draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-52.txt   rfc8691.txt 
IPWAVE Working Group N. Benamar Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) N. Benamar
Internet-Draft Moulay Ismail University of Meknes Request for Comments: 8691 Moulay Ismail University of Meknes
Intended status: Standards Track J. Haerri Category: Standards Track J. Härri
Expires: February 10, 2020 Eurecom ISSN: 2070-1721 EURECOM
J. Lee J. Lee
Sangmyung University Sangmyung University
T. Ernst T. Ernst
YoGoKo YoGoKo
August 9, 2019 December 2019
Basic Support for IPv6 over IEEE Std 802.11 Networks Operating Outside Basic Support for IPv6 Networks Operating Outside the Context of a Basic
the Context of a Basic Service Set Service Set over IEEE Std 802.11
draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-52
Abstract Abstract
This document provides methods and settings, for using IPv6 to This document provides methods and settings for using IPv6 to
communicate among nodes within range of one another over a single communicate among nodes within range of one another over a single
IEEE 802.11-OCB link. Support for these methods and settings require IEEE 802.11-OCB link. Support for these methods and settings require
minimal changes to existing stacks. This document also describes minimal changes to existing stacks. This document also describes
limitations associated with using these methods. Optimizations and limitations associated with using these methods. Optimizations and
usage of IPv6 over more complex scenarios is not covered in this usage of IPv6 over more complex scenarios are not covered in this
specification and is subject of future work. specification and are a subject for future work.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This is an Internet Standards Track document.
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference received public review and has been approved for publication by the
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on
Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.
This Internet-Draft will expire on February 10, 2020. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8691.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology
3. Communication Scenarios where IEEE 802.11-OCB Links are Used 4 3. Communication Scenarios Where IEEE 802.11-OCB Links Are Used
4. IPv6 over 802.11-OCB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4. IPv6 over 802.11-OCB
4.1. Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4.1. Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU)
4.2. Frame Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.2. Frame Format
4.3. Link-Local Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.3. Link-Local Addresses
4.4. Stateless Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.4. Stateless Autoconfiguration
4.5. Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.5. Address Mapping
4.5.1. Address Mapping -- Unicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.5.1. Address Mapping -- Unicast
4.5.2. Address Mapping -- Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.5.2. Address Mapping -- Multicast
4.6. Subnet Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.6. Subnet Structure
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5. Security Considerations
5.1. Privacy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5.1. Privacy Considerations
5.1.1. Privacy Risks of Meaningful info in Interface IDs . . 9 5.1.1. Privacy Risks of Meaningful Information in Interface
5.2. MAC Address and Interface ID Generation . . . . . . . . . 9 IDs
5.3. Pseudonymization impact on confidentiality and trust . . 10 5.2. MAC Address and Interface ID Generation
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.3. Pseudonymization Impact on Confidentiality and Trust
7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. IANA Considerations
8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7. References
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7.1. Normative References
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7.2. Informative References
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Appendix A. 802.11p
Appendix A. 802.11p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Appendix B. Aspects Introduced by OCB Mode to 802.11
Appendix B. Aspects introduced by the OCB mode to 802.11 . . . . 16 Appendix C. Changes Needed on an 802.11a Software Driver to Become
Appendix C. Changes Needed on a software driver 802.11a to an 802.11-OCB Driver
become a 802.11-OCB driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Appendix D. Protocol Layering
Appendix D. Protocol Layering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Appendix E. Design Considerations
Appendix E. Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Appendix F. IEEE 802.11 Messages Transmitted in OCB Mode
Appendix F. IEEE 802.11 Messages Transmitted in OCB mode . . . . 22 Appendix G. Examples of Packet Formats
Appendix G. Examples of Packet Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 G.1. Capture in Monitor Mode
G.1. Capture in Monitor Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 G.2. Capture in Normal Mode
G.2. Capture in Normal Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Appendix H. Extra Terminology
Appendix H. Extra Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Appendix I. Neighbor Discovery (ND) Potential Issues in Wireless Appendix I. Neighbor Discovery (ND) Potential Issues in Wireless
Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Links
Acknowledgements
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Contributors
Authors' Addresses
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document provides a baseline for using IPv6 to communicate among This document provides a baseline for using IPv6 to communicate among
nodes in range of one another over a single IEEE 802.11-OCB link nodes in range of one another over a single IEEE 802.11-OCB link
[IEEE-802.11-2016] (a.k.a., "802.11p" see Appendix A, Appendix B and [IEEE-802.11-2016] (a.k.a., 802.11p; see Appendices A, B, and C) with
Appendix C) with minimal changes to existing stacks. Moreover, the minimal changes to existing stacks. Moreover, the document
document identifies limitations of such usage. Concretely, the identifies the limitations of such usage. Concretely, the document
document describes the layering of IPv6 networking on top of the IEEE describes the layering of IPv6 networking on top of the IEEE Std
Std 802.11 MAC layer or an IEEE Std 802.3 MAC layer with a frame 802.11 MAC layer or an IEEE Std 802.3 MAC layer with a frame
translation underneath. The resulting stack is derived from IPv6 translation underneath. The resulting stack is derived from IPv6
over Ethernet [RFC2464], but operates over 802.11-OCB to provide at over Ethernet [RFC2464] but operates over 802.11-OCB to provide at
least P2P (Point to Point) connectivity using IPv6 ND and link-local least P2P (point-to-point) connectivity using IPv6 Neighbor Discovery
addresses. (ND) and link-local addresses.
