draft-ietf-mboned-ieee802-mcast-problems-01.txt   draft-ietf-mboned-ieee802-mcast-problems-02.txt 
Internet Area C. Perkins Internet Area C. Perkins
Internet-Draft M. McBride Internet-Draft M. McBride
Intended status: Informational Futurewei Intended status: Informational Futurewei
Expires: August 7, 2018 D. Stanley Expires: February 18, 2019 D. Stanley
HPE HPE
W. Kumari W. Kumari
Google Google
JC. Zuniga JC. Zuniga
SIGFOX SIGFOX
February 3, 2018 August 17, 2018
Multicast Considerations over IEEE 802 Wireless Media Multicast Considerations over IEEE 802 Wireless Media
draft-ietf-mboned-ieee802-mcast-problems-01 draft-ietf-mboned-ieee802-mcast-problems-02
Abstract Abstract
Well-known issues with multicast have prevented the deployment of Well-known issues with multicast have prevented the deployment of
multicast in 802.11 [dot11], [mc-props], [mc-prob-stmt], and other multicast in 802.11 [dot11], [mc-props], [mc-prob-stmt], and other
local-area wireless environments. IETF multicast experts have been local-area wireless environments. IETF multicast experts have been
meeting together to discuss these issues and provide IEEE updates. meeting together to discuss these issues and provide IEEE updates.
The mboned working group is chartered to receive regular reports on The mboned working group is chartered to receive regular reports on
the current state of the deployment of multicast technology, create the current state of the deployment of multicast technology, create
"practice and experience" documents that capture the experience of "practice and experience" documents that capture the experience of
skipping to change at page 2, line 4 skipping to change at page 2, line 4
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 7, 2018. This Internet-Draft will expire on February 18, 2019.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Identified mulitcast issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Identified mulitcast issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. Issues at Layer 2 and Below . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. Issues at Layer 2 and Below . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.1. Multicast reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1.1. Multicast reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.2. Lower and Variable Data Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1.2. Lower and Variable Data Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.3. High Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1.3. High Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1.4. Power-save Effects on Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1.4. Power-save Effects on Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2. Issues at Layer 3 and Above . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2. Issues at Layer 3 and Above . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.2.1. IPv4 issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2.1. IPv4 issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.2.2. IPv6 issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2.2. IPv6 issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2.3. MLD issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2.3. MLD issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2.4. Spurious Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2.4. Spurious Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4. Multicast protocol optimizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4. Multicast protocol optimizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1. Proxy ARP in 802.11-2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.1. Proxy ARP in 802.11-2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.2. IPv6 Address Registration and Proxy Neighbor Discovery . 10 4.2. IPv6 Address Registration and Proxy Neighbor Discovery . 10
4.3. Buffering to improve Power-Save . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.3. Buffering to Improve Battery Life . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.4. IPv6 support in 802.11-2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.4. IPv6 support in 802.11-2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.5. Conversion of multicast to unicast . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.5. Conversion of multicast to unicast . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.6. Directed Multicast Service (DMS) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.6. Directed Multicast Service (DMS) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.7. GroupCast with Retries (GCR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.7. GroupCast with Retries (GCR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5. Operational optimizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5. Operational optimizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.1. Mitigating Problems from Spurious Neighbor Discovery . . 14 5.1. Mitigating Problems from Spurious Neighbor Discovery . . 14
6. Multicast Considerations for Other Wireless Media . . . . . . 16 6. Multicast Considerations for Other Wireless Media . . . . . . 16
7. Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7. Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8. Discussion Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8. Discussion Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
12. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 12. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
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a second class citizen, to unicast, over wifi. There are many a second class citizen, to unicast, over wifi. There are many
protocols using multicast and there needs to be something provided in protocols using multicast and there needs to be something provided in
order to make them more reliable. The problem of IPv6 neighbor order to make them more reliable. The problem of IPv6 neighbor
discovery saturating the wifi link is only part of the problem. Wifi discovery saturating the wifi link is only part of the problem. Wifi
traffic classes may help. We need to determine what problem should traffic classes may help. We need to determine what problem should
be solved by the IETF and what problem should be solved by the IEEE be solved by the IETF and what problem should be solved by the IEEE
(see Section 8). A "multicast over wifi" IETF mailing list has been (see Section 8). A "multicast over wifi" IETF mailing list has been
formed (mcast-wifi@ietf.org) for further discussion. This draft will formed (mcast-wifi@ietf.org) for further discussion. This draft will
be updated according to the current state of discussion. be updated according to the current state of discussion.
