draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-02.txt   draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-03.txt 
Network Working Group J. Jeong, Ed. IPWAVE Working Group J. Jeong, Ed.
Internet-Draft Sungkyunkwan University Internet-Draft Sungkyunkwan University
Intended status: Informational March 5, 2018 Intended status: Informational July 2, 2018
Expires: September 6, 2018 Expires: January 3, 2019
IP-based Vehicular Networking: Use Cases, Survey and Problem Statement IP Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (IPWAVE): Problem Statement
draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-02 and Use Cases
draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-03
Abstract Abstract
This document discusses use cases, survey, and problem statement on This document discusses problem statement and use cases on IP-based
IP-based vehicular networks, which are considered a key component of vehicular networks, which are considered a key component of
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The main topics of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The main topics of
vehicular networking are vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to- vehicular networking are vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-
infrastructure (V2I), and infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) networking. infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) networking.
First, this document surveys use cases using V2V and V2I networking. First, this document surveys use cases using V2V, V2I, and V2X
Second, this document deals with some critical aspects in vehicular networking. Second, this document analyzes current protocols for
networking, such as vehicular network architectures, standardization vehicular networking and general problems on those current protocols.
activities, IP address autoconfiguration, routing, mobility Third, this document does problem exploration for key aspects in IP-
management, DNS naming service, service discovery, and security and based vehicular networking, such as IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB, IPv6
privacy. For each aspect, this document discusses problem statement Neighbor Discovery, Mobility Management, Vehicle Identities
to analyze the gap between the state-of-the-art techniques and Management, Multihop V2X Communications, Multicast, DNS Naming
requirements in IP-based vehicular networking. Finally, this Services, Service Discovery, IPv6 over Cellular Networks, Security
document articulates discussions including the summary and analysis and Privacy. For each key aspect, this document discusses problem
of vehicular networking aspects and raises deployment issues. statement to analyze the gap between the state-of-the-art techniques
and requirements in IP-based vehicular networking.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
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This Internet-Draft will expire on September 6, 2018. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 3, 2019.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. V2I Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. V2V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2. V2V Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2. V2I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Vehicular Network Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.3. V2X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Existing Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Analysis for Current Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1.1. VIP-WAVE: IP in 802.11p Vehicular Networks . . . . . 7 4.1. Current Protocols for Vehicular Networking . . . . . . . 7
4.1.2. IPv6 Operation for WAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.1. IP Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1.3. Multicast Framework for Vehicular Networks . . . . . 9 4.1.2. Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.4. Joint IP Networking and Radio Architecture . . . . . 10 4.1.3. Mobility Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.5. Mobile Internet Access in FleetNet . . . . . . . . . 11 4.1.4. DNS Naming Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.6. A Layered Architecture for Vehicular DTNs . . . . . . 12 4.1.5. Service Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.2. V2I and V2V Internetworking Problem Statement . . . . . . 12 4.1.6. Security and Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.2.1. V2I-based Internetworking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.2. General Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.2.2. V2V-based Internetworking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4.2.1. Vehicular Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5. Standardization Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.2.2. Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.1. IEEE Guide for WAVE - Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.2.3. Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.2. IEEE Standard for WAVE - Networking Services . . . . . . 18 4.2.4. Pseudonym Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.3. ETSI Intelligent Transport Systems: GeoNetwork-IPv6 . . . 18 5. Problem Exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.4. ISO Intelligent Transport Systems: IPv6 over CALM . . . . 19 5.1. IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6. IP Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5.2. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.1. Existing Protocols for Address Autoconfiguration . . . . 20 5.2.1. Link Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.1.1. Automatic IP Address Configuration in VANETs . . . . 20 5.2.2. MAC Address Pseudonym . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.1.2. Using Lane/Position Information . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5.2.3. Prefix Dissemination/Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.1.3. GeoSAC: Scalable Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . 21 5.2.4. Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.1.4. Cross-layer Identities Management in ITS Stations . . 22 5.3. Mobility Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.2. Problem Statement for IP Address Autoconfiguration . . . 22 5.4. Vehicle Identity Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.2.1. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.5. Multihop V2X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.2.2. IP Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.6. Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7. Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.7. DNS Naming Services and Service Discovery . . . . . . . . 17
7.1. Existing Routing Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.8. IPv6 over Cellular Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.1.1. Experimental Evaluation for IPv6 over GeoNet . . . . 24 5.8.1. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 4G-LTE . . . . . . . . . . 19
7.1.2. Location-Aided Gateway Advertisement and Discovery . 25 5.8.2. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 5G . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7.2. Routing Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.9. Security and Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
8. Mobility Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
8.1. Existing Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 7. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
8.1.1. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks with Network Fragmentation 26 Appendix A. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
8.1.2. Hybrid Centralized-Distributed Mobility Management . 27 Appendix B. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
8.1.3. Hybrid Architecture for Network Mobility Management . 28
8.1.4. NEMO-Enabled Localized Mobility Support . . . . . . . 29
8.1.5. Network Mobility for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks . . . 29
8.1.6. Performance Analysis of P-NEMO for ITS . . . . . . . 30
8.1.7. Integration of VANets and Fixed IP Networks . . . . . 30
8.1.8. SDN-based Mobility Management for 5G Networks . . . . 31
8.1.9. IP Mobility for VANETs: Challenges and Solutions . . 32
8.2. Problem Statement for Mobility-Management . . . . . . . . 33
9. DNS Naming Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
9.1. Existing Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
9.1.1. Multicast DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
9.1.2. DNS Name Autoconfiguration for IoT Devices . . . . . 34
9.2. Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
10. Service Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
10.1. Existing Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
10.1.1. mDNS-based Service Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
10.1.2. ND-based Service Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
10.2. Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
11. Security and Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
11.1. Existing Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
11.1.1. Securing Vehicular IPv6 Communications . . . . . . . 37
11.1.2. Authentication and Access Control . . . . . . . . . 38
11.2. Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
12. Discussions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
12.1. Summary and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
12.2. Deployment Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
13. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
14. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Appendix A. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Appendix B. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Appendix C. Changes from draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular- Appendix C. Changes from draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-
networking-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 networking-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Vehicular networks have been focused on the driving safety, driving Vehicular networks have been focused on the driving safety, driving
efficiency, and entertainment in road networks. The Federal efficiency, and entertainment in road networks. The Federal
Communications Commission (FCC) in the US allocated wireless channels Communications Commission (FCC) in the US allocated wireless channels
for Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) [DSRC], service in for Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) [DSRC], service in
the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Radio Service in the the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Radio Service in the
5.850 - 5.925 GHz band (5.9 GHz band). DSRC-based wireless 5.850 - 5.925 GHz band (5.9 GHz band). DSRC-based wireless
communications can support vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to- communications can support vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-
infrastructure (V2I), and infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) networking. infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) networking.
For driving safety services based on the DSRC, IEEE has standardized For driving safety services based on the DSRC, IEEE has standardized
Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) standards, such as Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) standards, such as
IEEE 802.11p [IEEE-802.11p], IEEE 1609.2 [WAVE-1609.2], IEEE 1609.3 IEEE 802.11p [IEEE-802.11p], IEEE 1609.2 [WAVE-1609.2], IEEE 1609.3
[WAVE-1609.3], and IEEE 1609.4 [WAVE-1609.4]. Note that IEEE 802.11p [WAVE-1609.3], and IEEE 1609.4 [WAVE-1609.4]. Note that IEEE 802.11p
has been published as IEEE 802.11 Outside the Context of a Basic has been published as IEEE 802.11 Outside the Context of a Basic
Service Set (OCB) [IEEE-802.11-OCB] in 2012. Along with these WAVE Service Set (OCB) [IEEE-802.11-OCB] in 2012. Along with these WAVE
standards, IPv6 and Mobile IP protocols (e.g., MIPv4 and MIPv6) can standards, IPv6 and Mobile IP protocols (e.g., MIPv4 and MIPv6) can
be extended to vehicular networks [RFC2460][RFC6275]. be extended to vehicular networks [RFC2460][RFC5944][RFC6275]. Also,
ETSI has standardized a GeoNetworking (GN) protocol
[ETSI-GeoNetworking] and a protocol adaptation sub-layer from
GeoNetworking to IPv6 [ETSI-GeoNetwork-IP]. In addition, ISO has
standardized a standard specifying the IPv6 network protocols and
services for Communications Access for Land Mobiles (CALM)
[ISO-ITS-IPv6].
This document discusses use cases, survey, and problem statements This document discusses problem statements and use cases related to
related to IP-based vehicular networking for Intelligent IP-based vehicular networking for Intelligent Transportation Systems
Transportation Systems (ITS). This document first surveys the use (ITS). This document first surveys the use cases for using V2V and
cases for using V2V and V2I networking in the ITS. Second, this V2I networking in the ITS. Second, for problem statement, this
document deals with some critical aspects in vehicular networking, document deals with critical aspects in vehicular networking, such as
such as vehicular network architectures, standardization activities, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB, IPv6 Neighbor Discovery, Mobility
IP address autoconfiguration, routing, mobility management, DNS Management, Vehicle Identities Management, Multihop V2X
naming service, service discovery, and security and privacy. For Communications, Multicast, DNS Naming Services, Service Discovery,
each aspect, this document shows problem statement to analyze the gap IPv6 over Cellular Networks, Security and Privacy. For each key
aspect, this document discusses problem statement to analyze the gap
between the state-of-the-art techniques and requirements in IP-based between the state-of-the-art techniques and requirements in IP-based
vehicular networking. Finally, this document addresses discussions vehicular networking. Finally, with the problem statement, this
including the summary and analysis of vehicular networking aspects, document suggests demanding key standardization items for the
raising deployment issues in road environments. deployment of IPWAVE in road environments. As a consequence, this
will make it possible to design a network architecture and protocols
Based on the use cases, survey, and problem statement of this for vehicular networking.
document, we can specify the requirements for vehicular networks for
the intended purposes, such as the driving safety, driving
efficiency, and entertainment. As a consequence, this will make it
possible to design a network architecture and protocols for vehicular
networking.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
This document uses the following definitions: This document uses the following definitions:
o WAVE: Acronym for "Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments"
[WAVE-1609.0].
o DMM: Acronym for "Distributed Mobility Management"
[RFC7333][RFC7429].
o Road-Side Unit (RSU): A node that has physical communication o Road-Side Unit (RSU): A node that has physical communication
devices (e.g., DSRC, Visible Light Communication, 802.15.4, etc.) devices (e.g., DSRC, Visible Light Communication, 802.15.4, LTE-
for wireless communication with vehicles and is also connected to V2X, etc.) for wireless communications with vehicles and is also
the Internet as a router or switch for packet forwarding. An RSU connected to the Internet as a router or switch for packet
is deployed either at an intersection or in a road segment. forwarding. An RSU is deployed either at an intersection or in a
road segment.
o On-Board Unit (OBU): A node that has a DSRC device for wireless o On-Board Unit (OBU): A node that has a DSRC device for wireless
communications with other OBUs and RSUs. An OBU is mounted on a communications with other OBUs and RSUs. An OBU is mounted on a
vehicle. It is assumed that a radio navigation receiver (e.g., vehicle. It is assumed that a radio navigation receiver (e.g.,
Global Positioning System (GPS)) is included in a vehicle with an Global Positioning System (GPS)) is included in a vehicle with an
OBU for efficient navigation. OBU for efficient navigation.
o Vehicle Detection Loop (or Loop Detector): An inductive device o Vehicle Detection Loop (or Loop Detector): An inductive device
used for detecting vehicles passing or arriving at a certain used for detecting vehicles passing or arriving at a certain
point, for instance approaching a traffic light or in motorway point, for instance approaching a traffic light or in motorway
traffic. The relatively crude nature of the loop's structure traffic. The relatively crude nature of the loop's structure
means that only metal masses above a certain size are capable of means that only metal masses above a certain size are capable of
triggering the detection. triggering the detection.
o Traffic Control Center (TCC): A node that maintains road o Traffic Control Center (TCC): A node that maintains road
infrastructure information (e.g., RSUs, traffic signals, and loop infrastructure information (e.g., RSUs, traffic signals, and loop
detectors), vehicular traffic statistics (e.g., average vehicle detectors), vehicular traffic statistics (e.g., average vehicle
speed and vehicle inter-arrival time per road segment), and speed and vehicle inter-arrival time per road segment), and
vehicle information (e.g., a vehicle's identifier, position, vehicle information (e.g., a vehicle's identifier, position,
direction, speed, and trajectory as a navigation path). TCC is direction, speed, and trajectory as a navigation path). TCC is
included in a vehicular cloud for vehicular networks. Example included in a vehicular cloud for vehicular networks.
functions of TCC include the management of evacuation routes, the
monitoring of real-time mass transit operations, and real-time
responsive traffic signal systems. Thus, TCC is the nerve center
of most freeway management sytems such that data is collected,
processed, and fused with other operational and control data, and
is also synthesized to produce "information" distributed to
stakeholders, other agencies, and traveling public. TCC is called
Traffic Management Center (TMC) in the US. TCC can communicate
with road infrastructure nodes (e.g., RSUs, traffic signals, and
loop detectors) to share measurement data and management
information by an application-layer protocol.
o WAVE: Acronym for "Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments"
[WAVE-1609.0].
o DMM: Acronym for "Distributed Mobility Management" [DMM].
3. Use Cases 3. Use Cases
This section provides use cases of V2V and V2I networking. This section provides use cases of V2V, V2I, and V2X networking. The
use cases of the V2X networking exclude the ones of the V2V and V2I
networking, but include Vehicle-to-Pedestrian (V2P) and Vehicle-to-
Device (V2D).
3.1. V2I Use Cases 3.1. V2V
The use cases of V2I networking include navigation service, fuel- The use cases of V2V networking discussed in this section include
efficient speed recommendation service, and accident notification
service.
A navigation service, such as the Self-Adaptive Interactive o Context-aware navigation for driving safety and collision
Navigation Tool (called SAINT) [SAINT], using V2I networking avoidance;
interacts with TCC for the global road traffic optimization and can
guide individual vehicles for appropriate navigation paths in real
time. The enhanced SAINT (called SAINT+) [SAINTplus] can give the
fast moving paths for emergency vehicles (e.g., ambulance and fire
engine) toward accident spots while providing other vehicles with
efficient detour paths.
The emergency communication between accident vehicles (or emergency o Cooperative adaptive cruise control in an urban roadway;
vehicles) and TCC can be performed via either RSU or 4G-LTE networks.
The First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) [FirstNet] is
provided by the US government to establish, operate, and maintain an
interoperable public safety broadband network for safety and security
network services, such as emergency calls. The construction of the
nationwide FirstNet network requires each state in the US to have a
Radio Access Network (RAN) that will connect to FirstNet's network
core. The current RAN is mainly constructed by 4G-LTE for the
communication between a vehicle and an infrastructure node (i.e.,
V2I) [FirstNet-Annual-Report-2017], but DSRC-based vehicular networks
can be used for V2I in near future [DSRC].
A pedestrian protection service, such as Safety-Aware Navigation o Platooning in a highway;
Application (called SANA) [SANA], using V2I networking can reduce the
collision of a pedestrian and a vehicle, which have a smartphone, in
a road network. Vehicles and pedestrians can communicate with each
other via an RSU that delivers scheduling information for wireless
communication to save the smartphones' battery.
3.2. V2V Use Cases o Cooperative environment sensing.
The use cases of V2V networking include context-aware navigation for These four techniques will be important elements for self-driving
driving safety, cooperative adaptive cruise control in an urban vehicles.
roadway, and platooning in a highway. These three techniques will be
important elements for self-driving vehicles.