The IPv6 network layer operates on 802.11-OCB in the same manner as The IPv6 network layer operates on 802.11-OCB in the same manner as
operating on Ethernet with the following exceptions: operating on the Ethernet with the following exceptions:
o Exceptions due to different operation of IPv6 network layer on * Exceptions due to the different operation of the IPv6 network
802.11 than on Ethernet. The operation of IP on Ethernet is layer on 802.11 compared to the Ethernet. The operation of IP on
described in [RFC1042] and [RFC2464]. Ethernet is described in [RFC1042] and [RFC2464].
o Exceptions due to the OCB nature of 802.11-OCB compared to 802.11. * Exceptions due to the OCB nature of 802.11-OCB compared to 802.11.
This has impacts on security, privacy, subnet structure and This has impacts on security, privacy, subnet structure, and
movement detection. Security and privacy recommendations are movement detection. Security and privacy recommendations are
discussed in Section 5 and Section 4.4. The subnet structure is discussed in Sections 4.4 and 5. The subnet structure is
described in Section 4.6. The movement detection on OCB links is described in Section 4.6. The movement detection on OCB links is
not described in this document. Likewise, ND Extensions and not described in this document. Likewise, ND extensions and IP
IPWAVE optimizations for vehicular communications are not in Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (IPWAVE) optimizations
scope. The expectation is that further specifications will be for vehicular communications are not in scope of this document.
edited to cover more complex vehicular networking scenarios. The expectation is that further specifications will be edited to
cover more complex vehicular networking scenarios.
The reader may refer to [I-D.ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking] for an The reader may refer to [IPWAVE] for an overview of problems related
overview of problems related to running IPv6 over 802.11-OCB. It is to running IPv6 over 802.11-OCB. It is out of scope of this document
out of scope of this document to reiterate those. to reiterate those problems.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here. capitals, as shown here.
The document makes uses of the following terms: IP-OBU (Internet The document makes uses of the following terms:
Protocol On-Board Unit): an IP-OBU denotes a computer situated in a
vehicle such as a car, bicycle, or similar. It has at least one IP
interface that runs in mode OCB of 802.11, and that has an "OBU"
transceiver. See the definition of the term "OBU" in section
Appendix H.
IP-RSU (IP Road-Side Unit): an IP-RSU is situated along the road. It IP-OBU (Internet Protocol On-Board Unit):
has at least two distinct IP-enabled interfaces. The wireless PHY/ An IP-OBU denotes a computer situated in a vehicle such as a car,
MAC layer of at least one of its IP-enabled interfaces is configured bicycle, or similar. It has at least one IP interface that runs
to operate in 802.11-OCB mode. An IP-RSU communicates with the IP- in mode OCB of 802.11 and has an "OBU" transceiver. See the
OBU in the vehicle over 802.11 wireless link operating in OCB mode. definition of the term "OBU" in Appendix H.
An IP-RSU is similar to an Access Network Router (ANR) defined in
[RFC3753], and a Wireless Termination Point (WTP) defined in
[RFC5415].
OCB (outside the context of a basic service set - BSS): is a mode of IP-RSU (IP Roadside Unit):
operation in which a STA is not a member of a BSS and does not An IP-RSU is situated along the road. It has at least two
utilize IEEE Std 802.11 authentication, association, or data distinct IP-enabled interfaces. The wireless PHY/MAC layer of at
confidentiality. least one of its IP-enabled interfaces is configured to operate in
802.11-OCB mode. An IP-RSU communicates with the IP-OBU over an
802.11 wireless link operating in OCB mode. An IP-RSU is similar
to an Access Network Router (ANR), defined in [RFC3753], and a
Wireless Termination Point (WTP), defined in [RFC5415].
802.11-OCB: refers to the mode specified in IEEE Std 802.11-2016 when OCB (outside the context of a Basic Service Set - BSS):
the MIB attribute dot11OCBActivited is 'true'. This is a mode of operation in which a station (STA) is not a
member of a BSS and does not utilize IEEE Std 802.11
authentication, association, or data confidentiality.
3. Communication Scenarios where IEEE 802.11-OCB Links are Used 802.11-OCB:
This refers to the mode specified in IEEE Std 802.11-2016 when the
MIB attribute dot11OCBActivited is 'true'.
The IEEE 802.11-OCB networks are used for vehicular communications, 3. Communication Scenarios Where IEEE 802.11-OCB Links Are Used
as 'Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments'. In particular, we
refer the reader to [I-D.ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking], that IEEE 802.11-OCB networks are used for vehicular communications as
lists some scenarios and requirements for IP in Intelligent 'Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments'. In particular, we refer
Transportation Systems (ITS). the reader to [IPWAVE], which lists some scenarios and requirements
for IP in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS).