This Internet Draft details various problems caused by multicast This document details various problems caused by multicast
transmission over wireless networks, including high packet error transmission over wireless networks, including high packet error
rates, no acknowledgements, and low data rate. It also explains some rates, no acknowledgements, and low data rate. It also explains some
enhancements that have been designed at IETF and IEEE 802, as well as enhancements that have been designed at IETF and IEEE 802 to
the operational choices that can be taken, to ameliorate the effects ameliorate the effects of multicast traffic. Recommendations are
of multicast traffic. Recommendations about how to use and combine also provided to implementors about how to use and combine these
these enhancements are also provided. enhancements. Some advice about the operational choices that can be
taken is also included. It is likely that this document will also be
considered relevant to designers of future IEEE wireless
specifications.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
This document uses the following definitions: This document uses the following definitions:
AP AP
IEEE 802.11 Access Point. IEEE 802.11 Access Point.
basic rate basic rate
The "lowest common denominator" data rate at which multicast and The "lowest common denominator" data rate at which multicast and
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the sender never backs off. It is not uncommon for there to be a the sender never backs off. It is not uncommon for there to be a
packet loss rate of 5% or more, which is particularly troublesome for packet loss rate of 5% or more, which is particularly troublesome for
video and other environments where high data rates and high video and other environments where high data rates and high
reliability are required. reliability are required.
3.1.2. Lower and Variable Data Rate 3.1.2. Lower and Variable Data Rate
One big difference between multicast over wired versus multicast over One big difference between multicast over wired versus multicast over
wired is that transmission over wired links often occurs at a fixed wired is that transmission over wired links often occurs at a fixed
rate. Wifi, on the other hand, has a transmission rate which varies rate. Wifi, on the other hand, has a transmission rate which varies
depending upon the clients proximity to the AP. The throughput of depending upon the client's proximity to the AP. The throughput of
video flows, and the capacity of the broader wifi network, will video flows, and the capacity of the broader wifi network, will
change and will impact the ability for QoS solutions to effectively change and will impact the ability for QoS solutions to effectively
reserve bandwidth and provide admission control. reserve bandwidth and provide admission control.
For wireless stations associated with an Access Points, the power For wireless stations associated with an Access Points, the power
necessary for good reception can vary from station to station. For necessary for good reception can vary from station to station. For
unicast, the goal is to minimize power requirements while maximizing unicast, the goal is to minimize power requirements while maximizing
the data rate to the destination. For multicast, the goal is simply the data rate to the destination. For multicast, the goal is simply
to maximize the number of receivers that will correctly receive the to maximize the number of receivers that will correctly receive the
multicast packet; generally the Access Point has to use a much lower multicast packet; generally the Access Point has to use a much lower
data rate at a power level high enough for even the farthest station data rate at a power level high enough for even the farthest station
to receive the packet. Consequently, the data rate of a video to receive the packet. Consequently, the data rate of a video
stream, for instance, would be constrained by the environmental stream, for instance, would be constrained by the environmental
considerations of the least reliable receiver associated with the considerations of the least reliable receiver associated with the
Access Point. Access Point.
Because more robust modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) have longer Because more robust modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) have longer
range but also lower data rate, multicast / broadcast traffic is range but also lower data rate, multicast / broadcast traffic is
generally transmitted at the lowest common denominator rate, also generally transmitted at the lowest common denominator rate, also
known as the basic rate. Depending on the specific 802.11 known as the basic rate. The amount of additional interference
technology, and the configured choice for the base data rate for depends on the specific wireless technology. In fact backward
multicast transmission from the Access Point, the amount of compatibility and multi-stream implementations mean that the maximum
additional interference can range from a factor of ten, to a factor unicast rates are currently up to a few Gb/s, so there can be a more
thousands for 802.11ac. than 3 orders of magnitude difference in the transmission rate
between the basic rates to optimal unicast forwarding. Some
techinues employed to increase spectral efficiency, such as spatial
multiplexing in mimo systems, are not available with more than one
intended reciever; it is not the case that backwards compatibility is
the only factor responsible for lower multicast transmission rates.
Wired multicast also affects wireless LANs when the AP extends the Wired multicast also affects wireless LANs when the AP extends the
wired segment; in that case, multicast / broadcast frames on the wired segment; in that case, multicast / broadcast frames on the
wired LAN side are copied to WLAN. Since broadcast messages are wired LAN side are copied to WLAN. Since broadcast messages are
transmitted at the most robust MCS, many large frames are sent at a transmitted at the most robust MCS, many large frames are sent at a
slow rate over the air. slow rate over the air.