Context-Aware Safety Driving (CASD) navigator [CASD] can help drivers Context-Aware Safety Driving (CASD) navigator [CASD] can help drivers
to drive safely by letting the drivers recognize dangerous obstacles to drive safely by letting the drivers recognize dangerous obstacles
and situations. That is, CASD navigator displays obstables or and situations. That is, CASD navigator displays obstables or
neighboring vehicles relevant to possible collisions in real-time neighboring vehicles relevant to possible collisions in real-time
through V2V networking. CASD provides vehicles with a class-based through V2V networking. CASD provides vehicles with a class-based
automatic safety action plan, which considers three situations, such automatic safety action plan, which considers three situations, such
as the Line-of-Sight unsafe, Non-Line-of-Sight unsafe and safe as the Line-of-Sight unsafe, Non-Line-of-Sight unsafe and safe
situations. This action plan can be performed among vehicles through situations. This action plan can be performed among vehicles through
V2V networking. V2V networking.
skipping to change at page 7, line 14 skipping to change at page 6, line 5
Platooning [Truck-Platooning] allows a series of vehicles (e.g., Platooning [Truck-Platooning] allows a series of vehicles (e.g.,
trucks) to move together with a very short inter-distance. Trucks trucks) to move together with a very short inter-distance. Trucks
can use V2V communication in addition to forward sensors in order to can use V2V communication in addition to forward sensors in order to
maintain constant clearance between two consecutive vehicles at very maintain constant clearance between two consecutive vehicles at very
short gaps (from 3 meters to 10 meters). This platooning can short gaps (from 3 meters to 10 meters). This platooning can
maximize the throughput of vehicular traffic in a highway and reduce maximize the throughput of vehicular traffic in a highway and reduce
the gas consumption because the leading vehicle can help the the gas consumption because the leading vehicle can help the
following vehicles to experience less air resistance. following vehicles to experience less air resistance.
4. Vehicular Network Architectures Cooperative-environment-sensing use cases suggest that vehicles can
share environment information from various sensors, such as radars,
LiDARs and cameras, mounted on them with other vehicles and
pedestrians. [Automotive-Sensing] introduces a millimeter-wave
vehicular communication for massive automotive sensing. Data
generated by those sensors can be substantially large, and these data
shall be routed to different destinations. In addition, from the
perspective of driverless vehicles, it is expected that driverless
vehicles can be mixed with driver vehicles. Through cooperative
enivronment sensing, driver vehicles can use enivronment information
sensed by driverless vehicles for better interaction with
environments.
This section surveys vehicular network architectures based on IP 3.2. V2I
along with various radio technologies, and then discusses problem
statement for a vehicular network architecture for IP-based vehicular
networking.
4.1. Existing Architectures The use cases of V2I networking discussed in this section include
4.1.1. VIP-WAVE: IP in 802.11p Vehicular Networks o Navigation service;
Cespedes et al. proposed a vehicular IP in WAVE called VIP-WAVE for o Energy-efficient speed recommendation service;
I2V and V2I networking [VIP-WAVE]. IEEE 1609.3 specified a WAVE
stack of protocols and includes IPv6 as a network layer protocol in
data plane [WAVE-1609.3]. The standard WAVE [WAVE-1609.0]
[WAVE-1609.3] does not support Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) of
IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) [RFC4862] by having
its own efficient IP address configuration mechanism based on a WAVE
Service Advertisement (WSA) management frame [WAVE-1609.3]. It does
not support both seamless communications for Internet services and
multi-hop communications between a vehicle and an infrastructure node
(e.g., RSU), either. To overcome these limitations of the standard
WAVE for IP-based networking, VIP-WAVE enhances the standard WAVE by
the following three schemes: (i) an efficient mechanism for the IPv6
address assignment and DAD, (ii) on-demand IP mobility based on Proxy
Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6), and (iii) one-hop and two-hop communications
for I2V and V2I networking.
In WAVE, IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (ND) protocol is not recommended due o Accident notification service.
to the overhead of ND against the timely and prompt communications in
vehicular networking. By WAVE service advertisement (WAS) management
frame, an RSU can provide vehicles with IP configuration information
(e.g., IPv6 prefix, prefix length, gateway, router lifetime, and DNS
server) without using ND. However, WAVE devices may support
readdressing to provide pseudonymity, so a MAC address of a vehicle
may be changed or randomly generated. This update of the MAC address
may lead to the collision of an IPv6 address based on a MAC address,
so VIP-WAVE includes a light-weight, on-demand ND to perform DAD.
For IP-based Internet services, VIP-WAVE adopts PMIPv6 for network- A navigation service, such as the Self-Adaptive Interactive
based mobility management in vehicular networks. In VIP-WAVE, RSU Navigation Tool (called SAINT) [SAINT], using V2I networking
plays a role of mobile anchor gateway (MAG) of PMIPv6, which performs interacts with TCC for the global road traffic optimization and can
the detection of a vehicle as a mobile node in a PMIPv6 domain and guide individual vehicles for appropriate navigation paths in real
registers it into the PMIPv6 domain. For PMIPv6 operations, VIP-WAVE time. The enhanced SAINT (called SAINT+) [SAINTplus] can give the
requires a central node called local mobility anchor (LMA), which fast moving paths for emergency vehicles (e.g., ambulance and fire
assigns IPv6 prefixes to vehicles as mobile nodes and forwards data engine) toward accident spots while providing other vehicles with
packets to the vehicles moving in the coverage of RSUs under its efficient detour paths.
control through tunnels between MAGs and itself.
For two-hop communications between a vehicle and an RSU, VIP-WAVE A TCC can recommend an energy-efficient speed to a vehicle driving in
allows an intermediate vehicle between the vehicle and the RSU to different traffic environments. [Fuel-Efficient] studys fuel-
play a role of a packet relay for the vehicle. When it becomes out efficient route and speed plans for platooned trucks.
of the communication range of an RSU, a vehicle searches for another
vehicle as a packet relay by sending a relay service announcement.
When it receives this relay service announcement and is within the
communication range of an RSU, another vehicle registers itself into
the RSU as a relay and notifies the relay-requester vehicle of a
relay maintenance announcement.
Thus, VIP-WAVE is a good candidate for I2V and V2I networking, The emergency communication between accident vehicles (or emergency
supporting an enhanced ND, handover, and two-hop communications vehicles) and TCC can be performed via either RSU or 4G-LTE networks.
through a relay. The First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) [FirstNet] is
provided by the US government to establish, operate, and maintain an
interoperable public safety broadband network for safety and security
network services, such as emergency calls. The construction of the
nationwide FirstNet network requires each state in the US to have a
Radio Access Network (RAN) that will connect to FirstNet's network
core. The current RAN is mainly constructed by 4G-LTE for the
communication between a vehicle and an infrastructure node (i.e.,
V2I) [FirstNet-Annual-Report-2017], but DSRC-based vehicular networks
can be used for V2I in near future [DSRC].
4.1.2. IPv6 Operation for WAVE 3.3. V2X
Baccelli et al. provided an analysis of the operation of IPv6 as it The use case of V2X networking discussed in this section is
has been described by the IEEE WAVE standards 1609 [IPv6-WAVE]. pedestrian protection service.
Although the main focus of WAVE has been the timely delivery of
safety related information, the deployment of IP-based entertainment
applications is also considered. Thus, in order to support
entertainment traffic, WAVE supports IPv6 and transport protocols
such as TCP and UDP.
In the analysis provided in [IPv6-WAVE], it is identified that the A pedestrian protection service, such as Safety-Aware Navigation
IEEE 1609.3 standard's recommendations for IPv6 operation over WAVE Application (called SANA) [SANA], using V2I2P networking can reduce
are rather minimal. Protocols on which the operation of IPv6 relies the collision of a pedestrian and a vehicle, which have a smartphone,
for IP address configuration and IP-to-link-layer address translation in a road network. Vehicles and pedestrians can communicate with
(e.g., IPv6 ND protocol) are not recommended in the standard. each other via an RSU that delivers scheduling information for
Additionally, IPv6 implementations work under certain assumptions for wireless communication to save the smartphones' battery.
the link model that do not necessarily hold in WAVE. For instance,
some IPv6 implementations assume symmetry in the connectivity among
neighboring interfaces. However, interference and different levels
of transmission power may cause unidirectional links to appear in a
WAVE link model. Also, in an IPv6 link, it is assumed that all
interfaces which are configured with the same subnet prefix are on
the same IP link. Hence, there is a relationship between link and
prefix, besides the different scopes that are expected from the link-
local and global types of IPv6 addresses. Such a relationship does
not hold in a WAVE link model due to node mobility and highly dynamic
topology.
Baccelli et al. concluded that the use of the standard IPv6 protocol 4. Analysis for Current Protocols
stack, as the IEEE 1609 family of specifications stipulate, is not
sufficient. Instead, the addressing assignment should follow
considerations for ad-hoc link models, defined in [RFC5889], which
are similar to the characteristics of the WAVE link model. In terms
of the supporting protocols for IPv6, such as ND, DHCP, or stateless
auto-configuration, which rely largely on multicast, do not operate
as expected in the case where the WAVE link model does not have the
same behavior expected for multicast IPv6 traffic due to nodes'
mobility and link variability. Additional challenges such as the
support of pseudonimity through MAC address change along with the
suitability of traditional TCP applications are discussed by the
authors since those challenges require the design of appropriate
solutions.
4.1.3. Multicast Framework for Vehicular Networks 4.1. Current Protocols for Vehicular Networking
Jemaa et al. presented a framework that enables deploying multicast We analyze the current protocols from the follow aspects:
services for vehicular networks in Infrastructure-based scenarios
[VNET-Framework]. This framework deals with two phases: (i)
Initialization or bootstrapping phase that includes a geographic
multicast auto-configuration process and a group membership building
method and (ii) Multicast traffic dissemination phase that includes a
network selecting mechanism on the transmission side and a receiver-
based multicast delivery in the reception side. To this end, the
authors define a distributed mechanism that allows the vehicles to
configure a common multicast address: Geographic Multicast Address
Auto-configuration (GMAA), which allows a vehicle to configure its
own address without signaling. A vehicle may also be able to change
the multicast address to which it is subscribed when it changes its
location.
This framework suggests a network selecting approach that allows IP o IP address autoconfiguration;
and non-IP multicast data delivery on the sender side. Then, to meet
the challenges of multicast address auto-configuration, the authors
propose a distributed geographic multicast auto-addressing mechanism
for multicast groups of vehicles, and a simple multicast data
delivery scheme in hybrid networks from a server to the group of
moving vehicles. However, the GMAA study lacks simulations related
to performance assessment.
4.1.4. Joint IP Networking and Radio Architecture o Routing;
Petrescu et al. defined the joint IP networking and radio o Mobility management;
architecture for V2V and V2I communication in [Joint-IP-Networking].
The paper proposes to consider an IP topology in a similar way as a
radio link topology, in the sense that an IP subnet would correspond
to the range of 1-hop vehicular communication. The paper defines
three types of vehicles: Leaf Vehicle (LV), Range Extending Vehicle
(REV), and Internet Vehicle (IV). The first class corresponds to the
largest set of communicating vehicles (or network nodes within a
vehicle), while the role of the second class is to build an IP relay
between two IP-subnet and two sub-IP networks. Finally, the last
class corresponds to vehicles being connected to Internet. Based on
these three classes, the paper defines six types of IP topologies
corresponding to V2V communication between two LVs in direct range,
or two LVs over a range extending vehicle, or V2I communication again
either directly via an IV, via another vehicles being IV, or via an
REV connecting to an IV.
Consider a simplified example of a vehicular train, where LV would be o DNS naming service;
in-wagon communicating nodes, REV would be inter-wagon relays, and IV
would be one node (e.g., train head) connected to Internet. Petrescu
et al. defined the required mechanisms to build subnetworks, and
evaluated the protocol time that is required to build such networks.
Although no simulation-based evaluation is conducted, the initial
analysis shows a long initial connection overhead, which should be
alleviated once the multi-wagon remains stable. However, this
approach does not describe what would happen in the case of a dynamic
multi-hop vehicular network, where such overhead would end up being
too high for V2V/V2I IP-based vehicular applications.
One other aspect described in their paper is to join the IP-layer o Service discovery;
relaying with radio-link channels. Their paper proposes separating
different subnetworks in different WiFi/ITS-G5 channels, which could
be advertised by the REV. Accordingly, the overall interference
could be controlled within each subnetwork. This approach is similar
to multi-channel topology management proposals in multi-hop sensor
networks, yet adapted to an IP topology.
Their paper concludes that the generally complex multi-hop IP o Security and privacy.
vehicular topology could be represented by only six different
topologies, which could be further analyzed and optimized. A prefix
dissemination protocol is proposed for one of the topologies.
4.1.5. Mobile Internet Access in FleetNet 4.1.1. IP Address Autoconfiguration
Bechler et al. described the FleetNet project approach to integrate For IP address autoconfiguration, Fazio et al. proposed a vehicular
Internet Access in future vehicular networks [FleetNet]. The address configuration (VAC) scheme using DHCP where elected leader-
FleetNet paper is probably one of the first papers to address this vehicles provide unique identifiers for IP address configurations
aspect, and in many ways, introduces concepts that will be later used [Address-Autoconf]. Kato et al. proposed an IPv6 address assignment
in MIPv6 or other subsequent IP mobility management schemes. The scheme using lane and position information [Address-Assignment].
paper describes a V2I architecture consisting of Vehicles, Internet Baldessari et al. proposed an IPv6 scalable address autoconfiguration
Gateways (IGW), Proxy, and Corresponding Nodes (CN). Considering scheme called GeoSAC for vehicular networks [GeoSAC]. Wetterwald et
that vehicular networks are required to use IPv6 addresses and also al. conducted a comprehensive study of the cross-layer identities
the new wireless access technology ITS-G5 (new at that time), one of management in vehicular networks using multiple access network
the challenges is to bridge the two different networks (i.e., VANET technologies, which constitutes a fundamental element of the ITS
and IPv4/IPv6 Internet). Accordingly, the paper introduces a architecture [Identity-Management].
Fleetnet Gateway (FGW), which allows vehicles in IPv6 to access the
IPv4 Internet and to bridge two types of networks and radio access
technologies. Another challenge is to keep the active addressing and
flows while vehicles move between FGWs. Accordingly, the paper
introduces a proxy node, a hybrid MIP Home Agent, which can re-route
flows to the new FGW as well as acting as a local IPv4-IPv6 NAT.
The authors from the paper mostly observed two issues that VANET 4.1.2. Routing
brings into the traditional IP mobility. First, VANET vehicles must
mostly be addressed from the Internet directly, and do not
specifically have a Home Network. Accordingly, VANET vehicles
require a globally (predefined) unique IPv6 address, while an IPv6
co-located care-of address (CCoA) is a newly allocated IPv6 address
every time a vehicle would enter a new IGW radio range. Second,
VANET links are known to be unreliable and short, and the extensive
use of IP tunneling on-the-air was judged not efficient.
Accordingly, the first major architecture innovation proposed in this
paper is to re-introduce a foreign agent (FA) in MIP located at the
IGW, so that the IP-tunneling would be kept in the back-end (between
a Proxy and an IGW) and not on the air. Second, the proxy has been
extended to build an IP tunnel and be connected to the right FA/IWG
for an IP flow using a global IPv6 address.
This is a pioneer paper, which contributed to changing MIP and led to For routing, Tsukada et al. presented a work that aims at combining
the new IPv6 architecture currently known as Proxy-MIP and the IPv6 networking and a Car-to-Car Network routing protocol (called
subsequent DMM-PMIP. Three key messages can be yet kept in mind. C2CNet) proposed by the Car2Car Communication Consortium (C2C-CC),
First, unlike the Internet, vehicles can be more prominently directly which is an architecture using a geographic routing protocol
addressed than the Internet traffic, and do not have a Home Network [VANET-Geo-Routing]. Abrougui et al. presented a gateway discovery
in the traditional MIP sense. Second, IP tunneling should be avoided scheme for VANET, called Location-Aided Gateway Advertisement and
as much as possible over the air. Third, the protocol-based mobility Discovery (LAGAD) mechanism [LAGAD].
(induced by the physical mobility) must be kept hidden to both the
vehicle and the correspondent node (CN).
4.1.6. A Layered Architecture for Vehicular DTNs 4.1.3. Mobility Management
Soares et al. addressed the case of delay tolerant vehicular network For mobility management, Chen et al. tackled the issue of network
[Vehicular-DTN]. For delay tolerant or disruption tolerant networks, fragmentation in VANET environments [IP-Passing-Protocol] by
rather than building a complex VANET-IP multi-hop route, vehicles may proposing a protocol that can postpone the time to release IP
also be used to carry packets closer to the destination or directly addresses to the DHCP server and select a faster way to get the
to the destination. The authors built the well-accepted DTN Bundle vehicle's new IP address, when the vehicle density is low or the
architecture and protocol to propose a VANET extension. They speeds of vehicles are varied. Nguyen et al. proposed a hybrid
introduced three types of VANET nodes: (i) terminal nodes (requiring centralized-distributed mobility management called H-DMM to support
data), (ii) mobile nodes (carrying data along their routes), and highly mobile vehicles [H-DMM]. [NEMO-LMS] proposed an architecture
(iii) relay nodes (storing data at cross-roads of mobile nodes as to enable IP mobility for moving networks using a network-based
data hotspot). mobility scheme based on PMIPv6. Chen et al. proposed a network
mobility protocol to reduce handoff delay and maintain Internet
connectivity to moving vehicles in a highway [NEMO-VANET]. Lee et
al. proposed P-NEMO, which is a PMIPv6-based IP mobility management
scheme to maintain the Internet connectivity at the vehicle as a
mobile network, and provides a make-before-break mechanism when
vehicles switch to a new access network [PMIP-NEMO-Analysis]. Peng
et al. proposed a novel mobility management scheme for integration of
VANET and fixed IP networks [VNET-MM]. Nguyen et al. extended their
previous works on a vehicular adapted DMM considering a Software-
Defined Networking (SDN) architecture [SDN-DMM].