The link model is the following: STA --- 802.11-OCB --- STA. In The link model is the following: STA --- 802.11-OCB --- STA. In
vehicular networks, STAs can be IP-RSUs and/or IP-OBUs. All links vehicular networks, STAs can be IP-RSUs and/or IP-OBUs. All links
are assumed to be P2P and multiple links can be on one radio are assumed to be P2P, and multiple links can be on one radio
interface. While 802.11-OCB is clearly specified, and a legacy IPv6 interface. While 802.11-OCB is clearly specified and a legacy IPv6
stack can operate on such links, the use of the operating environment stack can operate on such links, the use of the operating environment
(vehicular networks) brings in new perspectives. (vehicular networks) brings in new perspectives.
4. IPv6 over 802.11-OCB 4. IPv6 over 802.11-OCB
4.1. Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) 4.1. Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU)
The default MTU for IP packets on 802.11-OCB is inherited from The default MTU for IP packets on 802.11-OCB is inherited from
[RFC2464] and is, as such, 1500 octets. As noted in [RFC8200], every [RFC2464] and, as such, is 1500 octets. As noted in [RFC8200], every
link on the Internet must have a minimum MTU of 1280 octets, as well link on the Internet must have a minimum MTU of 1280 octets and must
as follow the other recommendations, especially with regard to follow the other recommendations, especially with regard to
fragmentation. fragmentation.
4.2. Frame Format 4.2. Frame Format
IP packets MUST be transmitted over 802.11-OCB media as QoS Data IP packets MUST be transmitted over 802.11-OCB media as QoS data
frames whose format is specified in IEEE 802.11 spec frames whose format is specified in an IEEE 802.11 spec
[IEEE-802.11-2016]. [IEEE-802.11-2016].
The IPv6 packet transmitted on 802.11-OCB are immediately preceded by The IPv6 packet transmitted on 802.11-OCB is immediately preceded by
a Logical Link Control (LLC) header and an 802.11 header. In the LLC a Logical Link Control (LLC) header and an 802.11 header. In the LLC
header, and in accordance with the EtherType Protocol Discrimination header and in accordance with EtherType Protocol Discrimination (EPD;
(EPD, see Appendix D), the value of the Type field MUST be set to see Appendix D), the value of the Type field MUST be set to 0x86DD
0x86DD (IPv6). The mapping to the 802.11 data service SHOULD use a (IPv6). The mapping to the 802.11 data service SHOULD use a
'priority' value of 1 (QoS with a 'Background' user priority), 'priority' value of 1 (QoS with a 'Background' user priority),
reserving higher priority values for safety-critical and time- reserving higher priority values for safety-critical and time-
sensitive traffic, including the ones listed in [ETSI-sec-archi]. sensitive traffic, including the ones listed in [ETSI-sec-archi].
To simplify the Application Programming Interface (API) between the To simplify the Application Programming Interface (API) between the
operating system and the 802.11-OCB media, device drivers MAY operating system and the 802.11-OCB media, device drivers MAY
implement IPv6-over-Ethernet as per [RFC2464] and then a frame implement IPv6 over Ethernet as per [RFC2464] and then a frame
translation from 802.3 to 802.11 in order to minimize the code translation from 802.3 to 802.11 in order to minimize the code
changes. changes.
4.3. Link-Local Addresses 4.3. Link-Local Addresses
There are several types of IPv6 addresses [RFC4291], [RFC4193], that There are several types of IPv6 addresses [RFC4291] [RFC4193] that
may be assigned to an 802.11-OCB interface. Among these types of may be assigned to an 802.11-OCB interface. Among these types of
addresses only the IPv6 link-local addresses can be formed using an addresses, only the IPv6 link-local addresses can be formed using an
EUI-64 identifier, in particular during transition time, (the time EUI-64 identifier, particularly during transition time (the period of
spent before an interface starts using a different address than the time before an interface starts using an address different from the
LL one). LL one).
If the IPv6 link-local address is formed using an EUI-64 identifier, If the IPv6 link-local address is formed using an EUI-64 identifier,
then the mechanism of forming that address is the same mechanism as then the mechanism for forming that address is the same mechanism as
used to form an IPv6 link-local address on Ethernet links. Moreover, that used to form an IPv6 link-local address on Ethernet links.
whether or not the interface identifier is derived from the EUI-64 Moreover, regardless of whether the interface identifier is derived
identifier, its length is 64 bits as is the case for Ethernet from the EUI-64 identifier, its length is 64 bits, as is the case for
[RFC2464]. the Ethernet [RFC2464].
4.4. Stateless Autoconfiguration 4.4. Stateless Autoconfiguration
The steps a host takes in deciding how to autoconfigure its The steps a host takes in deciding how to autoconfigure its
interfaces in IPv6 are described in [RFC4862]. This section interfaces in IPv6 are described in [RFC4862]. This section
describes the formation of Interface Identifiers for IPv6 addresses describes the formation of Interface Identifiers for 'Global' or
of type 'Global' or 'Unique Local'. Interface Identifiers for IPv6 'Unique Local' IPv6 addresses. Interface Identifiers for 'link-
address of type 'Link-Local' are discussed in Section 4.3. local' IPv6 addresses are discussed in Section 4.3.