3.1.3. High Interference 3.1.3. High Interference
Transmissions at a lower rate require longer occupancy of the Transmissions at a lower rate require longer occupancy of the
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The rate of these ARP requests is proportional to the size of the The rate of these ARP requests is proportional to the size of the
subnets, the rate of scanning and backscatter, and how long the subnets, the rate of scanning and backscatter, and how long the
router keeps state on non-responding ARPs. As it turns out, this router keeps state on non-responding ARPs. As it turns out, this
rate is inversely proportional to how occupied the subnet is (valid rate is inversely proportional to how occupied the subnet is (valid
ARPs end up in a cache, stopping the broadcasting; unused IPs never ARPs end up in a cache, stopping the broadcasting; unused IPs never
respond, and so cause more broadcasts). Depending on the address respond, and so cause more broadcasts). Depending on the address
space in use, the time of day, how occupied the subnet is, and other space in use, the time of day, how occupied the subnet is, and other
unknown factors, on the order of 2000 broadcasts per second have been unknown factors, on the order of 2000 broadcasts per second have been
observed at the IETF NOCs. observed at the IETF NOCs.
On a wired network, there is not a huge difference amongst unicast, On a wired network, there is not a huge difference between unicast,
multicast and broadcast traffic; but this is not true in the wireless multicast and broadcast traffic. Due to hardware filtering (see,
realm. Wireless equipment often is unable to send this amount of e.g., [Deri-2010]), inadvertently flooded traffic (or high amounts of
broadcast and multicast traffic. Consequently, on the wireless ethernet multicast) on wired networks can be quite a bit less costly,
networks, we observe a significant amount of dropped broadcast and compared to wireless cases where sleeping devices have to wake up to
multicast packets. This, in turn, means that when a host connects it process packets. Wired Ethernets tend to be switched networks,
is often not able to complete DHCP, and IPv6 RAs get dropped, leading further reducing interference from multicast. There is effectively
to users being unable to use the network. no collision / scheduling problem except at extremely high port
utilizations.
This is not true in the wireless realm; wireless equipment is often
unable to send high volumes of broadcast and multicast traffic.
Consequently, on the wireless networks, we observe a significant
amount of dropped broadcast and multicast packets. This, in turn,
means that when a host connects it is often not able to complete
DHCP, and IPv6 RAs get dropped, leading to users being unable to use
the network.
4. Multicast protocol optimizations 4. Multicast protocol optimizations
This section lists some optimizations that have been specified in This section lists some optimizations that have been specified in
IEEE 802 and IETF that are aimed at reducing or eliminating the IEEE 802 and IETF that are aimed at reducing or eliminating the
issues discussed in Section 3. issues discussed in Section 3.
4.1. Proxy ARP in 802.11-2012 4.1. Proxy ARP in 802.11-2012
The AP knows the MAC address and IP address for all associated STAs. The AP knows the MAC address and IP address for all associated STAs.
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An extension to the Neighbor Discovery Protocol is introduced to An extension to the Neighbor Discovery Protocol is introduced to
exchange that information across the Backbone Link in the reactive exchange that information across the Backbone Link in the reactive
fashion of mainstream IPv6 Neighbor Discovery. fashion of mainstream IPv6 Neighbor Discovery.
RFC6775 and follow-on work (e.g., [I-D.ietf-6lo-ap-nd], are designed RFC6775 and follow-on work (e.g., [I-D.ietf-6lo-ap-nd], are designed
to address the needs of LLNs, but the techniques are likely to be to address the needs of LLNs, but the techniques are likely to be
valuable on any type of link where sleeping devices are attached, or valuable on any type of link where sleeping devices are attached, or
where the use of broadcast and multicast operations should be where the use of broadcast and multicast operations should be
limited. limited.
4.3. Buffering to improve Power-Save 4.3. Buffering to Improve Battery Life
Methods have been developed to help save battery life; for example, a Methods have been developed to help save battery life; for example, a
device might not wake up when the AP receives a multicast packet. device might not wake up when the AP receives a multicast packet.