The major innovation in this paper is to propose a DTN VANET 4.1.4. DNS Naming Service
architecture separating a Control plane and a Data plane. The
authors claimed it to be designed to allow full freedom to select the
most appropriate technology, as well as allow to use out-of-band
communication for small Control plane packets and use DTN in-band for
the Data plane. The paper then further describes the different
layers from the Control and the Data planes. One interesting aspect
is the positioning of the Bundle layer between L2 and L3, rather than
above TCP/IP as for the DTN Bundle architecture. The authors claimed
this to be required first to keep bundle aggregation/disaggregation
transparent to IP, as well as to allow bundle transmission over
multiple access technologies (described as MAC/PHY layers in the
paper).
Although DTN architectures have evolved since the paper was written, For DNS naming service, Multicast DNS (mDNS) [RFC6762] allows devices
the Vehicular-DTN paper takes a different approach to IP mobility in one-hop communication range to resolve each other's DNS name into
management. An important aspect is to separate the Control plane the corresponding IP address in multicast. DNS Name
from the Data plane to allow a large flexibility in a Control plane Autoconfiguration (DNSNA) [ID-DNSNA] proposes a DNS naming service
to coordinate a heterogeneous radio access technology (RAT) Data for Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices in a large-scale network.
plane.
4.2. V2I and V2V Internetworking Problem Statement 4.1.5. Service Discovery
This section provides a problem statement of a vehicular network For service discovery, as a popular existing service discovery
architecture of IPv6-based V2I and V2V networking. The main focus in protocol, DNS-based Service Discovery (DNS-SD) [RFC6763] with mDNS
this document is one-hop networking between a vehicle and an RSU or [RFC6762] provides service discovery. Vehicular ND [ID-Vehicular-ND]
between two neighboring vehicles. However, this document does not proposes an extension of IPv6 ND for the prefix and service
address all multi-hop networking scenarios of vehicles and RSUs. discovery.
Also, the focus is on the network layer (i.e., IPv6 protocol stack)
rather than the MAC layer and the transport layer (e.g., TCP, UDP, 4.1.6. Security and Privacy
and SCTP).
For security and privacy, Fernandez et al. proposed a secure
vehicular IPv6 communication scheme using Internet Key Exchange
version 2 (IKEv2) and Internet Protocol Security (IPsec)
[Securing-VCOMM]. Moustafa et al. proposed a security scheme
providing authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA)
services in vehicular networks [VNET-AAA].
4.2. General Problems
This section describes a vehicular network architecture for V2V and
V2I communications. Then it analyzes the limitations of the current
protocols for vehicular networking.
4.2.1. Vehicular Network Architecture
Figure 1 shows an architecture for V2I and V2V networking in a road Figure 1 shows an architecture for V2I and V2V networking in a road
network. The two RSUs (RSU1 and RSU2) are deployed in the road network. The two RSUs (RSU1 and RSU2) are deployed in the road
network and are connected to a Vehicular Cloud through the Internet. network and are connected to a Vehicular Cloud through the Internet.
TCC is connected to the Vehicular Cloud and the two vehicles TCC is connected to the Vehicular Cloud and the two vehicles
(Vehicle1 and Vehicle2) are wirelessly connected to RSU1, and the (Vehicle1 and Vehicle2) are wirelessly connected to RSU1, and the
last vehicle (Vehicle3) is wirelessly connected to RSU2. Vehicle1 last vehicle (Vehicle3) is wirelessly connected to RSU2. Vehicle1
can communicate with Vehicle2 via V2V communication, and Vehicle2 can can communicate with Vehicle2 via V2V communication, and Vehicle2 can
communicate with Vehicle3 via V2V communication. Vehicle1 can communicate with Vehicle3 via V2V communication. Vehicle1 can
communicate with Vehicle3 via RSU1 and RSU2 via V2I communication. communicate with Vehicle3 via RSU1 and RSU2 via V2I communication.
*-------------* *-------------*
* * .-------. * * .-------.
* Vehicular Cloud *<------>| TCC | * Vehicular Cloud *<------>| TCC |
skipping to change at page 13, line 38 skipping to change at page 10, line 31
.--------. .--------. .--------. .--------. .--------. .--------.
|Vehicle1|=> |Vehicle2|=> |Vehicle3|=> |Vehicle1|=> |Vehicle2|=> |Vehicle3|=>
| |<....>| |<....>| | | |<....>| |<....>| |
.________. .________. .________. .________. .________. .________.
<----> Wired Link <....> Wireless Link => Moving Direction <----> Wired Link <....> Wireless Link => Moving Direction
Figure 1: A Vehicular Network Architecture for V2I and V2V Networking Figure 1: A Vehicular Network Architecture for V2I and V2V Networking
In vehicular networks, unidirectional links exist and must be In vehicular networks, unidirectional links exist and must be
considered. The control plane must be separated from data plane. considered for wireless communications. Also, in the vehicular
ID/Pseudonym change requires a lightweight DAD. IP tunneling should networks, control plane must be separated from data plane for
be avoided. The mobility information of a mobile device (e.g., efficient mobility management and data forwarding. ID/Pseudonym
vehicle), such as trajectory, position, speed, and direction, can be change for privacy requires a lightweight DAD. IP tunneling should
used by the mobile device and infrastructure nodes (e.g., TCC and be avoided for performance efficiency. The mobility information of a
RSU) for the accommodation of proactive protocols because it is mobile device (e.g., vehicle), such as trajectory, position, speed,
usually equipped with a GPS receiver. Vehicles can use the TCC as and direction, can be used by the mobile device and infrastructure
its Home Network, so the TCC maintains the mobility information of nodes (e.g., TCC and RSU) for the accommodation of proactive
vehicles for location management. A vehicular network architecture protocols because it is usually equipped with a GPS receiver.
may be composed of three types of vehicles in Figure 1: Leaf Vehicle, Vehicles can use the TCC as its Home Network, so the TCC maintains
Range Extending Vehicle, and Internet Vehicle[Joint-IP-Networking]. the mobility information of vehicles for location management.
This section also discusses the internetworking between a vehicle's Cespedes et al. proposed a vehicular IP in WAVE called VIP-WAVE for
moving network and an RSU's fixed network. I2V and V2I networking [VIP-WAVE]. The standard WAVE does not
support both seamless communications for Internet services and multi-
hop communications between a vehicle and an infrastructure node
(e.g., RSU), either. To overcome these limitations of the standard
WAVE, VIP-WAVE enhances the standard WAVE by the following three
schemes: (i) an efficient mechanism for the IPv6 address assignment
and DAD, (ii) on-demand IP mobility based on Proxy Mobile IPv6
(PMIPv6), and (iii) one-hop and two-hop communications for I2V and
V2I networking.
4.2.1. V2I-based Internetworking Baccelli et al. provided an analysis of the operation of IPv6 as it
has been described by the IEEE WAVE standards 1609 [IPv6-WAVE]. This
analysis confirms that the use of the standard IPv6 protocol stack in
WAVE is not sufficient. It recommebs that the IPv6 addressing
assignment should follow considerations for ad-hoc link models,
defined in [RFC5889] for nodes' mobility and link variability.
Petrescu et al. proposed the joint IP networking and radio
architecture for V2V and V2I communication in [Joint-IP-Networking].
The proposed architecture considers an IP topology in a similar way
as a radio link topology, in the sense that an IP subnet would
correspond to the range of 1-hop vehicular communication. This
architecture defines three types of vehicles: Leaf Vehicle, Range
Extending Vehicle, and Internet Vehicle.
4.2.1.1. V2I-based Internetworking
This section discusses the internetworking between a vehicle's moving
network and an RSU's fixed network.
As shown in Figure 2, the vehicle's moving network and the RSU's As shown in Figure 2, the vehicle's moving network and the RSU's
fixed network are self-contained networks having multiple subnets and fixed network are self-contained networks having multiple subnets and
having an edge router for the communication with another vehicle or having an edge router for the communication with another vehicle or
RSU. The method of prefix assignment for each subnet inside the RSU. The method of prefix assignment for each subnet inside the
vehicle's mobile network and the RSU's fixed network is out of scope vehicle's mobile network and the RSU's fixed network is out of scope
for this document. Internetworking between two internal networks via for this document. Internetworking between two internal networks via
either V2I or V2V communication requires an exchange of network either V2I or V2V communication requires an exchange of network
prefix and other parameters. prefix and other parameters.
skipping to change at page 16, line 5 skipping to change at page 13, line 5
(RDNSS1), the two hosts (Host1 and Host2), and the two routers (RDNSS1), the two hosts (Host1 and Host2), and the two routers
(Router1 and Router2). There exists another internal network (Fixed (Router1 and Router2). There exists another internal network (Fixed
Network1) inside RSU1. RSU1 has the DNS Server (RDNSS2), one host Network1) inside RSU1. RSU1 has the DNS Server (RDNSS2), one host
(Host3), the two routers (Router3 and Router4), and the collection of (Host3), the two routers (Router3 and Router4), and the collection of
servers (Server1 to ServerN) for various services in the road servers (Server1 to ServerN) for various services in the road
networks, such as the emergency notification and navigation. networks, such as the emergency notification and navigation.
Vehicle1's Router1 (called mobile router) and RSU1's Router3 (called Vehicle1's Router1 (called mobile router) and RSU1's Router3 (called
fixed router) use 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 for an external link (e.g., DSRC) fixed router) use 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 for an external link (e.g., DSRC)
for I2V networking. for I2V networking.
This document addresses the internetworking between the vehicle's 4.2.1.2. V2V-based Internetworking
moving network and the RSU's fixed network in Figure 2 and the
required enhancement of IPv6 protocol suite for the V2I networking. This section discusses the internetworking between the moving
networks of two neighboring vehicles in Figure 3.
(*)<..........>(*) (*)<..........>(*)
| | 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 | | 2001:DB8:1:1::/64
.------------------------------. .---------------------------------. .------------------------------. .---------------------------------.
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| .-------. .------. .-------. | | .-------. .------. .-------. | | .-------. .------. .-------. | | .-------. .------. .-------. |
| | Host1 | |RDNSS1| |Router1| | | |Router3| |RDNSS2| | Host3 | | | | Host1 | |RDNSS1| |Router1| | | |Router3| |RDNSS2| | Host3 | |
| ._______. .______. ._______. | | ._______. .______. ._______. | | ._______. .______. ._______. | | ._______. .______. ._______. |
| ^ ^ ^ | | ^ ^ ^ | | ^ ^ ^ | | ^ ^ ^ |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
skipping to change at page 16, line 38 skipping to change at page 13, line 39
| v v | | v v | | v v | | v v |
| ---------------------------- | | ------------------------------- | | ---------------------------- | | ------------------------------- |
| 2001:DB8:10:2::/64 | | 2001:DB8:30:2::/64 | | 2001:DB8:10:2::/64 | | 2001:DB8:30:2::/64 |
.______________________________. ._________________________________. .______________________________. ._________________________________.
Vehicle1 (Moving Network1) Vehicle2 (Moving Network2) Vehicle1 (Moving Network1) Vehicle2 (Moving Network2)
<----> Wired Link <....> Wireless Link (*) Antenna <----> Wired Link <....> Wireless Link (*) Antenna
Figure 3: Internetworking between Two Vehicle Networks Figure 3: Internetworking between Two Vehicle Networks
4.2.2. V2V-based Internetworking
In Figure 3, the prefix assignment for each subnet inside each In Figure 3, the prefix assignment for each subnet inside each
vehicle's mobile network is done through a prefix delegation vehicle's mobile network is done through a prefix delegation
protocol. protocol.
Figure 3 shows internetworking between the moving networks of two Figure 3 shows internetworking between the moving networks of two
neighboring vehicles. There exists an internal network (Moving neighboring vehicles. There exists an internal network (Moving
Network1) inside Vehicle1. Vehicle1 has the DNS Server (RDNSS1), the Network1) inside Vehicle1. Vehicle1 has the DNS Server (RDNSS1), the
two hosts (Host1 and Host2), and the two routers (Router1 and two hosts (Host1 and Host2), and the two routers (Router1 and
Router2). There exists another internal network (Moving Network2) Router2). There exists another internal network (Moving Network2)
inside Vehicle2. Vehicle2 has the DNS Server (RDNSS2), the two hosts inside Vehicle2. Vehicle2 has the DNS Server (RDNSS2), the two hosts
(Host3 and Host4), and the two routers (Router3 and Router4). (Host3 and Host4), and the two routers (Router3 and Router4).
Vehicle1's Router1 (called mobile router) and Vehicle2's Router3 Vehicle1's Router1 (called mobile router) and Vehicle2's Router3
(called mobile router) use 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 for an external link (called mobile router) use 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 for an external link
(e.g., DSRC) for V2V networking. (e.g., DSRC) for V2V networking.
This document describes the internetworking between the moving The differences between IPWAVE (including Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
networks of two neighboring vehicles in Figure 3 and the required (VANET)) and Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) are as follows:
enhancement of IPv6 protocol suite for the V2V networking.
5. Standardization Activities
This section surveys standard activities for vehicular networks in
standards developing organizations.
5.1. IEEE Guide for WAVE - Architecture
IEEE 1609 is a suite of standards for Wireless Access in Vehicular
Environments (WAVE) developed in the IEEE Vehicular Technology
Society (VTS). They define an architecture and a complementary
standardized set of services and interfaces that collectively enable
secure vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I)
wireless communications.
IEEE 1609.0 provides a description of the WAVE system architecture
and operations (called WAVE reference model) [WAVE-1609.0]. The
reference model of a typical WAVE device includes two data plane
protocol stacks (sharing a common lower stack at the data link and
physical layers): (i) the standard Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
and (ii) the WAVE Short Message Protocol (WSMP) designed for
optimized operation in a wireless vehicular environment. WAVE Short
Messages (WSM) may be sent on any channel. IP traffic is only
allowed on service channels (SCHs), so as to offload high-volume IP
traffic from the control channel (CCH).
The Layer 2 protocol stack distinguishes between the two upper stacks
by the Ethertype field. Ethertype is a 2-octet field in the Logical
Link Control (LLC) header, used to identify the networking protocol
to be employed above the LLC protocol. In particular, it specifies
the use of two Ethertype values (i.e., two networking protocols),
such as IPv6 and WSMP.
Regarding the upper layers, while WAVE communications use standard
port numbers for IPv6-based protocols (e.g., TCP, UDP), they use a
Provider Service Identifier (PSID) as an identifier in the context of
WSMP.
5.2. IEEE Standard for WAVE - Networking Services
IEEE 1609.3 defines services operating at the network and transport
layers, in support of wireless connectivity among vehicle-based
devices, and between fixed roadside devices and vehicle-based devices
using the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short-Range Communications/Wireless
Access in Vehicular Environments (DSRC/WAVE) mode [WAVE-1609.3].
WAVE Networking Services represent layer 3 (networking) and layer 4
(transport) of the OSI communications stack. The purpose is then to
provide addressing and routing services within a WAVE system,
enabling multiple stacks of upper layers above WAVE Networking
Services and multiple lower layers beneath WAVE Networking Services.
Upper layer support includes in-vehicle applications offering safety
and convenience to users.
The WAVE standards support IPv6. IPv6 was selected over IPv4 because
IPv6 is expected to be a viable protocol into the foreseeable future.
Although not described in the WAVE standards, IPv4 has been tunnelled
over IPv6 in some WAVE trials.
The document provides requirements for IPv6 configuration, in
particular for the address setting. It specifies the details of the
different service primitives, among which is the WAVE Routing
Advertisement (WRA), part of the WAVE Service Advertisement (WSA).