The RECOMMENDED method for forming stable Interface Identifiers The RECOMMENDED method for forming stable Interface Identifiers
(IIDs) is described in [RFC8064]. The method of forming IIDs (IIDs) is described in [RFC8064]. The method of forming IIDs
described in Section 4 of [RFC2464] MAY be used during transition described in Section 4 of [RFC2464] MAY be used during transition
time, in particular for IPv6 link-local addresses. Regardless of how time, particularly for IPv6 link-local addresses. Regardless of the
to form the IID, its length is 64 bits, similarely to IPv6 over method used to form the IID, its length is 64 bits, similarly to IPv6
Ethernet [RFC2464]. over Ethernet [RFC2464].
The bits in the IID have no specific meaning and the identifier The bits in the IID have no specific meaning, and the identifier
should be treated as an opaque value. The bits 'Universal' and should be treated as an opaque value. The bits 'Universal' and
'Group' in the identifier of an 802.11-OCB interface are significant, 'Group' in the identifier of an 802.11-OCB interface, which is an
as this is an IEEE link-layer address. The details of this IEEE link-layer address, are significant. The details of this
significance are described in [RFC7136]. significance are described in [RFC7136].
Semantically opaque IIDs, instead of meaningful IIDs derived from a Semantically opaque IIDs, instead of meaningful IIDs derived from a
valid and meaningful MAC address ([RFC2464], Section 4), help avoid valid and meaningful MAC address ([RFC2464], Section 4), help avoid
certain privacy risks (see the risks mentioned in Section 5.1.1). If certain privacy risks (see the risks mentioned in Section 5.1.1). If
semantically opaque IIDs are needed, they may be generated using the semantically opaque IIDs are needed, they may be generated using the
method for generating semantically opaque IIDs with IPv6 Stateless method for generating semantically opaque IIDs with IPv6 Stateless
Address Autoconfiguration given in [RFC7217]. Typically, an opaque Address Autoconfiguration given in [RFC7217]. Typically, an opaque
IID is formed starting from identifiers different than the MAC IID is formed starting from identifiers different from the MAC
addresses, and from cryptographically strong material. Thus, privacy addresses and from cryptographically strong material. Thus, privacy-
sensitive information is absent from Interface IDs, because it is sensitive information is absent from Interface IDs because it is
impossible to calculate back the initial value from which the impossible to calculate back the initial value from which the
Interface ID was first generated. Interface ID was first generated.
Some applications that use IPv6 packets on 802.11-OCB links (among Some applications that use IPv6 packets on 802.11-OCB links (among
other link types) may benefit from IPv6 addresses whose IIDs don't other link types) may benefit from IPv6 addresses whose IIDs don't
change too often. It is RECOMMENDED to use the mechanisms described change too often. It is RECOMMENDED to use the mechanisms described
in RFC 7217 to permit the use of Stable IIDs that do not change in [RFC7217] to permit the use of stable IIDs that do not change
within one subnet prefix. A possible source for the Net-Iface within one subnet prefix. A possible source for the Net_Iface
Parameter is a virtual interface name, or logical interface name, parameter is a virtual interface name or logical interface name that
that is decided by a local administrator. is decided by a local administrator.
4.5. Address Mapping 4.5. Address Mapping
Unicast and multicast address mapping MUST follow the procedures Unicast and multicast address mapping MUST follow the procedures
specified for Ethernet interfaces specified in Sections 6 and 7 of specified for Ethernet interfaces described in Sections 6 and 7 of
[RFC2464]. [RFC2464].
4.5.1. Address Mapping -- Unicast 4.5.1. Address Mapping -- Unicast
This document is scoped for Address Resolution (AR) and Duplicate This document is scoped for Address Resolution (AR) and Duplicate
Address Detection (DAD) per [RFC4862]. Address Detection (DAD) per [RFC4862].
4.5.2. Address Mapping -- Multicast 4.5.2. Address Mapping -- Multicast
The multicast address mapping is performed according to the method The multicast address mapping is performed according to the method
specified in section 7 of [RFC2464]. The meaning of the value "3333" specified in Section 7 of [RFC2464]. The meaning of the value
mentioned there is defined in section 2.3.1 of [RFC7042]. "33-33" mentioned there is defined in Section 2.3.1 of [RFC7042].
Transmitting IPv6 packets to multicast destinations over 802.11 links Transmitting IPv6 packets to multicast destinations over 802.11 links
proved to have some performance issues proved to have some performance issues [IEEE802-MCAST]. These issues
[I-D.ietf-mboned-ieee802-mcast-problems]. These issues may be may be exacerbated in OCB mode. Future improvement to this
exacerbated in OCB mode. A future improvement to this specification specification should consider solutions for these problems.
should consider solutions for these problems.
4.6. Subnet Structure 4.6. Subnet Structure
When vehicles are in close range, a subnet may be formed over When vehicles are in close range, a subnet may be formed over
802.11-OCB interfaces (not by their in-vehicle interfaces). A Prefix 802.11-OCB interfaces (not by their in-vehicle interfaces). A Prefix
List conceptual data structure ([RFC4861] Section 5.1) is maintained List conceptual data structure ([RFC4861], Section 5.1) is maintained
for each 802.11-OCB interface. for each 802.11-OCB interface.
