). o Starting point & duration of problem(s).
o Conditions in which problem(s) occur. o Conditions in which problem(s) occur.
o IP address blocks of affected users. o IP address blocks of affected users.
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o Analysis of relevant network fault or performance data. o Analysis of relevant network fault or performance data.
o Analysis of the problem information provided by the customer o Analysis of the problem information provided by the customer
(CP). (CP).
o Once the cause of the problem has been determined and the problem o Once the cause of the problem has been determined and the problem
has been fixed, both AD's need to work jointly to verify and has been fixed, both AD's need to work jointly to verify and
validate the success of the fix. validate the success of the fix.
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
o Faults in service could lead to SLA violation for which the o Faults in service could lead to SLA violation for which the
multicast application source provider may have to be compensated multicast application source provider may have to be compensated
by AD-1. Subsequently, AD-1 may have to be compensated by AD-2 by AD-1. Subsequently, AD-1 may have to be compensated by AD-2
based on the contract. based on the contract.
4.5. Client Reliability Models/Service Assurance Guidelines 4.5. Client Reliability Models/Service Assurance Guidelines
There are multiple options for instituting reliability There are multiple options for instituting reliability
architectures, most are at the application level. Both AD's should architectures, most are at the application level. Both AD's should
work those out with their contract/agreement and with the multicast work those out with their contract/agreement and with the multicast
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access to commonly-used multicast troubleshooting commands in a access to commonly-used multicast troubleshooting commands in a
secure manner. secure manner.
The specifics of the notification and alerts are beyond the scope of The specifics of the notification and alerts are beyond the scope of
this document, but general guidelines are similar to those described this document, but general guidelines are similar to those described
in section 4.4 (Service Performance and Monitoring). Some general in section 4.4 (Service Performance and Monitoring). Some general
communications issues are stated as follows. communications issues are stated as follows.
o Appropriate communications channels will be established between o Appropriate communications channels will be established between
the customer service and operations groups from both AD's to the customer service and operations groups from both AD's to
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
facilitate information sharing related to diagnostic facilitate information sharing related to diagnostic
troubleshooting. troubleshooting.
o A default resolution period may be considered to resolve open o A default resolution period may be considered to resolve open
issues. Alternately, mutually acceptable resolution periods issues. Alternately, mutually acceptable resolution periods
could be established depending on the severity of the could be established depending on the severity of the
identified trouble. identified trouble.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
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normal operations of a CDN to insure end user reliability, security normal operations of a CDN to insure end user reliability, security
and network security. and network security.
AD-1 and AD-2 should have mechanisms in place to ensure proper AD-1 and AD-2 should have mechanisms in place to ensure proper
accounting for the volume of bytes delivered through the peering accounting for the volume of bytes delivered through the peering
point and separately the number of bytes delivered to EUs. For point and separately the number of bytes delivered to EUs. For
example, [BCP38] style filtering could be deployed by both AD's to example, [BCP38] style filtering could be deployed by both AD's to
ensure that only legitimately sourced multicast content is exchanged ensure that only legitimately sourced multicast content is exchanged
between them. between them.
If there are problems related to failure of token authentication Authentication and authorization of EU to receive multicast content
when end-users are supported by AD-2, then some means of validating is done at the application layer between the client application and
the source. This may involve some kind of token authentication and
is done at the application layer independently of the two AD's. If
there are problems related to failure of token authentication when
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
end-users are supported by AD-2, then some means of validating
proper working of the token authentication process (e.g., back-end proper working of the token authentication process (e.g., back-end
servers querying the multicast application source provider's token servers querying the multicast application source provider's token
authentication server are communicating properly) should be authentication server are communicating properly) should be
considered. Details will have to be worked out during implementation considered. Implementation details are beyond the scope of this
(e.g., test tokens or trace token exchange process). document.
7. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
8. Conclusions 8. Conclusions
This Best Current Practice document provides detailed Use Case This Best Current Practice document provides detailed Use Case
scenarios for the transmission of applications via multicast across scenarios for the transmission of applications via multicast across
peering points between two Administrative Domains. A detailed set of peering points between two Administrative Domains. A detailed set of
guidelines supporting the delivery is provided for all Use Cases. guidelines supporting the delivery is provided for all Use Cases.
For Use Cases involving AMT tunnels (cases 3.4 and 3.5), it is For Use Cases involving AMT tunnels (cases 3.4 and 3.5), it is
recommended that proper procedures are implemented such that the recommended that proper procedures are implemented such that the
various AMT Gateways (at the End User devices and the AMT nodes in various AMT Gateways (at the End User devices and the AMT nodes in
skipping to change at page 27, line 37 skipping to change at page 28, line 5
RFC 3618, October 2003 RFC 3618, October 2003
[RFC4271] Y. Rekhter, et al, "A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", [RFC4271] Y. Rekhter, et al, "A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)",
RFC 4271, January 2006 RFC 4271, January 2006
[RFC4604] H. Holbrook, et al, "Using Internet Group Management [RFC4604] H. Holbrook, et al, "Using Internet Group Management
Protocol Version 3 (IGMPv3) and Multicast Listener Discovery Protocol Version 3 (IGMPv3) and Multicast Listener Discovery
Protocol Version 2 (MLDv2) for Source Specific Multicast", RFC 4604, Protocol Version 2 (MLDv2) for Source Specific Multicast", RFC 4604,
August 2006 August 2006
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
[RFC4607] H. Holbrook, et al, "Source Specific Multicast", RFC 4607, [RFC4607] H. Holbrook, et al, "Source Specific Multicast", RFC 4607,
August 2006 August 2006
[RFC4609] P. Savola, et al, "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse
Mode (PIM-SM) Multicast Routing Security Issues and Enhancements",
RFC 4609, August 2006
[RFC7450] G. Bumgardner, "Automatic Multicast Tunneling", RFC 7450, [RFC7450] G. Bumgardner, "Automatic Multicast Tunneling", RFC 7450,
February 2015 February 2015
[BCP38] P. Ferguson, et al, "Network Ingress Filtering: Defeating [BCP38] P. Ferguson, et al, "Network Ingress Filtering: Defeating
Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source Address Spoofing", Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source Address Spoofing",
BCP: 38, May 2000 BCP: 38, May 2000
[draft-acg] M. Abrahamsson, et al, "Multicast Service Models", [BCP41] S. Floyd, "Congestion Control Principles", BCP 41, September
draft-acg-mboned-multicast-models-00, July 2017, Work in progress 2000
9.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[INF_ATIS_10] "CDN Interconnection Use Cases and Requirements in a [INF_ATIS_10] "CDN Interconnection Use Cases and Requirements in a
Multi-Party Federation Environment", ATIS Standard A-0200010, Multi-Party Federation Environment", ATIS Standard A-0200010,
December 2012 December 2012
[MDH-04] D. Thaler, et al, "Multicast Debugging Handbook", IETF I-D [MDH-04] D. Thaler, et al, "Multicast Debugging Handbook", IETF I-D
draft-ietf-mboned-mdh-04.txt, May 2000 [Traceroute] draft-ietf-mboned-mdh-04.txt, May 2000 [Traceroute]
http://traceroute.org/#source%20code http://traceroute.org/#source%20code
10. Acknowledgments 10. Acknowledgments
IETF I-D Multicast Across Inter-Domain Peering Points September 2016
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Percy S. Tarapore Percy S. Tarapore
AT&T AT&T
Phone: 1-732-420-4172 Phone: 1-732-420-4172
Email: tarapore@att.com Email: tarapore@att.com
Robert Sayko Robert Sayko
AT&T AT&T
Phone: 1-732-420-3292 Phone: 1-732-420-3292
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