When present, the WRA provides information about infrastructure
internetwork connectivity, allowing receiving devices to be
configured to participate in the advertised IPv6 network. For
example, an RSU can broadcast in the WRA portion of its WSA all the
information necessary for an OBU to access an application-service
available over IPv6 through the RSU as a router. This feature
removes the need for IPv6 Router Advertisement messages, which are
based on ICMPv6.
5.3. ETSI Intelligent Transport Systems: GeoNetwork-IPv6
ETSI published a standard specifying the transmission of IPv6 packets
over the ETSI GeoNetworking (GN) protocol [ETSI-GeoNetworking]
[ETSI-GeoNetwork-IP]. IPv6 packet transmission over GN is defined in
ETSI EN 302 636-6-1 [ETSI-GeoNetwork-IP] using a protocol adaptation
sub-layer called "GeoNetworking to IPv6 Adaptation Sub-Layer
(GN6ASL)". It enables an ITS station (ITS-S) running the GN protocol
and an IPv6-compliant protocol layer to: (i) exchange IPv6 packets
with other ITS-S; (ii) acquire globally routable IPv6 unicast
addresses and communicate with any IPv6 host located in the Internet
by having the direct connectivity to the Internet or via other relay
ITS stations; (iii) perform operations as a Mobile Router for network
mobility [RFC3963].
The document introduces three types of virtual link, the first one
providing symmetric reachability by means of stable geographically
scoped boundaries and two others that can be used when the dynamic
definition of the broadcast domain is required. The combination of
these three types of virtual link in the same station allows running
the IPv6 ND protocol including SLAAC [RFC4862] as well as
distributing other IPv6 link-local multicast traffic and, at the same
time, reaching nodes that are outside specific geographic boundaries.
The IPv6 virtual link types are provided by the GN6ASL to IPv6 in the
form of virtual network interfaces.
The document also describes how to support bridging on top of the
GN6ASL, how IPv6 packets are encapsulated in GN packets and
delivered, as well as the support of IPv6 multicast and anycast
traffic, and neighbor discovery. For latency reasons, the standard
strongly recommends to use SLAAC for the address configuration.
Finally, the document includes the required operations to support the
change of pseudonym, e.g., changing IPv6 addresses when the GN
address is changed, in order to prevent attackers from tracking the
ITS-S.
5.4. ISO Intelligent Transport Systems: IPv6 over CALM
ISO published a standard specifying the IPv6 network protocols and
services for Communications Access for Land Mobiles (CALM)
[ISO-ITS-IPv6]. These services are necessary to support the global
reachability of ITS-S, the continuous Internet connectivity for ITS-
S, and the handover functionality required to maintain such
connectivity. This functionality also allows legacy devices to
effectively use an ITS-S as an access router to connect to the
Internet. Essentially, this specification describes how IPv6 is
configured to support ITS-S and provides the associated management
functionality.
The requirements apply to all types of nodes implementing IPv6:
personal, vehicle, roadside, or central node. The standard defines
IPv6 functional modules that are necessary in an IPv6 ITS-S, covering
IPv6 forwarding, interface between IPv6 and lower layers (e.g., LAN
interface), mobility management, and IPv6 security. It defines the
mechanisms to be used to configure the IPv6 address for static nodes
as well as for mobile nodes, while maintaining reachability from the
Internet.
6. IP Address Autoconfiguration
This section surveys IP address autoconfiguration schemes for
vehicular networks, and then discusses problem statement for IP
addressing and address autoconfiguration for vehicular networking.
6.1. Existing Protocols for Address Autoconfiguration
6.1.1. Automatic IP Address Configuration in VANETs
Fazio et al. proposed a vehicular address configuration called VAC
for automatic IP address configuration in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
(VANET) [Address-Autoconf]. VAC uses a distributed dynamic host
configuration protocol (DHCP). This scheme uses a leader playing a
role of a DHCP server within a cluster having connected vehicles
within a VANET. In a connected VANET, vehicles are connected with
each other within communication range. In this VANET, VAC
dynamically elects a leader-vehicle to quickly provide vehicles with
unique IP addresses. The leader-vehicle maintains updated
information on configured addresses in its connected VANET. It aims
at the reduction of the frequency of IP address reconfiguration due
to mobility.
VAC defines "SCOPE" to be a delimited geographic area within which IP
addresses are guaranteed to be unique. When a vehicle is allocated
an IP address from a leader-vehicle with a scope, it is guaranteed to
have a unique IP address while moving within the scope of the leader-
vehicle. If it moves out of the scope of the leader vehicle, it
needs to ask for another IP address from another leader-vehicle so
that its IP address can be unique within the scope of the new leader-
vehicle. This approach may allow for less frequent change of an IP
address than the address allocation from a fixed Internet gateway.
Thus, VAC can support a feasible address autoconfiguration for V2V
scenarios, but the overhead to guarantee the uniqueness of IP
addresses is not ignorable under high-speed mobility.
6.1.2. Using Lane/Position Information
Kato et al. proposed an IPv6 address assignment scheme using lane and
position information [Address-Assignment]. In this addressing
scheme, each lane of a road segment has a unique IPv6 prefix. When
it moves in a lane in a road segment, a vehicle autoconfigures its
IPv6 address with its MAC address and the prefix assigned to the
lane. A group of vehicles constructs a connected VANET within the
same subnet such that their IPv6 addresses have the same prefix.
Whenever it moves to another lane, a vehicle updates its IPv6 address
with the prefix corresponding to the new lane and also joins the
group corresponding to the lane.
However, this address autoconfiguration scheme may have too much
overhead when vehicles change their lanes frequently on the highway.
6.1.3. GeoSAC: Scalable Address Autoconfiguration
Baldessari et al. proposed an IPv6 scalable address autoconfiguration o IPWAVE is not power-constrained operation;
scheme called GeoSAC for vehicular networks [GeoSAC]. GeoSAC uses
geographic networking concepts such that it combines the standard
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (ND) and geographic routing functionality.
It matches geographically-scoped network partitions to individual
IPv6 multicast-capable links. In the standard IPv6, all nodes within
the same link must communicate with each other, but due to the
characteristics of wireless links, this concept of a link is not
clear in vehicular networks. GeoSAC defines a link as a geographic
area having a network partition. This geographic area can have a
connected VANET. Thus, vehicles within the same VANET in a specific
geographic area are regarded as staying in the same link, that is, an
IPv6 multicast link.
The GeoSAC paper identifies eight key requirements of IPv6 address o Traffic can be sourced or sinked outside of IPWAVE;
autoconfiguration for vehicular networks: (i) the configuration of
globally valid addresses, (ii) a low complexity for address
autoconfiguration, (iii) a minimum signaling overhead of address
autoconfiguration, (iv) the support of network mobility through
movement detection, (v) an efficient gateway selection from multiple
RSUs, (vi) a fully distributed address autoconfiguration for network
security, (vii) the authentication and integrity of signaling
messages, and (viii) the privacy protection of vehicles' users.
To support the proposed link concept, GeoSAC performs ad hoc routing o IPWAVE shall support both distributed and centralized operations;
for geographic networking in a sub-IP layer called Car-to-Car (C2C)
NET. Vehicles within the same link can receive an IPv6 router
advertisement (RA) message transmitted by an RSU as a router, so they
can autoconfigure their IPv6 address based on the IPv6 prefix
contained in the RA and perform Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) to
verify the uniqueness of the autoconfigured IP address by the help of
the geographic routing within the link.
For location-based applications, to translate between a geographic o No "sleep" period operation is required for energy saving.
area and an IPv6 prefix belonging to an RSU, this paper takes
advantage of an extended DNS service, using GPS-based addressing and
routing along with geographic IPv6 prefix format [GeoSAC].
Thus, GeoSAC can support the IPv6 link concept through geographic 4.2.2. Latency
routing within a specific geographic area.
6.1.4. Cross-layer Identities Management in ITS Stations The communication delay (i.e., latency) between two vehicular nodes
(vehicle and RSU) should be bounded to a certain threshold. For IP-
based safety applications (e.g., context-aware navigation, adaptive
cruise control, and platooning) in vehicular network, this bounded
data delivery is critical. The real implementations for such
applications are not available, so the feasibility of IP-based safety
applications is not tested yet.
ITS and vehicular networks are built on the concept of an ITS station 4.2.3. Security
(ITS-S) (e.g., vehicle and RSU), which is a common reference model
inspired from the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standard
[Identity-Management]. In vehicular networks using multiple access
network technologies through a cross-layer architecture, a vehicle
with an OBU may have multiple identities corresponding to the access
network interfaces. Wetterwald et al. conducted a comprehensive
study of the cross-layer identity management in vehicular networks
using multiple access network technologies, which constitutes a
fundamental element of the ITS architecture [Identity-Management].
Besides considerations related to the case where ETSI GeoNetworking Security protects vehicles roaming in road networks from the attacks
[ETSI-GeoNetworking] is used, this paper analyzes the major of malicious vehicular nodes, which are controlled by hackers. For
requirements and constraints weighing on the identities of ITS safety applications, the cooperation among vehicles is assumed.
stations, e.g., privacy and compatibility with safety applications Malicious vehicular nodes may disseminate wrong driving information
and communications. The concerns related to security and privacy of (e.g., location, speed, and direction) to make driving be unsafe.
the users need to be addressed for vehicular networking, considering Sybil attack, which tries to illude a vehicle with multiple false
all the protocol layers. In other words, for security and privacy identities, disturbs a vehicle in taking a safe maneuver.
constraints to be met, the IPv6 address of a vehicle should be Applications on IP-based vehicular networking, which are resilient to
derived from a pseudonym-based MAC address and renewed simultaneously such a sybil attack, are not developed and tested yet.
with that changing MAC address. By dynamically changing its IPv6
address, an ITS-S can avoid being tracked by a hacker. However,
sometimes this address update cannot be applied; in some situations,
continuous knowledge about the surrounding vehicles is required.
Also, the ITS-S Identity Management paper defines a cross-layer 4.2.4. Pseudonym Handling
framework that fulfills the requirements on the identities of ITS
stations and analyzes systematically, layer by layer, how an ITS
station can be identified uniquely and safely, whether it is a moving
station (e.g., car or bus using temporary trusted pseudonyms) or a
static station (e.g., RSU and central station). This paper has been
applied to the specific case of the ETSI GeoNetworking as the network
layer, but an identical reasoning should be applied to IPv6 over
802.11 in Outside the Context of a Basic Service Set (OCB) mode now.
6.2. Problem Statement for IP Address Autoconfiguration For the protection of privacy, pseudonym for a vehicle's network
interface is used, which the interface's identifier is changed
periodically. Such a pseudonym affects an IPv6 address based on the
network interface's identifier, and a transport-layer session with an
IPv6 address pair. The pseudonym handling is not implemented and
test yet for applications on IP-based vehicular networking.
This section discusses IP addressing for the V2I and V2V networking. 5. Problem Exploration
There are two approaches for IPv6 addressing in vehicular networks. 5.1. IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB
The first is to use unique local IPv6 unicast addresses (ULAs) for
vehicular networks [RFC4193]. The other is to use global IPv6
addresses for the interoperability with the Internet [RFC4291]. The
former approach has been used sometimes by Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
(MANET) for an isolated subnet. This approach can support the
emergency notification service and navigation service in road
networks. However, for general Internet services (e.g., email
access, web surfing and entertainment services), the latter approach
is required.
For global IP addresses, there are two choices: a multi-link subnet IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB generally follows the standard IPv6
approach for multiple RSUs and a single subnet approach per RSU. In procedure. [IPv6-over-80211-OCB] specifies several details for IPv6
the multi-link subnet approach, which is similar to ULA for MANET, packets transporting over IEEE 802.11-OCB. Especially, an Ethernet
RSUs play a role of layer-2 (L2) switches and the router Adaptation (EA) layer is suggested to be inserted between Logical
interconnected with the RSUs is required. The router maintains the Link Control layer and Network layer. The EA layer is mainly in
location of each vehicle belonging to an RSU for L2 switching. In charge of transforming some parameters between 802.11 MAC layer and
the single subnet approach per RSU, which is similar to the legacy IPv6 layer.
subnet in the Internet, each RSU plays the role of a (layer-3)
router.
6.2.1. Neighbor Discovery 5.2. Neighbor Discovery
Neighbor Discovery (ND) [RFC4861] is a core part of the IPv6 protocol Neighbor Discovery (ND) [RFC4861] is a core part of the IPv6 protocol
suite. This section discusses the need for modifying ND for use with suite. This section discusses the need for modifying ND for use with
V2I networking. The vehicles are moving fast within the vehicular networking (e.g., V2V and V2I). The vehicles are moving
communication coverage of an RSU. The external link between the fast within the communication coverage of a vehicular node (e.g.,
vehicle and the RSU can be used for V2I networking, as shown in vehicle and RSU). The external link between two vehicular nodes can
Figure 2. be used for vehicular networking, as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3.
ND time-related parameters such as router lifetime and Neighbor ND time-related parameters such as router lifetime and Neighbor
Advertisement (NA) interval should be adjusted for high-speed Advertisement (NA) interval should be adjusted for high-speed
vehicles and vehicle density. As vehicles move faster, the NA vehicles and vehicle density. As vehicles move faster, the NA
interval should decrease for the NA messages to reach the neighboring interval should decrease for the NA messages to reach the neighboring
vehicles promptly. Also, as vehicle density is higher, the NA vehicles promptly. Also, as vehicle density is higher, the NA
interval should increase for the NA messages to collide with other NA interval should increase for the NA messages to collide with other NA
messages with lower collision probability. messages with lower collision probability.
6.2.2. IP Address Autoconfiguration 5.2.1. Link Model
This section discusses IP address autoconfiguration for vehicular
networking. For IP address autoconfiguration, high-speed vehicles
should also be considered. For V2I networking, the legacy IPv6
stateless address autoconfiguration [RFC4862], as shown in Figure 1,
may not perform well. This is because vehicles can travel through
the communication coverage of the RSU faster than the completion of
address autoconfiguration (with Router Advertisement and Duplicate
Address Detection (DAD) procedures).
To mitigate the impact of vehicle speed on address configuration, the
RSU can perform IP address autoconfiguration including the DAD
proactively as an ND proxy on behalf of the vehicles. If vehicles
periodically report their movement information (e.g., position,
trajectory, speed, and direction) to TCC, TCC can coordinate the RSUs
under its control for the proactive IP address configuration of the
vehicles with the mobility information of the vehicles. DHCPv6 (or
Stateless DHCPv6) can be used for the IP address autoconfiguration
[RFC3315][RFC3736].
In the case of a single subnet per RSU, the delay to change IPv6 IPv6 protocols work under certain assumptions for the link model that
address through DHCPv6 procedure is not suitable since vehicles move do not necessarily hold in WAVE [IPv6-WAVE]. For instance, some IPv6
fast. Some modifications are required for the high-speed vehicles protocols assume symmetry in the connectivity among neighboring
that quickly traverses the communication coverages of multiple RSUs. interfaces. However, interference and different levels of
Some modifications are required for both stateless address transmission power may cause unidirectional links to appear in a WAVE
autoconfiguration and DHCPv6. Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) can be used for link model.
the fast update of a vehicle's care-of address for the current RSU to
communicate with the vehicle [RFC6275].
For IP address autoconfiguration in V2V, vehicles can autoconfigure Also, in an IPv6 link, it is assumed that all interfaces which are
their address using prefixes for ULAs for vehicular networks configured with the same subnet prefix are on the same IP link.
[RFC4193]. Hence, there is a relationship between link and prefix, besides the
different scopes that are expected from the link-local and global
types of IPv6 addresses. Such a relationship does not hold in a WAVE
link model due to node mobility and highly dynamic topology.
High-speed mobility should be considered for a light-overhead address Thus, IPv6 ND should be extended to support the concept of a link for
autoconfiguration. A cluster leader can have an IPv6 prefix an IPv6 prefix in terms of multicast in VANET.
[Address-Autoconf]. Each lane in a road segment can have an IPv6
prefix [Address-Assignment]. A geographic region under the
communication range of an RSU can have an IPv6 prefix [GeoSAC].
IPv6 ND should be extended to support the concept of a link for an 5.2.2. MAC Address Pseudonym
IPv6 prefix in terms of multicast. Ad Hoc routing is required for
the multicast in a connected VANET with the same IPv6 prefix
[GeoSAC]. A rapid DAD should be supported to prevent or reduce IPv6
address conflicts.