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery protocol (ND) requires reflexive properties The IPv6 Neighbor Discovery protocol (ND) requires reflexive
(bidirectional connectivity) which is generally, though not always, properties (bidirectional connectivity), which is generally, though
the case for P2P OCB links. IPv6 ND also requires transitive not always, the case for P2P OCB links. IPv6 ND also requires
properties for DAD and AR, so an IPv6 subnet can be mapped on an OCB transitive properties for DAD and AR, so an IPv6 subnet can be mapped
network only if all nodes in the network share a single physical on an OCB network only if all nodes in the network share a single
broadcast domain. The extension to IPv6 ND operating on a subnet physical broadcast domain. The extension to IPv6 ND operating on a
that covers multiple OCB links and not fully overlapping (NBMA) is subnet that covers multiple OCB links and does not fully overlap
not in scope. Finally, IPv6 ND requires a permanent connectivity of (i.e., non-broadcast multi-access (NBMA)) is not in scope of this
all nodes in the subnet to defend their addresses, in other words document. Finally, IPv6 ND requires permanent connectivity of all
very stable network conditions. nodes in the subnet to defend their addresses -- in other words, very
stable network conditions.
The structure of this subnet is ephemeral, in that it is strongly The structure of this subnet is ephemeral in that it is strongly
influenced by the mobility of vehicles: the hidden terminal effects influenced by the mobility of vehicles: the hidden terminal effects
appear; the 802.11 networks in OCB mode may be considered as 'ad-hoc' appear, and the 802.11 networks in OCB mode may be considered ad hoc
networks with an addressing model as described in [RFC5889]. On networks with an addressing model, as described in [RFC5889]. On the
another hand, the structure of the internal subnets in each vehicle other hand, the structure of the internal subnets in each vehicle is
is relatively stable. relatively stable.
As recommended in [RFC5889], when the timing requirements are very As recommended in [RFC5889], when the timing requirements are very
strict (e.g., fast-drive-through IP-RSU coverage), no on-link subnet strict (e.g., fast-drive-through IP-RSU coverage), no on-link subnet
prefix should be configured on an 802.11-OCB interface. In such prefix should be configured on an 802.11-OCB interface. In such
cases, the exclusive use of IPv6 link-local addresses is RECOMMENDED. cases, the exclusive use of IPv6 link-local addresses is RECOMMENDED.
Additionally, even if the timing requirements are not very strict Additionally, even if the timing requirements are not very strict
(e.g., the moving subnet formed by two following vehicles is stable, (e.g., the moving subnet formed by two following vehicles is stable,
a fixed IP-RSU is absent), the subnet is disconnected from the a fixed IP-RSU is absent), the subnet is disconnected from the
Internet (i.e., a default route is absent), and the addressing peers Internet (i.e., a default route is absent), and the addressing peers
are equally qualified (that is, it is impossible to determine that are equally qualified (that is, it is impossible to determine whether
some vehicle owns and distributes addresses to others) the use of some vehicle owns and distributes addresses to others), the use of
link-local addresses is RECOMMENDED. link-local addresses is RECOMMENDED.
The baseline ND protocol [RFC4861] MUST be supported over 802.11-OCB The baseline ND protocol [RFC4861] MUST be supported over 802.11-OCB
links. Transmitting ND packets may prove to have some performance links. Transmitting ND packets may prove to have some performance
issues as mentioned in Section 4.5.2, and Appendix I. These issues issues, as mentioned in Section 4.5.2 and Appendix I. These issues
may be exacerbated in OCB mode. Solutions for these problems should may be exacerbated in OCB mode. Solutions for these problems should
consider the OCB mode of operation. Future solutions to OCB should consider the OCB mode of operation. Future solutions to OCB should
consider solutions for avoiding broadcast. The best of current consider solutions for avoiding broadcast. The best of current
knowledge indicates the kinds of issues that may arise with ND in OCB knowledge indicates the kinds of issues that may arise with ND in OCB
mode; they are described in Appendix I. mode; they are described in Appendix I.
Protocols like Mobile IPv6 [RFC6275] , [RFC3963] and DNAv6 [RFC6059], Protocols like Mobile IPv6 [RFC6275] [RFC3963] and DNAv6 [RFC6059],
which depend on a timely movement detection, might need additional which depend on timely movement detection, might need additional
tuning work to handle the lack of link-layer notifications during tuning work to handle the lack of link-layer notifications during
handover. This is for further study. handover. This topic is left for further study.
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
Any security mechanism at the IP layer or above that may be carried Any security mechanism at the IP layer or above that may be
out for the general case of IPv6 may also be carried out for IPv6 implemented for the general case of IPv6 may also be implemented for
operating over 802.11-OCB. IPv6 operating over 802.11-OCB.
The OCB operation does not use existing 802.11 link-layer security The OCB operation does not use existing 802.11 link-layer security
mechanisms. There is no encryption applied below the network layer mechanisms. There is no encryption applied below the network layer
running on 802.11-OCB. At the application layer, the IEEE 1609.2 running on 802.11-OCB. At the application layer, the IEEE 1609.2
document [IEEE-1609.2] provides security services for certain document [IEEE-1609.2] provides security services for certain
applications to use; application-layer mechanisms are out of scope of applications to use; application-layer mechanisms are out of scope of
this document. On another hand, a security mechanism provided at this document. On the other hand, a security mechanism provided at
networking layer, such as IPsec [RFC4301], may provide data security the networking layer, such as IPsec [RFC4301], may provide data
protection to a wider range of applications. security protection to a wider range of applications.