The AP acts on behalf of STAs in various ways. In order to improve The AP acts on behalf of STAs in various ways. To enable use of the
the power-saving feature for STAs in its BSS, the AP buffers frames power-saving feature for STAs in its BSS, the AP buffers frames for
for delivery to the STA at the time when the STA is scheduled for delivery to the STA at the time when the STA is scheduled for
reception. If an AP, for instance, expresses a DTIM of 3 then it reception. If an AP, for instance, expresses a DTIM (Delivery
will send a multicast packet every 3 packets. But the reality is Traffic Indication Message) of 3 then the AP will send a multicast
that most AP's will send a multicast every 30 packets. For unicast packet every 3 packets. In fact, when any single wireless client
there's a TIM. But because multicast is going to everyone, the AP associated with an access point has 802.11 power-save mode enabled,
sends a broadcast to everyone. DTIM does power management but the access point buffers all multicast frames and sends them only
clients can choose whether or not to wake up or not and whether or after the next DTIM beacon.
not to drop the packet. Unfortunately, without proper administrative
control, such clients may no longer be able to determine why their But in practice, most AP's will send a multicast every 30 packets.
multicast operations do not work. For unicast there's a TIM (Traffic Indication Message); but since
multicast is going to everyone, the AP sends a broadcast to everyone.
DTIM does power management but clients can choose whether or not to
wake up or not and whether or not to drop the packet. Unfortunately,
without proper administrative control, such clients may no longer be
able to determine why their multicast operations do not work.
4.4. IPv6 support in 802.11-2012 4.4. IPv6 support in 802.11-2012
IPv6 uses Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) instead of ARP. Every IPv6 uses Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) instead of ARP. Every
IPv6 node subscribes to a special multicast address for this purpose. IPv6 node subscribes to a special multicast address for this purpose.
Here is the specification language from clause 10.23.13 of Here is the specification language from clause 10.23.13 of
[dot11-proxyarp]: [dot11-proxyarp]:
"When an IPv6 address is being resolved, the Proxy Neighbor "When an IPv6 address is being resolved, the Proxy Neighbor
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of DMS: of DMS:
o Requires 802.11n A-MSDUs o Requires 802.11n A-MSDUs
o Individually addressed frames are acknowledged and are buffered o Individually addressed frames are acknowledged and are buffered
for power save clients for power save clients
o The requesting STA may specify traffic characteristics for DMS o The requesting STA may specify traffic characteristics for DMS
traffic traffic
o DMS was defined in IEEE Std 802.11v-2011 o DMS was defined in IEEE Std 802.11v-2011
o DMS requires changes to both AP and STA implementation. o DMS requires changes to both AP and STA implementation.
DMS is not currently implemented in products. DMS is not currently implemented in products. See [Tramarin2017] and
[Oliva2013] for more information.
4.7. GroupCast with Retries (GCR) 4.7. GroupCast with Retries (GCR)
GCR (defined in [dot11aa]) provides greater reliability by using GCR (defined in [dot11aa]) provides greater reliability by using
either unsolicited retries or a block acknowledgement mechanism. GCR either unsolicited retries or a block acknowledgement mechanism. GCR
increases probability of broadcast frame reception success, but still increases probability of broadcast frame reception success, but still
does not guarantee success. does not guarantee success.
For the block acknowledgement mechanism, the AP transmits each group For the block acknowledgement mechanism, the AP transmits each group
addressed frame as conventional group addressed transmission. addressed frame as conventional group addressed transmission.
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11. Acknowledgements 11. Acknowledgements
This document has benefitted from discussions with the following This document has benefitted from discussions with the following
people, in alphabetical order: Pascal Thubert people, in alphabetical order: Pascal Thubert
12. Informative References 12. Informative References
[arpsponge] [arpsponge]
Arien Vijn, Steven Bakker, "Arp Sponge", March 2015. Arien Vijn, Steven Bakker, "Arp Sponge", March 2015.
[Deri-2010]
Deri, L. and J. Gasparakis, "10 Gbit Hardware Packet
Filtering Using Commodity Network Adapters", RIPE 61,
2010, <http://ripe61.ripe.net/
presentations/138-Deri_RIPE_61.pdf>.
[dot11] P802.11, "Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control [dot11] P802.11, "Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
(MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications", March (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications", March
2012. 2012.
[dot11-proxyarp] [dot11-proxyarp]
P802.11, "Proxy ARP in 802.11ax", September 2015. P802.11, "Proxy ARP in 802.11ax", September 2015.
[dot11aa] P802.11, "Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control [dot11aa] P802.11, "Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
(MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications Amendment 2: (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications Amendment 2:
MAC Enhancements for Robust Audio Video Streaming", March MAC Enhancements for Robust Audio Video Streaming", March
2012. 2012.