In the ETSI GeoNetworking, for the sake of security and privacy, an As the ETSI GeoNetworking, for the sake of security and privacy, an
ITS station (e.g., vehicle) can use pseudonyms for its network ITS station (e.g., vehicle) can use pseudonyms for its network
interface identities and the corresponding IPv6 addresses interface identities (e.g., MAC address) and the corresponding IPv6
[Identity-Management]. For the continuity of an end-to-end transport addresses [Identity-Management]. Whenever the network interface
session, the cross-layer identity management has to be performed identifier changes, the IPv6 address based on the network interface
carefully. identifier should be updated. For the continuity of an end-to-end
transport-layer (e.g., TCP, UDP, and SCTP) session, the IP addresses
7. Routing of the transport-layer session should be notified to both the end
points and the packets of the session should be forwarded to their
This section surveys routing in vehicular networks, and then destinations with the changed network interface identifier and IPv6
discusses problem statement for routing in vehicular networks. address.
7.1. Existing Routing Protocols
7.1.1. Experimental Evaluation for IPv6 over GeoNet
Tsukada et al. presented a work that aims at combining IPv6
networking and a Car-to-Car Network routing protocol (called C2CNet)
proposed by the Car2Car Communication Consortium (C2C-CC), which is
an architecture using a geographic routing protocol
[VANET-Geo-Routing]. In the C2C-CC architecture, the C2CNet layer is
located between IPv6 and link layers. Thus, an IPv6 packet is
delivered with an outer C2CNet header, which introduces the challenge
of how to support the communication types defined in C2CNet in IPv6
layer.
The main goal of GeoNet is to enhance the C2C specifications and
create a prototype software implementation interfacing with IPv6.
C2CNet is specified in C2C-CC as a geographic routing protocol.
In order to assess the performance of C2CNet, the authors measured
the network performance with UDP and ICMPv6 traffic using iperf and
ping6. The test results show that IPv6 over C2CNet does not have too
much delay (less than 4ms with a single hop) and is feasible for
vehicle communication. In the outdoor testbed, they developed
AnaVANET to enable hop-by-hop performance measurement and position
trace of the vehicles.
The combination of IPv6 multicast and GeoBroadcast was implemented;
however, the authors did not evaluate the performance with such a
scenario. One of the reasons is that a sufficiently high number of
receivers are necessary to properly evaluate multicast but
experimental evaluation is limited in the number of vehicles (4 in
this study).
7.1.2. Location-Aided Gateway Advertisement and Discovery
Abrougui et al. presented a gateway discovery scheme for VANET,
called Location-Aided Gateway Advertisement and Discovery (LAGAD)
mechanism[LAGAD]. LAGAD enables vehicles to route packets toward the
closest gateway quickly by discovering nearby gateways. The major
problem that LAGAD tackles is to determine the radius of
advertisement zone of a gateway, which depends on the location and
velocity of a vehicle.
A gateway sends advertisement (GAdv) messages perodically to
neighboring vehicles. When receiving a request message from a
vehicle, the gateway replies to the source vehicle by a gateway reply
(GRep) message. The GRep message contains the location information
of the gateway and the subnet prefix of the gateway by which the
source vehicle can send data packet via the gateway. The gateway
sends GAdv messages through all vehicles within an advertisement zone
built based on the velocity of the source vehicle.
The source vehicle starts gateway discovery process by sending
routing request packets. The routing request packet is encapsulated
into a Gateway Reactive Discovery (GRD) packet or a GReq message to
send to the surrounding vehicles. The GRD contains both discovery
and routing information as well as the location and the velocity of
the source vehicle. Meanwhile, the intermediate vehicles in an
advertisement zone of the gateway forward packets sent from the
source vehicle. The gateway continuously updates the advertisement
zone whenever receiving a new data packet from the source vehicle.
7.2. Routing Problem Statement
IP address autoconfiguration should be modified to support the
efficient networking. Due to network fragmentation, vehicles
sometimes cannot communicate with each other temporarily. IPv6 ND
should consider the temporary network fragmentation. IPv6 link
concept can be supported by Geographic routing to connect vehicles
with the same IPv6 prefix.
The gateway advertisement and discovery process for routing in VANET
can probably work when the density of vehicle in a road network is
not sparse. A sparse vehicular network challenges the gateway
discovery since network fragmentation interrupts the discovery
process.
8. Mobility Management
This section surveys mobility management schemes in vehicular
networks to support handover, and then discusses problem statement
for mobility management in vehicular networks.
8.1. Existing Protocols
8.1.1. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks with Network Fragmentation
Chen et al. tackled the issue of network fragmentation in VANET
environments [IP-Passing-Protocol]. The paper proposes a protocol
that can postpone the time to release IP addresses to the DHCP server
and select a faster way to get the vehicle's new IP address, when the
vehicle density is low or the speeds of vehicles are varied. In such
circumstances, the vehicle may not be able to communicate with the
intended vehicle either directly or through multi-hop relays as a
consequence of network fragmentation.
The paper claims that although the existing IP passing and mobility
solutions may reduce handoff delay, but they cannot work properly on
VANET especially with network fragmentation. This is due to the fact
that messages cannot be transmitted to the intended vehicles. When
network fragmentation occurs, it may incur longer handoff latency and
higher packet loss rate. The main goal of this study is to improve
existing works by proposing an IP passing protocol for VANET with
network fragmentation.
The paper makes the assumption that on the highway, when a vehicle
moves to a new subnet, the vehicle will receive broadcast packet from
the target Base Station (BS), and then perform the handoff procedure.
The handoff procedure includes two parts, such as the layer-2 handoff
(new frequency channel) and the layer-3 handover (a new IP address).
The handoff procedure contains movement detection, DAD procedure, and
registration. In the case of IPv6, the DAD procedure is time
consuming and may cause the link to be disconnected.
This paper proposes another handoff mechanism. The handoff procedure
contains the following phases. The first is the information
collecting phase, where each mobile node (vehicle) will broadcast its
own and its neighboring vehicles' locations, moving speeds, and
directions periodically. The remaining phases are, the fast IP
acquiring phase, the cooperation of vehicle phase, the make before
break phase, and the route redirection phase.
Simulations results show that for the proposed protocol, network
fragmentation ratio incurs less impact. Vehicle speed and density
has great impact on the performance of the IP passing protocol
because vehicle speed and vehicle density will affect network
fragmentation ratio. A longer IP lifetime can provide a vehicle with
more chances to acquire its IP address through IP passing.
Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can reduce IP
acquisition time and packet loss rate, so extend IP lifetime with
extra message overhead.
8.1.2. Hybrid Centralized-Distributed Mobility Management
Nguyen et al. proposed a hybrid centralized-distributed mobility
management called H-DMM to support highly mobile vehicles [H-DMM].
Legacy mobility management systems are not suitable for high-speed
scenarios because a registration delay is imposed proportional to the
distance between a vehicle and its anchor network. H-DMM is designed
to satisfy requirements such as service disruption time, end-to-end
delay, packet delivery cost, and tunneling cost.
H-DMM proposes a central node called central mobility anchor (CMA),
which plays the role of a local mobility anchor (LMA) in PMIPv6.
When it enters a mobile access router (MAR) as an access router, a
vehicle obtains a prefix from the MAR (called MAR-prefix) according
to the legacy DMM protocol. In addition, it obtains another prefix
from the CMA (called LMA-prefix) for a PMIPv6 domain. Whenever it
performs a handover between the subnets for two adjacent MARs, a
vehicle keeps the LMA-prefix while obtaining a new prefix from the
new MAR. For a new data exchange with a new CN, the vehicle can
select the MAR-prefix or the LMA-prefix for its own source IPv6
address. If the number of active prefixes is greater than a
threshold, the vehicle uses the LMA-prefix-based IPv6 address as its
source address. In addition, it can continue receiving data packets
with the destination IPv6 addresses based on the previous prefixes
through the legacy DMM protocol.
Thus, H-DMM can support an efficient tunneling for a high-speed
vehicle that moves fast across the subnets of two adjacent MARs.
However, when H-DMM asks a vehicle to perform DAD for the uniqueness
test of its configured IPv6 address in the subnet of the next MAR,
the activation of the configured IPv6 address for networking will be
delayed. This indicates that a proactive DAD by a network component
(i.e., MAR and LMA) can shorten the address configuration delay of
the current DAD triggered by a vehicle.
8.1.3. Hybrid Architecture for Network Mobility Management
Nguyen et al. proposed H-NEMO, a hybrid centralized-distributed
mobility management scheme to handle IP mobility of moving vehicles
[H-NEMO]. The standard Network Mobility (NEMO) basic support, which
is a centralized scheme for network mobility, provides IP mobility
for a group of users in a moving vehicle, but also inherits the
drawbacks from Mobile IPv6, such as suboptimal routing and signaling
overhead in nested scenarios as well as reliability and scalability
issues. On the contrary, distributed schemes such as the recently
proposed Distributed Mobility Management (DMM) locates the mobility
anchor at the network edge and enables mobility support only to
traffic flows that require such support. However, in high speed
moving vehicles, DMM may suffer from high signaling cost and high
handover latency.
The proposed H-NEMO architecture is not designed for a specific
wireless technology. Instead, it defines a general architecture and
signaling protocol so that a mobile node can obtain mobility from
fixed locations or mobile platforms, and also allows the use of DMM
or Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6), depending on flow characteristics and
mobility patterns of the node. For IP addressing allocation, a
mobile router (MR) or the mobile node (MN) connected to an MR in a
NEMO obtain two sets of prefixes: one from the central mobility
anchor and one from the mobile access router (MAR). In this way, the
MR/MN may choose a more stable prefix for long-lived flows to be
routed via the central mobility anchor and the MAR-prefix for short-
lived flows to be routed following the DMM concept. The multi-hop
scenario is considered under the concept of a nested-NEMO.
Nguyen et al. did not provide simulation-based evaluations, but they
provided an analytical evaluation that considered signaling and
packet delivery costs, and showed that H-NEMO outperforms the
previous proposals, which are either centralized or distributed ones
with NEMO support. For some measures, such as the signaling cost,
H-NEMO may be more costly than centralized schemes when the velocity
of the node is increasing, but behaves better in terms of packet
delivery cost and handover delay.
8.1.4. NEMO-Enabled Localized Mobility Support
In [NEMO-LMS], the authors proposed an architecture to enable IP
mobility for moving networks using a network-based mobility scheme
based on PMIPv6. In PMIPv6, only mobile terminals are provided with
IP mobility. In contrast to from host-based mobility, PMIPv6 shifts
the signaling to the network side, so that the mobile access gateway
(MAG) is in charge of detecting connection/disconnection of the
mobile node, upon which the signaling to the Local Mobility Anchor
(LMA) is triggered to guarantee a stable IP addressing assignment
when the mobile node performs handover to a new MAG.
Soto et al. proposed NEMO support in PMIPv6 (N-PMIP). In this
scheme, the functionality of the MAG is extended to the mobile router
(MR), also called a mobile MAG (mMAG). The functionality of the
mobile terminal remains unchanged, but it can receive an IPv6 prefix
belonging to the PMIPv6 domain through the new functionality of the
mMAG. Therefore, in N-PMIP, the mobile terminal connects to the MR
as if it is connecting to a fixed MAG, and the MR connects to the
fixed MAG using PMIPv6 signaling. When the mobile terminal roams to
a new MAG or a new MR, the network forwards the packets through the
LMA. Hence, N-PMIP defines an extended functionality in the LMA that
enables a recursive lookup. First, it locates the binding entry
corresponding to the mMAG. Next, it locates the entry corresponding
to the fixed MAG, after which the LMA can encapsulate packets to the
mMAG to which the mobile terminal is currently connected.
The performance of N-PMIP was evaluated through simulations and
compared to a NEMO+MIPv6+PMIPv6 scheme, with better results obtained
in N-PMIP. The work did not consider the case of multi-hop
connectivity in the vehicular scenario. In addition, since the MR
should be a trusted entity in the PMIP domain, it requires specific
security associations that were not addressed in [NEMO-LMS].
8.1.5. Network Mobility for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Chen et al. proposed a network mobility protocol to reduce handoff
delay and maintain Internet connectivity to moving vehicles in a
highway [NEMO-VANET]. In this work, vehicles can acquire IP
addresses from other vehicles through V2V communications. At the
time the vehicle goes out of the coverage of the base station,
another vehicle may assist the roaming car to acquire a new IP
address. Also, cars on the same or opposite lane are authorized to
assist the vehicle to perform a pre-handoff.
The authors assumed that the wireless connectivity is provided by
WiFi and WiMAX access networks. Also, they considered scenarios in
which a single vehicle, i.e., a bus, may need two mobile routers in
order to have an effective pre-handoff procedure. Evaluations are
performed through simulations and the comparison schemes are the
standard NEMO Basic Support protocol and the fast NEMO Basic Support
protocol. Authors did not mention applicability of the scheme in
other scenarios such as in urban transport schemes.
8.1.6. Performance Analysis of P-NEMO for ITS
Lee et al. proposed P-NEMO, which is a PMIPv6-based IP mobility
management scheme to maintain the Internet connectivity at the
vehicle as a mobile network, and provides a make-before-break
mechanism when vehicles switch to a new access network
[PMIP-NEMO-Analysis]. Since the standard PMIPv6 only supports
mobility for a single node, the solution in [PMIP-NEMO-Analysis]
adapts the protocol to reduce the signaling when a local network is
to be served by an in-vehicle mobile router. To achieve this, P-NEMO
extends the binding update lists at both MAG and LMA, so that the
mobile router (MR) can receive a home network prefix (HNP) and a
mobile network prefix (MNP). The latter prefix enables mobility for
the moving network, instead of a single node as in the standard
PMIPv6.
An additional feature is proposed by Lee et al. named fast P-NEMO
(FP-NEMO). It adopts the fast handover approach standardized for
PMIPv6 in [RFC5949] with both predictive and reactive modes. The
difference of the proposed feature with the standard version is that
by using the extensions provided by P-NEMO, the predictive
transferring of the context from the old MAG to the new MAG also
includes information for the moving network, i.e., the MNP. In that
way, mobility support can be achieved not only for the mobile router,
but also for mobile nodes traveling with the vehicle.
The performance of P-NEMO and F-NEMO is evaluated through an
analytical model that is compared only to the standard NEMO-BS. No
comparison was provided to other schemes that enable network mobility
in PMIPv6 domains, such as the one presented in [NEMO-LMS].
8.1.7. Integration of VANets and Fixed IP Networks
Peng et al. proposed a novel mobility management scheme for
integration of VANET and fixed IP networks [VNET-MM]. The proposed
scheme deals with mobility of vehicles based on a street layout
instead of a general two dimensional ad hoc network. This scheme
makes use of the information provided by vehicular networks to reduce
mobility management overhead. It allows multiple base stations that
are close to a destination vehicle to discover the connection to the
vehicle simultaneously, which leads to an improvement of the
connectivity and data delivery ratio without redundant messages. The
performance was assessed by using a road traffic simulator called
SUMO (Simulation of Urban Mobility).
8.1.8. SDN-based Mobility Management for 5G Networks
Nguyen et al. extended their previous works on a vehicular adapted
DMM considering a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) architecture
[SDN-DMM]. On one hand, in their previous work, Nguyen et al.
proposed DMM-PMIP and DMM-MIP architectures for VANET. The major
innovation behind DMM is to distribute the Mobility Functions (MFs)
through the network instead of concentrating them in one bottleneck
MF, or in a hierarchically organized backbone of MFs. Highly mobile
vehicular networks impose frequent IP route optimizations that lead
to suboptimal routes (detours) between CN and vehicles. The
suboptimality critically increases when there are nested or
hierarchical MF nodes. Therefore, flattening the IP mobility
architecture significantly reduces detours, as it is the role of the
last MF to get the closest next MF (in most cases nearby). Yet, with
an MF being distributed throughout the network, a Control plane
becomes necessary in order to provide a solution for CN to address
vehicles. The various solutions developed by Nguyen at al. not only
showed the large benefit of a DMM approach for IPv6 mobility
management, but also emphasized the critical role of an efficient
Control plane.
One the other hand, SDN has recently gained attention from the
Internet Networking community due to its capacity to provide a
significantly higher scalability of highly dynamic flows, which is
required by future 5G dynamic networks In particular, SDN also
suggests a strict separation between a Control plane (SDN-Controller)
and a Data plane (OpenFlow Switches) based on the OpenFlow standard.
Such an architecture has two advantages that are critical for IP
mobility management in VANET. First, unlike traditional routing
mechanisms, OpenFlow focuses on flows rather than optimized routes.