802.11-OCB does not provide any cryptographic protection, because it 802.11-OCB does not provide any cryptographic protection because it
operates outside the context of a BSS (no Association Request/ operates outside the context of a BSS (no Association Request/
Response, no Challenge messages). Therefore, an attacker can sniff Response or Challenge messages). Therefore, an attacker can sniff or
or inject traffic while within range of a vehicle or IP-RSU (by inject traffic while within range of a vehicle or IP-RSU (by setting
setting an interface card's frequency to the proper range). Also, an an interface card's frequency to the proper range). Also, an
attacker may not heed to legal limits for radio power and can use a attacker may not adhere to the legal limits for radio power and can
very sensitive directional antenna; if attackers wishe to attack a use a very sensitive directional antenna; if attackers wish to attack
given exchange they do not necessarily need to be in close physical a given exchange, they do not necessarily need to be in close
proximity. Hence, such a link is less protected than commonly used physical proximity. Hence, such a link is less protected than
links (wired link or aforementioned 802.11 links with link-layer commonly used links (a wired link or the aforementioned 802.11 links
security). with link-layer security).
Therefore, any node can join a subnet, directly communicate with any Therefore, any node can join a subnet and directly communicate with
nodes on the subset to include potentially impersonating another any nodes on the subset, including potentially impersonating another
node. This design allows for a number of threats outlined in node. This design allows for a number of threats outlined in
Section 3 of [RFC6959]. While not widely deployed, SeND [RFC3971], Section 3 of [RFC6959]. While not widely deployed, SEND [RFC3971]
[RFC3972] is a solution that can address Spoof-Based Attack Vectors. [RFC3972] is a solution that can address spoof-based attack vectors.
5.1. Privacy Considerations 5.1. Privacy Considerations
As with all Ethernet and 802.11 interface identifiers ([RFC7721]), As with all Ethernet and 802.11 interface identifiers [RFC7721], the
the identifier of an 802.11-OCB interface may involve privacy, MAC identifier of an 802.11-OCB interface may involve privacy, MAC
address spoofing and IP hijacking risks. A vehicle embarking an IP- address spoofing, and IP hijacking risks. A vehicle embarking an IP-
OBU whose egress interface is 802.11-OCB may expose itself to OBU whose egress interface is 802.11-OCB may expose itself to
eavesdropping and subsequent correlation of data. This may reveal eavesdropping and subsequent correlation of data. This may reveal
data considered private by the vehicle owner; there is a risk of data considered private by the vehicle owner; there is a risk of
being tracked. In outdoors public environments, where vehicles being tracked. In outdoor public environments, where vehicles
typically circulate, the privacy risks are more important than in typically circulate, the privacy risks are greater than in indoor
indoors settings. It is highly likely that attacker sniffers are settings. It is highly likely that attacker sniffers are deployed
deployed along routes which listen for IEEE frames, including IP along routes that listen for IEEE frames, including IP packets, of
packets, of vehicles passing by. For this reason, in the 802.11-OCB vehicles passing by. For this reason, in 802.11-OCB deployments,
deployments, there is a strong necessity to use protection tools such there is a strong necessity to use protection tools such as
as dynamically changing MAC addresses Section 5.2, semantically dynamically changing MAC addresses (Section 5.2), semantically opaque
opaque Interface Identifiers and stable Interface Identifiers Interface Identifiers, and stable Interface Identifiers
Section 4.4. An example of change policy is to change the MAC (Section 4.4). An example of a change policy is to change the MAC
address of the OCB interface each time the system boots up. This may address of the OCB interface each time the system boots up. This may
help mitigate privacy risks to a certain level. Furthermore, for help mitigate privacy risks to a certain level. Furthermore, for
privacy concerns, ([RFC8065]) recommends using an address generation privacy concerns, [RFC8065] recommends using an address-generation
scheme rather than addresses generated from a fixed link-layer scheme rather than generating addresses from a fixed link-layer
address. However, there are some specificities related to vehicles. address. However, there are some specificities related to vehicles.
Since roaming is an important characteristic of moving vehicles, the Since roaming is an important characteristic of moving vehicles, the
use of the same Link-Local Address over time can indicate the use of the same Link-Local Address over time can indicate the
presence of the same vehicle in different places and thus leads to presence of the same vehicle in different places and thus lead to
location tracking. Hence, a vehicle should get hints about a change location tracking. Hence, a vehicle should get hints about a change
of environment (e.g. , engine running, GPS, etc..) and renew the IID of environment (e.g., engine running, GPS, etc.) and renew the IID in
in its LLAs. its LLAs.