[I-D.ietf-6lo-ap-nd] [I-D.ietf-6lo-ap-nd]
Thubert, P., Sarikaya, B., and M. Sethi, "Address Thubert, P., Sarikaya, B., and M. Sethi, "Address
Protected Neighbor Discovery for Low-power and Lossy Protected Neighbor Discovery for Low-power and Lossy
Networks", draft-ietf-6lo-ap-nd-05 (work in progress), Networks", draft-ietf-6lo-ap-nd-06 (work in progress),
January 2018. February 2018.
[I-D.ietf-6lo-backbone-router] [I-D.ietf-6lo-backbone-router]
Thubert, P., "IPv6 Backbone Router", draft-ietf-6lo- Thubert, P., "IPv6 Backbone Router", draft-ietf-6lo-
backbone-router-05 (work in progress), January 2018. backbone-router-06 (work in progress), February 2018.
[I-D.ietf-6lo-rfc6775-update] [I-D.ietf-6lo-rfc6775-update]
Thubert, P., Nordmark, E., Chakrabarti, S., and C. Thubert, P., Nordmark, E., Chakrabarti, S., and C.
Perkins, "An Update to 6LoWPAN ND", draft-ietf-6lo- Perkins, "Registration Extensions for 6LoWPAN Neighbor
rfc6775-update-11 (work in progress), December 2017. Discovery", draft-ietf-6lo-rfc6775-update-21 (work in
progress), June 2018.
[I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture] [I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture]
Thubert, P., "An Architecture for IPv6 over the TSCH mode Thubert, P., "An Architecture for IPv6 over the TSCH mode
of IEEE 802.15.4", draft-ietf-6tisch-architecture-13 (work of IEEE 802.15.4", draft-ietf-6tisch-architecture-14 (work
in progress), November 2017. in progress), April 2018.
[ietf_802-11] [ietf_802-11]
Dorothy Stanley, "IEEE 802.11 multicast capabilities", Nov Dorothy Stanley, "IEEE 802.11 multicast capabilities", Nov
2015. 2015.
[mc-ack-mux] [mc-ack-mux]
Yusuke Tanaka et al., "Multiplexing of Acknowledgements Yusuke Tanaka et al., "Multiplexing of Acknowledgements
for Multicast Transmission", July 2015. for Multicast Transmission", July 2015.
[mc-prob-stmt] [mc-prob-stmt]
Mikael Abrahamsson and Adrian Stephens, "Multicast on Mikael Abrahamsson and Adrian Stephens, "Multicast on
802.11", March 2015. 802.11", March 2015.
[mc-props] [mc-props]
Adrian Stephens, "IEEE 802.11 multicast properties", March Adrian Stephens, "IEEE 802.11 multicast properties", March
2015. 2015.
[Oliva2013]
de la Oliva, A., Serrano, P., Salvador, P., and A. Banchs,
"Performance evaluation of the IEEE 802.11aa multicast
mechanisms for video streaming", 2013 IEEE 14th
International Symposium on "A World of Wireless, Mobile
and Multimedia Networks" (WoWMoM) pp. 1-9, June 2013.
[RFC4541] Christensen, M., Kimball, K., and F. Solensky, [RFC4541] Christensen, M., Kimball, K., and F. Solensky,
"Considerations for Internet Group Management Protocol "Considerations for Internet Group Management Protocol
(IGMP) and Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) Snooping (IGMP) and Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) Snooping
Switches", RFC 4541, DOI 10.17487/RFC4541, May 2006, Switches", RFC 4541, DOI 10.17487/RFC4541, May 2006,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4541>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4541>.
[RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman, [RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
"Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861, "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007, DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>.
skipping to change at page 19, line 11 skipping to change at page 19, line 32
Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282, Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6282, September 2011, DOI 10.17487/RFC6282, September 2011,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6282>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6282>.
[RFC6775] Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C. [RFC6775] Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C.
Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over
Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)",
RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012, RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>.
[Tramarin2017]
Tramarin, F., Vitturi, S., and M. Luvisotto, "IEEE 802.11n
for Distributed Measurement Systems", 2017 IEEE
International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology
Conference (I2MTC) pp. 1-6, May 2017.
[uli] Pat Kinney, "LLC Proposal for 802.15.4", Nov 2015. [uli] Pat Kinney, "LLC Proposal for 802.15.4", Nov 2015.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Charles E. Perkins Charles E. Perkins
Futurewei Inc. Futurewei Inc.
2330 Central Expressway 2330 Central Expressway
Santa Clara, CA 95050 Santa Clara, CA 95050
USA USA
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