Accordingly, they can optimize routing based on flows (grouping
multiple flows in one route, or allowing one flow to have different
routes), and can detect broken flows much earlier than the
traditional networking solutions. Second, SDN controllers may
dynamically reprogram (reconfigure) OpenFlow Switches (OFS) to always
keep an optimal route between CN and a vehicular node.
Nguyen et. al observed the mutual benefits IPv6 DMM could obtain from
an SDN architecture, and then proposed an SDN-based DMM for VANET.
In their proposed architecture, a PMIP-DMM is used, where MF is OFS
for the Data plane, and one or more SDN controllers handle the
Control plane. The evaluation and prototype in the paper prove that
the proposed architecture can provide a higher scalability than the
standard DMM.
The SDN-DMM paper makes several observations leading to a strong
suggestion that IP mobility management should be based on an SDN
architecture. First, SDN will be integrated into future Internet and
5G in the near future. Second, after separating the Identity and
Routing addressing, IP mobility management further requires to
separate the Control from the Data plane if it needs to remain
scalable for VANET. Finally, Flow-based routing (in particular
OpenFlow standard) will be required in future heterogeneous vehicular
networks (e.g., multi-RAT and multi-protocol) and the SDN coupled
with DMM provides a double benefit of dynamic flow detection/
reconfiguration and short(-er) route optimizations.
8.1.9. IP Mobility for VANETs: Challenges and Solutions
Cespedes et al. provided a survey of the challenges for NEMO Basic
Support for VANET [Vehicular-IP-MM]. NEMO allows the management of a
group of nodes (a mobile network) rather than a single node.
However, although a vehicle and even a platoon of vehicles could be
seen as a group of nodes, NEMO has not been designed considering the
particularities of VANET. For example, NEMO builds a tunnel between
an MR (on board of a vehicle) and its HA, which in a VANET context is
suboptimal, for instance due to over-the-air tunneling cost. Also, a
detour may be taken by the MR's HA, even if the CN is nearby.
Furthermore, route optimization is needed when the MR moves to a new
AR.
Cespedes et al. first summarize the requirements of IP mobility
management, such as reduced power at end-device, reduced handover
event, reduced complexity, or reduced bandwidth consumption. VANET
adds the following requirements, such as minimum signaling for route
optimization (RO), per-flow separability, security and binding
privacy protection, multi-homing, and switching HA. As observed,
these provide several challenges to IP mobility and NEMO BS for
VANET.
Cespedes et al. then describe various optimization schemes available
for NEMO BS. Considering a single hop connection to CN, one major
optimization direction is to avoid the HA detour and reach the CN
directly. In that direction, a few optimizations are proposed, such
as creating an IP tunnel between the MR and the CR directly, creating
an IP tunnel between the MR and a CR (rather than the HA), a
delegation mechanism allowing visiting nodes to use MIPv6 directly
rather than NEMO or finally intra-NEMO optimization for a direct path
within NEMO bypassing HAs.
Specific to VANET, multi-hop connection is possible to the fixed
network. In that case, NEMO BS must be enhanced to avoid requiring
that the path to immediate neighbors must pass by the respective HAs
instead of directly. More specifically, two approaches are proposed
to rely on VANET sub-IP multi-hop routing to hide a NEMO complex
topology (e.g., Nested NEMO) and provide a direct route between two
VANET nodes. Generally, one major challenge is security and privacy
when opening a multi-hop route between a VANET and a CN.
Heterogeneous multi-hop in a VANET (e.g., relying on various access
technologies) corresponds to another challenge for NEMO BS as well.
Cespedes et al. conclude their paper with an overview of critical
research challenges, such as Anchor Point location, the optimized
usage of geographic information at the subIP as well as at the IP
level to improve NEMO BS, security and privacy, and the addressing
allocation schema for NEMO.
In summary, this paper illustrates that NEMO BS for VANET should
avoid the HA detour as well as opening IP tunnels over the air.
Also, NEMO BS could use geographic information for subIP routing when
a direct link between vehicles is required to reach an AR, but also
anticipate handovers and optimize ROs. From an addressing
perspective, dynamic MNP assignments should be preferred, but should
be secured in particular during binding update (BU).
8.2. Problem Statement for Mobility-Management
This section discusses an IP mobility support in V2I networking. In
a single subnet per RSU, vehicles continually cross the communication
coverages of adjacent RSUs. During this crossing, TCP/UDP sessions
can be maintained through IP mobility support, such as MIPv6
[RFC6275], Proxy MIPv6 [RFC5213][RFC5949], and Distributed Mobility
Management (DMM) [RFC7333][RFC7429]. Since vehicles move fast along
roadways, high speed should be enabled by the parameter configuration
in the IP mobility management. With the periodic reports of the
movement information from the vehicles, TCC can coordinate RSUs and
other network compoments under its control for the proactive mobility
management of the vehicles along the movement of the vehicles.
To support the mobility of a vehicle's moving network, Network
Mobility Basic Support Protocol (NEMO) can be used [RFC3963]. Like
MIPv6, the high speed of vehicles should be considered for a
parameter configuration in NEMO.
Mobility Management (MM) solution design varies, depending on
scenarios: highway vs. urban roadway. Hybrid schemes (NEMO + PMIP,
PMIP + DMM, etc.) usually show better performance than pure schemes.
Most schemes assume that IP address configuration is already set up.
Most schemes have been tested only at either simulation or analytical
level. SDN can be considered as a player in the MM solution.
9. DNS Naming Service
This section surveys and analyzes DNS naming service to translate a
device's DNS name into the corresponding IP address, and then
discusses problem statement for DNS naming service in vehicular
networks.
9.1. Existing Protocols
9.1.1. Multicast DNS
Multicast DNS (mDNS)[RFC6762] allows devices in one-hop communication
range to resolve each other's DNS name into the corresponding IP
address in multicast. Each device has a DNS resolver and a DNS
server. The DNS resolver generates a DNS query for the device's
application and the DNS server responds to a DNS query corresponding
to its device's DNS name.
9.1.2. DNS Name Autoconfiguration for IoT Devices
DNS Name Autoconfiguration (DNSNA) [ID-DNSNA] proposes a DNS naming
service for Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices in a large-scale
network.
The DNS naming service of DNSNA consists of four steps, such as DNS
name generation, DNS name duplication detection, DNS name
registration, and DNS name list retrieval.
First, in DNS name generation, DNSNA allows each IoT device to
generate its own DNS name with a DNS suffix (acquired from ND or
DHCP) and its device information (e.g., vendor, model, and serial
number).
Second, in DNS name duplication detection, each device checks whether
its generated DNS name is used by another IoT device in the same
subnet.
Third, in DNS name registration, each device registers its DNS name
and the corresponding IPv6 address into a designated DNS server via a
router. The router periodically collects DNS information of IoT
devices in its the subnets corresponding ot its network interfaces.
Last, in DNS name list retrieval, a user can retrieve the DNS name
list of IoT devices available to the user through the designated DNS
server. Once the user retrieves the list having a DNS name and the
corresponding IP address(es), it can monitor and remote-control an
IoT device.
9.2. Problem Statement 5.2.3. Prefix Dissemination/Exchange
The DNS name resolution translates a DNS name into the corresponding A vehicle and an RSU can have their internal network, as shown in
IPv6 address through a recursive DNS server (RDNSS) within the Figure 2 and Figure 3. In this case, nodes in within the internal
vehicle's moving network and DNS servers in the Internet networks of two vehicular nodes (e.g., vehicle and RSU) want to
[RFC1034][RFC1035], which are located outside the VANET. The RDNSSes communicate with each other. For this communication, the network
can be advertised by RA DNS Option or DHCP DNS Option into the prefix dissemination or exchange is required. It is assumed that a
subnets within the vehicle's moving network. vehicular node has an external network interface and its internal
network. The standard IPv6 ND needs to be extended for the
communication between the internal-network vehicular nodes by letting
each of them know the other side's prefix with a new ND option
[ID-Vehicular-ND].
mDNS is designed for a small ad hoc network with wireless/wired one- 5.2.4. Routing
hop communication range. If it is used in a vehicle's mobile network
having multiple subnets, mDNS cannot effectively work in such a
multi-hop network. This is because the DNS query message of each DNS
resolver should be multicasted into the whole mobile network, leading
to a large volume of DNS traffic.
DNSNA is designed for a large-scale network with multiple subnets. For Neighbor Discovery in vehicular networks (called vehicular ND),
If it is used in a vehicle's mobile network having multiple subnets, Ad Hoc routing is required for either unicast or multicast in the
DNSNA can effectively work in such a multi-hop network. This is links in a connected VANET with the same IPv6 prefix [GeoSAC]. Also,
because the DNS query message of each DNS resolver should be a rapid DAD should be supported to prevent or reduce IPv6 address
unicasted to the designated DNS server. conflicts in such links.
DNSNA allows each host (e.g., in-vehicle device and a user's mobile 5.3. Mobility Management
device) within a vehicle's moving network to generate its unique DNS
name and registers it into a DNS server within the vehicle's moving
network [ID-DNSNA]. With Vehicle Identification Number (VIN), a
unique DNS suffix can be constructed as a DNS domain for the
vehicle's moving network. Each host can generate its DNS name and
register it into the local RDNSS in the vehicle's moving network.
10. Service Discovery The seamless connectivity and timely data exchange between two end
points requires an efficient mobility management including location
management and handover. Most of vehicles are equipped with a GPS
navigator as a dedicated navigation system or a smartphone App. With
this GPS navigator, vehicles can share their current position and
trajectory (i.e., navigation path) with TCC. TCC can predict the
future positions of the vehicles with their mobility information
(i.e., the current position, speed, direction, and trajectory). With
the prediction of the vehicle mobility, TCC supports RSUs to perform
DAD, data packet routing, and handover in a proactive manner.
This section surveys and analyzes service discovery to translate a 5.4. Vehicle Identity Management
required service into an IP address of a device to provide such a
service, and then discusses problem statement for service discovery
in vehicular networks.
10.1. Existing Protocols A vehicle can have multiple network interfaces using different access
10.1.1. mDNS-based Service Discovery network technologies [Identity-Management]. These multiple network
interfaces mean multiple identities. To identify a vehicle with
multiple indenties, a Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) can be used
as a globally unique vehicle identifier.
As a popular existing service discovery protocol, DNS-based Service To support the seamless connectivity over the multiple identities, a
Discovery (DNS-SD) [RFC6763] with mDNS [RFC6762] provides service cross-layer network architecture is required with vertical handover
discovery. functionality [Identity-Management].
DNS-SD uses a DNS service (SRV) resource record (RR) [RFC2782] to 5.5. Multihop V2X
support the service discovery of services provided by a device or
server. An SRV RR contains a service instance name, consisting of an
instance name (i.e., device), a service name, a transport layer
protocol, a domain name, the corresponding port number, and the DNS
name of the device eligible for the requested service. With this
DNS-SD, a host can search for a service instance with the SRV RR to
discover a list of devices corresponding to the searched service
type.
10.1.2. ND-based Service Discovery Multihop packet forwarding among vehicles in 802.11-OCB mode shows an
unfavorable performance due to the common known broadcast-storm
problem [Broadcast-Storm]. This broadcast-storm problem can be
mitigated by the coordination (or scheduling) of a cluster head in a
connected VANET or an RSU in an intersection area, which is a
coordinator for the access to wireless channels.
Vehicular ND [ID-Vehicular-ND] proposes an extension of IPv6 ND for 5.6. Multicast
the prefix and service discovery. Vehicles and RSUs can announce the
network prefixes and services in their internal network via ND
messages containing ND options with the prefix and service
information. Since it does not need any additional service discovery
protocol in the application layer, this ND-based approach can provide
vehicles and RSUs with the rapid discovery of the network prefixes
and services.
10.2. Problem Statement IP multicast in vehicular network environments is especially useful
for various services. For instance, an automobile manufacturer can
multicast a particular group/class/type of vehicles for service
notification. As another example, a vehicle or an RSU can
disseminate alert messages in a particular area [Multicast-Alert].
Vehicles need to discover services (e.g., road condition In general IEEE 802 wireless media, some performance issues about
notification, navigation service, and entertainment) provided by multicast are found in [Multicast-Considerations-802]. Since
infrastructure nodes in a fixed network via RSU, as shown in serveral procedures and functions based on IPv6 use multicast for
Figure 2. During the passing of an intersection or road segment with control-plane messages, such as Neighbor Discovery (called ND) and
an RSU, vehicles should perform this service discovery quickly. For Service Discovery, [Multicast-Considerations-802] describes that the
these purposes, service discovery should be performed quickly. ND process may fail due to unreliable wireless link, causing failure
of the DAD process. Also, the Router Advertisement messages can be
lost in multicasting.
mDNS-based DNS-SD [RFC6762][RFC6763] can be used for service 5.7. DNS Naming Services and Service Discovery
discovery between vehicles or between a vehicle and an RSU by using a
multicast protocol, the service discovery requires a nonnegligible
service delay due to service discovery. This is because the service
discovery message should traverse the mobile network or fixed network
through multicasting. This may hinder the prompt service usage of
the vehicles from the fixed network via RSU.
One feasible approach is a piggyback service discovery during the When two vehicular nodes communicate with each other with the DNS
prefix exchange of network prefixes for the networking between a name of the partner node, DNS naming service (i.e., DNS name
vehicle's moving network and an RSU's fixed network. That is, the resolution) is required. As shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3, a
message of the prefix exchange can include service information, such recursive DNS server (RDNSS) within an internal network can perform
as each service's IP address, transport layer protocol, and port such DNS name resolution for the sake of other vehicular nodes.
number. The Vehicular ND [ID-Vehicular-ND] can support this approach
efficiently.
11. Security and Privacy A service discovery service is required for an application in a
vehicular node to search for another application or server in another
vehicular node, which resides in either the same internal network or
the other internal network. In V2I or V2V networking, as shown in
Figure 2 and Figure 3, such a service discovery service can be
provided by either DNS-based Service Discovery (DNS-SD) [RFC6763]
with mDNS [RFC6762] or the vehicular ND with a new option for service
discovery [ID-Vehicular-ND].
This section surveys security and privacy in vehicular networks, and 5.8. IPv6 over Cellular Networks
then discusses problem statement for security and privacy in
vehicular networks.
11.1. Existing Protocols IP has been supported in celluar networks since the time of General
Packet Radio Service (GPRS) in the 2nd generation cellular networks
of Global System for Mobile communications (2G-GSM) developed and
maintained by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). The 2G
and 3G-based radio accesses separate end-user data traffic (User
Plane) from network transport traffic among network elements
(Transport Plane). The two planes run independently in terms of
addressing and the IP version. The Transport Plane forms tunnels to
transport user data traffic [IPv6-3GPP-Survey].
11.1.1. Securing Vehicular IPv6 Communications The 4G-Long-Term-Evolution (4G-LTE) radio access simplifies the
complex architecture of GPRS core network by introduing the Evolved
Packet Core (EPC). Both 2G/3G and 4G-LTE system use Access Point
Name (APN) to bridge user data and outside network. User traffic is
transported via Packet Data Protocol (PDP) Contexts in GPRS, and
Packet Data Network (PDN) Connections in EPC. Different traffics at
a user equipment (UE) side need to connect to different APNs through
multiple PDP Contexts or PDN Connections. Each of the context or the
connection needs to have its own IP address.
Fernandez et al. proposed a secure vehicular IPv6 communication IPv6 is partially supported in 2G/3G and 4G-LTE. In 2G/3G, a UE can
scheme using Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2) and Internet be allocated an IPv6 address via two different ways, IPv6 and IPv4v6
Protocol Security (IPsec) [Securing-VCOMM]. This scheme aims at the PDP Contexts. By IPv4v6 PDP Context, both an IPv4 address and an /64
security support for IPv6 Network Mobility (NEMO) for in-vehicle IPv6 prefix are allocated. In 4G-LTE, the IPv6 address allocation
devices inside a vehicle via a Mobile Router (MR). An MR has has a different process compared with that in 2G/3G networks. The
multiple wireless interfaces, such as 3G, IEEE 802.11p, WiFi, and major difference is that 4G-LTE builds the IP connectivity at the
WiMAX. The proposed architecture consists of Vehicle ITS Station beginning of a UE attachment, whereas the IP connectivity of 2G/3G
(Vehicle ITS-S), Roadside ITS Station (Roadside ITS-S), and Central networks is created on demand. All 3GPP networks (i.e., 2G/3G and
ITS Station (Central ITS-S). Vehicle ITS-S is a vehicle having a 4G-LTE) only support SLAAC address allocation, and do not suggest
mobile Network along with an MR. Roadside ITS-S is an RSU as a performing DAD. In addition, 3GPP networks remove link-layer address
gateway to connect vehicular networks to the Internet. Central ITS-S resolution, e.g., ND Protocol for IPv6, due to the assumption that
is a TCC as a Home Agent (HA) for the location management of vehicles the GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node) in 2G/3G networks or the P-GW
having their MR. (Packet Data Network Gateway) in 4G-LTE network is always the first-
hop router for a UE.