5.1.1. Privacy Risks of Meaningful info in Interface IDs 5.1.1. Privacy Risks of Meaningful Information in Interface IDs
The privacy risks of using MAC addresses displayed in Interface The privacy risks of using MAC addresses displayed in Interface
Identifiers are important. The IPv6 packets can be captured easily Identifiers are important. IPv6 packets can be captured easily on
in the Internet and on-link in public roads. For this reason, an the Internet and on-link on public roads. For this reason, an
attacker may realize many attacks on privacy. One such attack on attacker may realize many attacks on privacy. One such attack on
802.11-OCB is to capture, store and correlate Company ID information 802.11-OCB is to capture, store, and correlate company ID information
present in MAC addresses of many cars (e.g. listen for Router present in the MAC addresses of a large number of cars (e.g.,
Advertisements, or other IPv6 application data packets, and record listening for Router Advertisements or other IPv6 application data
the value of the source address in these packets). Further packets, and recording the value of the source address in these
correlation of this information with other data captured by other packets). Further correlation of this information with other data
means, or other visual information (car color, others) may constitute captured by other means or other visual information (e.g., car color)
privacy risks. may constitute privacy risks.
5.2. MAC Address and Interface ID Generation 5.2. MAC Address and Interface ID Generation
In 802.11-OCB networks, the MAC addresses may change during well In 802.11-OCB networks, the MAC addresses may change during well-
defined renumbering events. In the moment the MAC address is changed defined renumbering events. At the moment the MAC address is changed
on an 802.11-OCB interface all the Interface Identifiers of IPv6 on an 802.11-OCB interface, all the Interface Identifiers of IPv6
addresses assigned to that interface MUST change. addresses assigned to that interface MUST change.
Implementations should use a policy dictating when the MAC address is Implementations should use a policy dictating when the MAC address is
changed on the 802.11-OCB interface. For more information on the changed on the 802.11-OCB interface. For more information on the
motivation of this policy please refer to the privacy discussion in motivation of this policy, please refer to the privacy discussion in
Appendix B. Appendix B.
A 'randomized' MAC address has the following characteristics: A 'randomized' MAC address has the following characteristics:
o Bit "Local/Global" set to "locally administered". * The "Local/Global" bit is set to "locally administered".
o Bit "Unicast/Multicast" set to "Unicast". * The "Unicast/Multicast" bit is set to "Unicast".
o The 46 remaining bits are set to a random value, using a random * The 46 remaining bits are set to a random value using a random
number generator that meets the requirements of [RFC4086]. number generator that meets the requirements of [RFC4086].
To meet the randomization requirements for the 46 remaining bits, a To meet the randomization requirements for the 46 remaining bits, a
hash function may be used. For example, the [SHA256] hash function hash function may be used. For example, the hash function defined in
may be used with input a 256 bit local secret, the 'nominal' MAC [SHA256] may be used with the input of a 256-bit local secret, the
Address of the interface, and a representation of the date and time 'nominal' MAC address of the interface, and a representation of the
of the renumbering event. date and time of the renumbering event.
A randomized Interface ID has the same characteristics of a A randomized Interface ID has the same characteristics of a
randomized MAC address, except the length in bits. randomized MAC address except for the length in bits.
5.3. Pseudonymization impact on confidentiality and trust 5.3. Pseudonymization Impact on Confidentiality and Trust
Vehicles 'and drivers' privacy relies on pseudonymization mechanisms Vehicle and drivers privacy relies on pseudonymization mechanisms
such as the ones described in Section 5.2. This pseudonymization such as the ones described in Section 5.2. This pseudonymization
means that upper-layer protocols and applications SHOULD NOT rely on means that upper-layer protocols and applications SHOULD NOT rely on
layer-2 or layer-3 addresses to assume that the other participant can layer-2 or layer-3 addresses to assume that the other participant can
be trusted. be trusted.
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
No request to IANA. This document has no IANA actions.
7. Contributors
Christian Huitema, Tony Li.
Romain Kuntz contributed extensively about IPv6 handovers between
links running outside the context of a BSS (802.11-OCB links).
Tim Leinmueller contributed the idea of the use of IPv6 over
802.11-OCB for distribution of certificates.
Marios Makassikis, Jose Santa Lozano, Albin Severinson and Alexey
Voronov provided significant feedback on the experience of using IP
messages over 802.11-OCB in initial trials.
Michelle Wetterwald contributed extensively the MTU discussion,
offered the ETSI ITS perspective, and reviewed other parts of the
document.
8. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Alexandre Petrescu for initiating
this work and for being the lead author until the version 43 of this
draft.
The authors would like to thank Pascal Thubert for reviewing,
proofreading and suggesting modifications of this document.
The authors would like to thank Mohamed Boucadair for proofreading
and suggesting modifications of this document.
The authors would like to thank Eric Vyncke for reviewing suggesting
modifications of this document.
The authors would like to thank Witold Klaudel, Ryuji Wakikawa,
Emmanuel Baccelli, John Kenney, John Moring, Francois Simon, Dan
Romascanu, Konstantin Khait, Ralph Droms, Richard 'Dick' Roy, Ray
Hunter, Tom Kurihara, Michal Sojka, Jan de Jongh, Suresh Krishnan,
Dino Farinacci, Vincent Park, Jaehoon Paul Jeong, Gloria Gwynne,
Hans-Joachim Fischer, Russ Housley, Rex Buddenberg, Erik Nordmark,
Bob Moskowitz, Andrew Dryden, Georg Mayer, Dorothy Stanley, Sandra
Cespedes, Mariano Falcitelli, Sri Gundavelli, Abdussalam Baryun,
Margaret Cullen, Erik Kline, Carlos Jesus Bernardos Cano, Ronald in
't Velt, Katrin Sjoberg, Roland Bless, Tijink Jasja, Kevin Smith,
Brian Carpenter, Julian Reschke, Mikael Abrahamsson, Dirk von Hugo,
Lorenzo Colitti, Pascal Thubert, Ole Troan, Jinmei Tatuya, Joel
Halpern, Eric Gray and William Whyte. Their valuable comments
clarified particular issues and generally helped to improve the
document.