The proposed secure vehicular IPv6 communication scheme sets up IPsec Recently, 3GPP has announced a new technical specification, Release
secure sessions for control and data traffic between the MR in a 14 (3GPP-R14), which proposes an architecture enhancements for
Vehicle ITS-S and the HA in a Central ITS-S. Roadside ITS-S plays a vehicle-to-everything (V2X) services using the modified sidelink
role of an Access Router (AR) for Vehicle ITS-S's MR to provide the interface that originally is designed for the LTE Device-to-Device
Internet connectivity for Vehicle ITS-S via wireless interfaces, such (LTE-D2D) communications. 3GPP-R14 regulates that the V2X services
as IEEE 802.11p, WiFi, and WiMAX. In the case where Roadside ITS-S only support IPv6 implementation. 3GPP is also investigating and
is not available to Vehicle ITS-S, Vehicle ITS-S communicates with discussing the evolved V2X services in the next generation cellular
Central ITS-S via cellular networks (e.g., 3G). The secure networks, i.e., 5G new radio (5G-NR), for advanced V2X communications
communication scheme enhances the NEMO protocol that interworks with and automated vehicles' applications.
IKEv2 and IPsec in network mobility in vehicular networks.
The authors implemented their scheme and evaluated its performance in 5.8.1. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 4G-LTE
a real testbed. This testbed supports two wireless networks, such as
IEEE 802.11p and 3G. The in-vehicle devices (or hosts) in Vehicle
ITS-S are connected to an MR of Vehicle ITS-S via IEEE 802.11g. The
test results show that their scheme supports promising secure IPv6
communications with a low impact on communication performance.
11.1.2. Authentication and Access Control Before 3GPP-R14, some researchers have studied the potential usage of
C-V2X communications. For example, [VMaSC-LTE] explores a multihop
cluster-based hybrid architecture using both DSRC and LTE for safety
message dissemination. Most of the research consider a short message
service for safety instead of IP datagram forwarding. In other C-V2X
research, the standard IPv6 is assumed.
Moustafa et al. proposed a security scheme providing authentication, The 3GPP technical specification [TS-23285-3GPP] states that both IP
authorization, and accounting (AAA) services in vehicular networks based and non-IP based V2X messages are supported, and only IPv6 is
[VNET-AAA]. This secuirty scheme aims at the support of safe and supported for IP based messages. Moreover, [TS-23285-3GPP]
reliable data services in vehicular networks. It authenticates instructes that a UE autoconfigures a link- local IPv6 address by
vehicles as mobile clients to use the network access and various following [RFC4862], but without sending Neighbor Solicitation and
services that are provided by service providers. Also, it ensures a Neighbor Advertisement messages for DAD.
confidential data transfer between communicating parties (e.g.,
vehicle and infrastructure node) by using IEEE 802.11i (i.e., WPA2)
for secure layer-2 links.
The authors proposed a vehicular network architecture consisting of 5.8.2. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 5G
three entities, such as Access network, Wireless mobile ad hoc
networks (MANETs), and Access Points (APs). Access network is the
fixed network infrastructure forming the back-end of the
architecture. Wireless MANETs are constructed by moving vehicles
forming the front-end of the architecture. APs is the IEEE 802.11
WLAN infrastructure forming the interface between the front-end and
back-end of the architecture.
For AAA services, the proposed architecture uses a Kerberos The emerging services, functions and applications in automotive
authentication model that authenticates vehicles at the entry point industry spurs ehhanced V2X (eV2X)-based services in the future 5G
with the AP and also authorizes them to the access of various era. The 3GPP Technical Report [TS-22886-3GPP] is studying new use
services. Since vehicles are authenticated by a Kerberos cases for V2X using 5G in the future.
Authentication Server (AS) only once, the proposed security scheme
can minimize the load on the AS and reduce the delay imposed by layer
2 using IEEE 802.11i.
11.2. Problem Statement 5.9. Security and Privacy
Security and privacy are paramount in the V2I and V2V networking in Security and privacy are paramount in the V2I and V2V networking in
vehicular networks. Only authorized vehicles should be allowed to vehicular networks. Only authorized vehicles should be allowed to
use the V2I and V2V networking. Also, in-vehicle devices and mobile use the V2I and V2V networking. Also, in-vehicle devices and mobile
devices in a vehicle need to communicate with other in-vehicle devices in a vehicle need to communicate with other in-vehicle
devices and mobile devices in another vehicle, and other servers in devices and mobile devices in another vehicle, and other servers in
an RSU in a secure way. an RSU in a secure way.
A Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) and a user certificate along A Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) and a user certificate along
with in-vehicle device's identifier generation can be used to with in-vehicle device's identifier generation can be used to
skipping to change at page 39, line 17 skipping to change at page 20, line 17
The security for vehicular networks should provide vehicles with AAA The security for vehicular networks should provide vehicles with AAA
services in an efficient way. It should consider not only horizontal services in an efficient way. It should consider not only horizontal
handover, but also vertical handover since vehicles have multiple handover, but also vertical handover since vehicles have multiple
wireless interfaces. wireless interfaces.
To prevent an adversary from tracking a vehicle by with its MAC To prevent an adversary from tracking a vehicle by with its MAC
address or IPv6 address, each vehicle should periodically update its address or IPv6 address, each vehicle should periodically update its
MAC address and the corresponding IPv6 address as suggested in MAC address and the corresponding IPv6 address as suggested in
[RFC4086][RFC4941]. Such an update of the MAC and IPv6 addresses [RFC4086][RFC4941]. Such an update of the MAC and IPv6 addresses
should not interrupt the communications between a vehicle and an RSU. should not interrupt the communications between two vehicular nodes
(e.g., vehicle and RSU).
12. Discussions
12.1. Summary and Analysis
This document surveyed state-of-the-arts technologies for IP-based
vehicular networks, such as IP address autoconfiguration, vehicular
network architecture, vehicular network routing, and mobility
management.
Through this survey, it is learned that IPv6-based vehicular
networking can be well-aligned with IEEE WAVE standards for various
vehicular network applications, such as driving safety, efficient
driving, and entertainment. However, since the IEEE WAVE standards
do not recommend to use the IPv6 ND protocol for the communication
efficiency under high-speed mobility, it is necessary to adapt the ND
for vehicular networks with such high-speed mobility.
The concept of a link in IPv6 does not match that of a link in VANET
because of the physical separation of communication ranges of
vehicles in a connected VANET. That is, in a linear topology of
three vehicles (Vehicle-1, Vehicle-2, and Vehicle-3), Vehicle-1 and
Vehicle-2 can communicate directly with each other. Vehicle-2 and
Vehicle-3 can communicate directly with each other. However,
Vehicle-1 and Vehicle-3 cannot communicate directly with each other
due to the out-of-communication range. For the link in IPv6, all of
three vehicles are on a link, so they can communicate directly with
each other. On the other hand, in VANET, this on-link communication
concept is not valid in VANET. Thus, the IPv6 ND should be extended
to support this multi-link subnet of a connected VANET through either
ND proxy or VANET routing.
For IP-based networking, IP address autoconfiguration is a
prerequisite function. Since vehicles can communicate intermittently
with TCC via RSUs through V2I communications, TCC can play a role of
a DHCP server to allocate unique IPv6 addresses to the vehicles.
This centralized address allocation can remove the delay of the DAD
procedure for testing the uniqueness of IPv6 addresses.
For routing and mobility management, most of vehicles are equipped
with a GPS navigator as a dedicated navigation system or a smartphone
App. With this GPS navigator, vehicles can share their current
position and trajectory (i.e., navigation path) with TCC. TCC can
predict the future positions of the vehicles with their mobility
information (i.e., the current position, speed, direction, and
trajectory). With the prediction of the vehicle mobility, TCC
supports RSUs to perform data packet routing and handover
proactively.
12.2. Deployment Issues
Some automobile companies (e.g., BMW and Hyundai) started to use
Ethernet for a vehicle's internal network instead of the traditional
Contoller Area Network (CAN) for high-speed interconnectivity among
electronic control units. With this trend, the IP-based vehicular
networking in this document will be popular in near future.
Self-driving technologies are being developed by many automobile
companies (e.g., Tesla, BMW, GM, Honda, Toyota, and Hyundai) and IT
companies (e.g., Google and Apple). Since they require high-speed
interaction among vehicles, infrastructure nodes (e.g., RSU), and
cloud, IP-based networking will be mandatory.
Therefore, key component technologies for the IP-based vehicular
networking need to be developed for future demands along with an
efficient vehicular network architecture.
13. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
Section 11 discusses security and privacy for IP-based vehicular This document discussed security and privacy for IP-based vehicular
networking. networking.
The security for key components in vehicular networking, such as IP The security and privacy for key components in vehicular networking,
address autoconfiguration, routing, mobility management, DNS naming such as IP address autoconfiguration, routing, mobility management,
service, and service discovery, needs to be analyzed in depth. DNS naming service, and service discovery, needs to be analyzed in
depth.
14. Informative References 7. Informative References
[Address-Assignment] [Address-Assignment]
Kato, T., Kadowaki, K., Koita, T., and K. Sato, "Routing Kato, T., Kadowaki, K., Koita, T., and K. Sato, "Routing
and Address Assignment using Lane/Position Information in and Address Assignment using Lane/Position Information in
a Vehicular Ad-hoc Network", IEEE Asia-Pacific Services a Vehicular Ad-hoc Network", IEEE Asia-Pacific Services
Computing Conference, December 2008. Computing Conference, December 2008.
[Address-Autoconf] [Address-Autoconf]
Fazio, M., Palazzi, C., Das, S., and M. Gerla, "Automatic Fazio, M., Palazzi, C., Das, S., and M. Gerla, "Automatic
IP Address Configuration in VANETs", ACM International IP Address Configuration in VANETs", ACM International
Workshop on Vehicular Inter-Networking, September 2016. Workshop on Vehicular Inter-Networking, September 2016.
[Automotive-Sensing]
Choi, J., Va, V., Gonzalez-Prelcic, N., Daniels, R., R.
Bhat, C., and R. W. Heath, "Millimeter-Wave Vehicular
Communication to Support Massive Automotive Sensing",
IEEE Communications Magazine, December 2016.
[Broadcast-Storm]
Wisitpongphan, N., K. Tonguz, O., S. Parikh, J., Mudalige,
P., Bai, F., and V. Sadekar, "Broadcast Storm Mitigation
Techniques in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE Wireless
Communications, December 2007.
[CA-Cuise-Control] [CA-Cuise-Control]
California Partners for Advanced Transportation Technology California Partners for Advanced Transportation Technology
(PATH), "Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control", [Online] (PATH), "Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control", [Online]
Available: Available:
http://www.path.berkeley.edu/research/automated-and- http://www.path.berkeley.edu/research/automated-and-
connected-vehicles/cooperative-adaptive-cruise-control, connected-vehicles/cooperative-adaptive-cruise-control,
2017. 2017.
[CASD] Shen, Y., Jeong, J., Oh, T., and S. Son, "CASD: A [CASD] Shen, Y., Jeong, J., Oh, T., and S. Son, "CASD: A
Framework of Context-Awareness Safety Driving in Vehicular Framework of Context-Awareness Safety Driving in Vehicular
Networks", International Workshop on Device Centric Cloud Networks", International Workshop on Device Centric Cloud
(DC2), March 2016. (DC2), March 2016.
[DMM] Chan, H., "Requirements for Distributed Mobility
Management", RFC 7333, August 2014.
[DSRC] ASTM International, "Standard Specification for [DSRC] ASTM International, "Standard Specification for
Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between
Roadside and Vehicle Systems - 5 GHz Band Dedicated Short Roadside and Vehicle Systems - 5 GHz Band Dedicated Short
Range Communications (DSRC) Medium Access Control (MAC) Range Communications (DSRC) Medium Access Control (MAC)
and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications", and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications",
ASTM E2213-03(2010), October 2010. ASTM E2213-03(2010), October 2010.
[ETSI-GeoNetwork-IP] [ETSI-GeoNetwork-IP]
ETSI Technical Committee Intelligent Transport Systems, ETSI Technical Committee Intelligent Transport Systems,
"Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular "Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular
skipping to change at page 42, line 24 skipping to change at page 22, line 10
U.S. National Telecommunications and Information U.S. National Telecommunications and Information
Administration (NTIA), "First Responder Network Authority Administration (NTIA), "First Responder Network Authority
(FirstNet)", [Online] (FirstNet)", [Online]
Available: https://www.firstnet.gov/, 2012. Available: https://www.firstnet.gov/, 2012.
[FirstNet-Annual-Report-2017] [FirstNet-Annual-Report-2017]
First Responder Network Authority, "FY 2017: ANNUAL REPORT First Responder Network Authority, "FY 2017: ANNUAL REPORT
TO CONGRESS, Advancing Public Safety Broadband TO CONGRESS, Advancing Public Safety Broadband
Communications", FirstNet FY 2017, December 2017. Communications", FirstNet FY 2017, December 2017.
[FleetNet] [Fuel-Efficient]
Bechler, M., Franz, W., and L. Wolf, "Mobile Internet van de Hoef, S., H. Johansson, K., and D. V. Dimarogonas,
Access in FleetNet", 13th Fachtagung Kommunikation in "Fuel-Efficient En Route Formation of Truck Platoons",
verteilten Systemen, February 2001. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems,
January 2018.
[GeoSAC] Baldessari, R., Bernardos, C., and M. Calderon, "GeoSAC - [GeoSAC] Baldessari, R., Bernardos, C., and M. Calderon, "GeoSAC -
Scalable Address Autoconfiguration for VANET Using Scalable Address Autoconfiguration for VANET Using
Geographic Networking Concepts", IEEE International Geographic Networking Concepts", IEEE International
Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio
Communications, September 2008. Communications, September 2008.
[H-DMM] Nguyen, T. and C. Bonnet, "A Hybrid Centralized- [H-DMM] Nguyen, T. and C. Bonnet, "A Hybrid Centralized-
Distributed Mobility Management for Supporting Highly Distributed Mobility Management for Supporting Highly
Mobile Users", IEEE International Conference on Mobile Users", IEEE International Conference on
Communications, June 2015. Communications, June 2015.
[H-NEMO] Nguyen, T. and C. Bonnet, "A Hybrid Centralized-
Distributed Mobility Management Architecture for Network
Mobility", IEEE International Symposium on a World of
Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, June 2015.
[ID-DNSNA] [ID-DNSNA]
Jeong, J., Ed., Lee, S., and J. Park, "DNS Name Jeong, J., Ed., Lee, S., and J. Park, "DNS Name
Autoconfiguration for Internet of Things Devices", draft- Autoconfiguration for Internet of Things Devices", draft-
jeong-ipwave-iot-dns-autoconf-02 (work in progress), March jeong-ipwave-iot-dns-autoconf-03 (work in progress), July
2018. 2018.
[ID-Vehicular-ND] [ID-Vehicular-ND]
Jeong, J., Ed., Shen, Y., Jo, Y., Jeong, J., and J. Lee, Jeong, J., Ed., Shen, Y., Jo, Y., Jeong, J., and J. Lee,
"IPv6 Neighbor Discovery for Prefix and Service Discovery "IPv6 Neighbor Discovery for Prefix and Service Discovery
in Vehicular Networks", draft-jeong-ipwave-vehicular- in Vehicular Networks", draft-jeong-ipwave-vehicular-
neighbor-discovery-02 (work in progress), March 2018. neighbor-discovery-03 (work in progress), July 2018.
[Identity-Management] [Identity-Management]
Wetterwald, M., Hrizi, F., and P. Cataldi, "Cross-layer Wetterwald, M., Hrizi, F., and P. Cataldi, "Cross-layer
Identities Management in ITS Stations", The 10th Identities Management in ITS Stations", The 10th
International Conference on ITS Telecommunications, International Conference on ITS Telecommunications,
November 2010. November 2010.
[IEEE-802.11-OCB] [IEEE-802.11-OCB]
IEEE 802.11 Working Group, "Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium IEEE 802.11 Working Group, "Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium
Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY)
skipping to change at page 43, line 34 skipping to change at page 23, line 17
Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY)
Specifications - Amendment 6: Wireless Access in Vehicular Specifications - Amendment 6: Wireless Access in Vehicular
Environments", IEEE Std 802.11p-2010, June 2010. Environments", IEEE Std 802.11p-2010, June 2010.
[IP-Passing-Protocol] [IP-Passing-Protocol]
Chen, Y., Hsu, C., and W. Yi, "An IP Passing Protocol for Chen, Y., Hsu, C., and W. Yi, "An IP Passing Protocol for
Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks with Network Fragmentation", Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks with Network Fragmentation",
Elsevier Computers & Mathematics with Applications, Elsevier Computers & Mathematics with Applications,
January 2012. January 2012.
[IPv6-3GPP-Survey]
Soininen, J. and J. Korhonen, "Survey of IPv6 Support in
3GPP Specifications and Implementations",
IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, January 2015.
[IPv6-over-80211-OCB]
Petrescu, A., Benamar, N., Haerri, J., Lee, J., and T.
Ernst, "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.11
Networks operating in mode Outside the Context of a Basic
Service Set (IPv6-over-80211-OCB)", draft-ietf-ipwave-
ipv6-over-80211ocb-25 (work in progress), June 2018.
[IPv6-WAVE] [IPv6-WAVE]
Baccelli, E., Clausen, T., and R. Wakikawa, "IPv6 Baccelli, E., Clausen, T., and R. Wakikawa, "IPv6
Operation for WAVE - Wireless Access in Vehicular Operation for WAVE - Wireless Access in Vehicular
Environments", IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference, Environments", IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference,
December 2010. December 2010.
[ISO-ITS-IPv6] [ISO-ITS-IPv6]
ISO/TC 204, "Intelligent Transport Systems - ISO/TC 204, "Intelligent Transport Systems -
Communications Access for Land Mobiles (CALM) - IPv6 Communications Access for Land Mobiles (CALM) - IPv6
Networking", ISO 21210:2012, June 2012. Networking", ISO 21210:2012, June 2012.
skipping to change at page 44, line 10 skipping to change at page 24, line 5
Petrescu, A., Boc, M., and C. Ibars, "Joint IP Networking Petrescu, A., Boc, M., and C. Ibars, "Joint IP Networking
and Radio Architecture for Vehicular Networks", and Radio Architecture for Vehicular Networks",
11th International Conference on ITS Telecommunications, 11th International Conference on ITS Telecommunications,
August 2011. August 2011.
[LAGAD] Abrougui, K., Boukerche, A., and R. Pazzi, "Location-Aided [LAGAD] Abrougui, K., Boukerche, A., and R. Pazzi, "Location-Aided
Gateway Advertisement and Discovery Protocol for VANets", Gateway Advertisement and Discovery Protocol for VANets",
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 59, No. 8, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 59, No. 8,
October 2010. October 2010.
[Multicast-Alert]
Camara, D., Bonnet, C., Nikaein, N., and M. Wetterwald,
"Multicast and Virtual Road Side Units for Multi
Technology Alert Messages Dissemination", IEEE 8th
International Conference on Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor
Systems, October 2011.
[Multicast-Considerations-802]
Perkins, C., Stanley, D., Kumari, W., and JC. Zuniga,
"Multicast Considerations over IEEE 802 Wireless Media",
draft-perkins-intarea-multicast-ieee802-03 (work in
progress), July 2017.
[NEMO-LMS] [NEMO-LMS]
Soto, I., Bernardos, C., Calderon, M., Banchs, A., and A. Soto, I., Bernardos, C., Calderon, M., Banchs, A., and A.
Azcorra, "NEMO-Enabled Localized Mobility Support for Azcorra, "NEMO-Enabled Localized Mobility Support for
Internet Access in Automotive Scenarios", Internet Access in Automotive Scenarios",
IEEE Communications Magazine, May 2009. IEEE Communications Magazine, May 2009.
[NEMO-VANET] [NEMO-VANET]
Chen, Y., Hsu, C., and C. Cheng, "Network Mobility Chen, Y., Hsu, C., and C. Cheng, "Network Mobility
Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks", Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks",
Wiley International Journal of Communication Systems, Wiley International Journal of Communication Systems,
November 2014. November 2014.
[PMIP-NEMO-Analysis] [PMIP-NEMO-Analysis]
Lee, J., Ernst, T., and N. Chilamkurti, "Performance Lee, J., Ernst, T., and N. Chilamkurti, "Performance
Analysis of PMIPv6-Based Network Mobility for Intelligent Analysis of PMIPv6-Based Network Mobility for Intelligent
Transportation Systems", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Transportation Systems", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular
Technology, January 2012. Technology, January 2012.
[RFC1034] Mockapetris, P., "Domain Names - Concepts and Facilities",
RFC 1034, November 1987.
[RFC1035] Mockapetris, P., "Domain Names - Implementation and
Specification", RFC 1035, November 1987.
[RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 [RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998. (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.
[RFC2782] Gulbrandsen, A., Vixie, P., and L. Esibov, "A DNS RR for
Specifying the Location of Services (DNS SRV)", RFC 2782,
February 2000.
[RFC3315] Droms, R., Ed., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins,
C., and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
for IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, July 2003.
[RFC3736] Droms, R., "Stateless Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP) Service for IPv6", RFC 3736, April 2004.
[RFC3963] Devarapalli, V., Wakikawa, R., Petrescu, A., and P.
Thubert, "Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support Protocol",
RFC 3963, January 2005.
[RFC4086] Eastlake 3rd, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker, [RFC4086] Eastlake 3rd, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker,
"Randomness Requirements for Security", RFC 4086, June "Randomness Requirements for Security", RFC 4086, June
2005. 2005.
[RFC4193] Hinden, R. and B. Haberman, "Unique Local IPv6 Unicast
Addresses", RFC 4193, October 2005.
[RFC4291] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.
[RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman, [RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
"Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861, "Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
September 2007. September 2007.
[RFC4862] Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless [RFC4862] Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, September 2007. Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, September 2007.
[RFC4941] Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy [RFC4941] Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy
Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in
IPv6", RFC 4941, September 2007. IPv6", RFC 4941, September 2007.
[RFC5213] Gundavelli, S., Leung, K., Devarapalli, V., Chowdhury, K.,
and B. Patil, "Proxy Mobile IPv6", RFC 5213, August 2008.
[RFC5889] Baccelli, E. and M. Townsley, "IP Addressing Model in Ad [RFC5889] Baccelli, E. and M. Townsley, "IP Addressing Model in Ad
Hoc Networks", RFC 5889, September 2010. Hoc Networks", RFC 5889, September 2010.
[RFC5949] Yokota, H., Chowdhury, K., Koodli, R., Patil, B., and F. [RFC5944] Perkins, C., Ed., "IP Mobility Support in IPv4, Revised",
Xia, "Fast Handovers for Proxy Mobile IPv6", RFC 5949, RFC 5944, November 2010.
September 2010.
[RFC6275] Perkins, C., Ed., Johnson, D., and J. Arkko, "Mobility [RFC6275] Perkins, C., Ed., Johnson, D., and J. Arkko, "Mobility
Support in IPv6", RFC 6275, July 2011. Support in IPv6", RFC 6275, July 2011.
[RFC6762] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "Multicast DNS", RFC 6762, [RFC6762] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "Multicast DNS", RFC 6762,
February 2013. February 2013.
[RFC6763] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "DNS-Based Service [RFC6763] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "DNS-Based Service
Discovery", RFC 6763, February 2013. Discovery", RFC 6763, February 2013.
skipping to change at page 46, line 39 skipping to change at page 26, line 17
"Securing Vehicular IPv6 Communications", "Securing Vehicular IPv6 Communications",
IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing,
January 2016. January 2016.
[Truck-Platooning] [Truck-Platooning]
California Partners for Advanced Transportation Technology California Partners for Advanced Transportation Technology
(PATH), "Automated Truck Platooning", [Online] Available: (PATH), "Automated Truck Platooning", [Online] Available:
http://www.path.berkeley.edu/research/automated-and- http://www.path.berkeley.edu/research/automated-and-
connected-vehicles/truck-platooning, 2017. connected-vehicles/truck-platooning, 2017.
[TS-22886-3GPP]
3GPP, "Study on Enhancement of 3GPP Support for 5G V2X
Services", 3GPP TS 22.886, June 2018.
[TS-23285-3GPP]
3GPP, "Architecture Enhancements for V2X Services", 3GPP
TS 23.285, June 2018.
[VANET-Geo-Routing] [VANET-Geo-Routing]
Tsukada, M., Jemaa, I., Menouar, H., Zhang, W., Goleva, Tsukada, M., Jemaa, I., Menouar, H., Zhang, W., Goleva,
M., and T. Ernst, "Experimental Evaluation for IPv6 over M., and T. Ernst, "Experimental Evaluation for IPv6 over
VANET Geographic Routing", IEEE International Wireless VANET Geographic Routing", IEEE International Wireless
Communications and Mobile Computing Conference, June 2010. Communications and Mobile Computing Conference, June 2010.
[Vehicular-DTN]
Soares, V., Farahmand, F., and J. Rodrigues, "A Layered
Architecture for Vehicular Delay-Tolerant Networks",
IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications, July 2009.
[Vehicular-IP-MM]
Cespedes, S., Shen, X., and C. Lazo, "IP Mobility
Management for Vehicular Communication Networks:
Challenges and Solutions", IEEE Communications Magazine,
May 2011.
[VIP-WAVE] [VIP-WAVE]
Cespedes, S., Lu, N., and X. Shen, "VIP-WAVE: On the Cespedes, S., Lu, N., and X. Shen, "VIP-WAVE: On the
Feasibility of IP Communications in 802.11p Vehicular Feasibility of IP Communications in 802.11p Vehicular
Networks", IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Networks", IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation
Systems, March 2013. Systems, March 2013.
[VMaSC-LTE]
Ucar, S., Ergen, S., and O. Ozkasap, "Multihop-Cluster-
Based IEEE 802.11p and LTE Hybrid Architecture for VANET
Safety Message Dissemination", IEEE Transactions on
Vehicular Technology, April 2016.
[VNET-AAA] [VNET-AAA]
Moustafa, H., Bourdon, G., and Y. Gourhant, "Providing Moustafa, H., Bourdon, G., and Y. Gourhant, "Providing
Authentication and Access Control in Vehicular Network Authentication and Access Control in Vehicular Network
Environment", IFIP TC-11 International Information Environment", IFIP TC-11 International Information
Security Conference, May 2006. Security Conference, May 2006.
[VNET-Framework]
Jemaa, I., Shagdar, O., and T. Ernst, "A Framework for IP
and non-IP Multicast Services for Vehicular Networks",
Third International Conference on the Network of the
Future, November 2012.
[VNET-MM] Peng, Y. and J. Chang, "A Novel Mobility Management Scheme [VNET-MM] Peng, Y. and J. Chang, "A Novel Mobility Management Scheme
for Integration of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks and Fixed IP for Integration of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks and Fixed IP
Networks", Springer Mobile Networks and Applications, Networks", Springer Mobile Networks and Applications,
February 2010. February 2010.
[WAVE-1609.0] [WAVE-1609.0]
IEEE 1609 Working Group, "IEEE Guide for Wireless Access IEEE 1609 Working Group, "IEEE Guide for Wireless Access
in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Architecture", IEEE Std in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Architecture", IEEE Std
1609.0-2013, March 2014. 1609.0-2013, March 2014.
skipping to change at page 49, line 7 skipping to change at page 28, line 7
Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Networking Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Networking
Services", IEEE Std 1609.3-2016, April 2016. Services", IEEE Std 1609.3-2016, April 2016.
[WAVE-1609.4] [WAVE-1609.4]
IEEE 1609 Working Group, "IEEE Standard for Wireless IEEE 1609 Working Group, "IEEE Standard for Wireless
Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Multi-Channel Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Multi-Channel
Operation", IEEE Std 1609.4-2016, March 2016. Operation", IEEE Std 1609.4-2016, March 2016.
Appendix A. Acknowledgments Appendix A. Acknowledgments
This work was supported by Next-Generation Information Computing This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the
Development Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of
(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (2017M3C4A7065980). Education (2017R1D1A1B03035885).
This work was supported in part by the Global Research Laboratory
Program (2013K1A1A2A02078326) through NRF and the DGIST Research and This work was supported in part by Global Research Laboratory Program
Development Program (CPS Global Center) funded by the Ministry of through the NRF funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT)
Science and ICT. This work was supported in part by the French (NRF-2013K1A1A2A02078326) and by the DGIST R&D Program of the MSIT
research project DataTweet (ANR-13-INFR-0008) and in part by the (18-EE-01).
HIGHTS project funded by the European Commission I (636537-H2020).
This work was supported in part by the French research project
DataTweet (ANR-13-INFR-0008) and in part by the HIGHTS project funded
by the European Commission I (636537-H2020).
Appendix B. Contributors Appendix B. Contributors
This document is a group work of IPWAVE working group, greatly This document is a group work of IPWAVE working group, greatly
benefiting from inputs and texts by Rex Buddenberg (Naval benefiting from inputs and texts by Rex Buddenberg (Naval
Postgraduate School), Thierry Ernst (YoGoKo), Bokor Laszlo (Budapest Postgraduate School), Thierry Ernst (YoGoKo), Bokor Laszlo (Budapest
University of Technology and Economics), Jose Santa Lozanoi University of Technology and Economics), Jose Santa Lozanoi
(Universidad of Murcia), Richard Roy (MIT), and Francois Simon (Universidad of Murcia), Richard Roy (MIT), and Francois Simon
(Pilot). The authors sincerely appreciate their contributions. (Pilot). The authors sincerely appreciate their contributions.
skipping to change at page 51, line 23 skipping to change at page 30, line 24
URI: http://iotlab.skku.edu/people-chris-shen.php URI: http://iotlab.skku.edu/people-chris-shen.php
Michelle Wetterwald Michelle Wetterwald
FBConsulting FBConsulting
21, Route de Luxembourg 21, Route de Luxembourg
Wasserbillig, Luxembourg L-6633 Wasserbillig, Luxembourg L-6633
Luxembourg Luxembourg
EMail: Michelle.Wetterwald@gmail.com EMail: Michelle.Wetterwald@gmail.com
Appendix C. Changes from draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-01 Appendix C. Changes from draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-02
The following changes are made from draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular- The following changes are made from draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-
networking-01: networking-02:
o In Section 1, the following sentence is added: The Federal
Communications Commission (FCC) in the US allocated wireless
channels for Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) [DSRC],
service in the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS Radio
Service in the 5.850 - 5.925 GHz band (5.9 GHz band).
o In Section 2, the definition of Road-Side Unit (RSU) is modified
as a node that has physical communication devices (e.g., DSRC,
Visible Light Communication, 802.15.4, etc.) for wireless
communication with vehicles and is also connected to the Internet
as a router or switch for packet forwarding.
o In Section 2, DMM is defined as the acronym for "Distributed
Mobility Management" [DMM].
o In Section 3.1, the following sentence is clarified along with
relevant references: The current RAN is mainly constructed by 4G-
LTE for the communication between a vehicle and an infrastructure
node (i.e., V2I) [FirstNet-Annual-Report-2017], but DSRC-based
vehicular networks can be used for V2I in near future [DSRC].
o In Section 4.1.1, the following sentences are clarified along with
relevant references: The standard WAVE [WAVE-1609.0][WAVE-1609.3]
does not support Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) of IPv6
Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) [RFC4862] by having
its own efficient IP address configuration mechanism based on a
WAVE Service Advertisement (WSA) management frame [WAVE-1609.3].
It does not support both seamless communications for Internet
services and multi-hop communications between a vehicle and an
infrastructure node (e.g., RSU), either.
o The contents are clarified with typo corrections and rephrasing. o The overall structure of the document is reorganized for the
problem statement for IPWAVE.
Author's Address Author's Address
Jaehoon Paul Jeong (editor) Jaehoon Paul Jeong (editor)
Department of Software Department of Software
Sungkyunkwan University Sungkyunkwan University
2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu 2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 16419 Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 16419
Republic of Korea Republic of Korea
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