Pierre Pfister, Rostislav Lisovy, and others, wrote 802.11-OCB
drivers for linux and described how.
For the multicast discussion, the authors would like to thank Owen
DeLong, Joe Touch, Jen Linkova, Erik Kline, Brian Haberman and
participants to discussions in network working groups.
The authors would like to thank participants to the Birds-of-
a-Feather "Intelligent Transportation Systems" meetings held at IETF
in 2016.
Human Rights Protocol Considerations review by Amelia Andersdotter.
9. References 7. References
9.1. Normative References 7.1. Normative References
[IEEE-802.11-2016] [IEEE-802.11-2016]
"IEEE Standard 802.11-2016 - IEEE Standard for Information IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Information technology -
Technology - Telecommunications and information exchange Telecommunications and information exchange between
between systems Local and metropolitan area networks - systems Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific
Specific requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications", IEEE
Specifications. Status - Active Standard. Description Standard 802.11-2016, December 2016,
retrieved freely; the document itself is also freely <https://standards.ieee.org/findstds/
available, but with some difficulty (requires standard/802.11-2016.html>.
registration); description and document retrieved on April
8th, 2019, starting from URL
https://standards.ieee.org/findstds/
standard/802.11-2016.html".
[RFC1042] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "Standard for the transmission [RFC1042] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "Standard for the transmission
of IP datagrams over IEEE 802 networks", STD 43, RFC 1042, of IP datagrams over IEEE 802 networks", STD 43, RFC 1042,
DOI 10.17487/RFC1042, February 1988, DOI 10.17487/RFC1042, February 1988,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1042>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1042>.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
skipping to change at page 14, line 14 skipping to change at line 563
[RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>. May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
[RFC8200] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 [RFC8200] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) Specification", STD 86, RFC 8200, (IPv6) Specification", STD 86, RFC 8200,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8200, July 2017, DOI 10.17487/RFC8200, July 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8200>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8200>.
9.2. Informative References 7.2. Informative References
[ETSI-sec-archi] [CFR-90] e-CFR, "Electronic Code of Federal Regulations", Title 47,
"ETSI TS 102 940 V1.2.1 (2016-11), ETSI Technical Part 90 - PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES,
Specification, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); <https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-
Security; ITS communications security architecture and idx?node=pt47.5.90&rgn=div5>.
security management, November 2016. Downloaded on
September 9th, 2017, freely available from ETSI website at
URL http://www.etsi.org/deliver/
etsi_ts/102900_102999/102940/01.02.01_60/
ts_102940v010201p.pdf".
[I-D.ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking] [CFR-90.7] e-CFR, "Electronic Code of Federal Regulations", Title 47,
Jeong, J., "IP Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments CFR 90.7 - Definitions, <https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/
(IPWAVE): Problem Statement and Use Cases", draft-ietf- text-idx?node=pt47.5.90&rgn=div5#se47.5.90_17>.
ipwave-vehicular-networking-11 (work in progress), July
2019.
[I-D.ietf-mboned-ieee802-mcast-problems] [CFR-95] e-CFR, "Electronic Code of Federal Regulations", Title 47,
Perkins, C., McBride, M., Stanley, D., Kumari, W., and J. CFR 95 - PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES, <https://www.ecfr.gov/
Zuniga, "Multicast Considerations over IEEE 802 Wireless cgi-bin/text-idx?node=pt47.5.95&rgn=div5>.
Media", draft-ietf-mboned-ieee802-mcast-problems-07 (work
in progress), July 2019. [ETSI-sec-archi]
"Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Security; ITS
communications security architecture and security
management", ETSI TS 102 940 V1.2.1, November 2016,
<http://www.etsi.org/deliver/
etsi_ts/102900_102999/102940/01.02.01_60/
ts_102940v010201p.pdf>.
[IEEE-1609.2] [IEEE-1609.2]
"IEEE SA - 1609.2-2016 - IEEE Standard for Wireless Access IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular
in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) -- Security Services for Environments--Security Services for Applications and
Applications and Management Messages. Example URL Management Messages", DOI 10.1109/IEEESTD.2016.7426684,
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7426684/ accessed on IEEE Standard 1609.2-2016, March 2016,
August 17th, 2017.". <http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7426684>.
[IEEE-1609.3] [IEEE-1609.3]
"IEEE SA - 1609.3-2016 - IEEE Standard for Wireless Access IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular
in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) -- Networking Services. Environments (WAVE) -- Networking Services",
Example URL http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7458115/ DOI 10.1109/IEEESTD.2016.7458115, IEEE
accessed on August 17th, 2017.". Standard 1609.3-2016, April 2016,
<http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7458115>.
[IEEE-1609.4] [IEEE-1609.4]
"IEEE SA - 1609.4-2016 - IEEE Standard for Wireless Access IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular
in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) -- Multi-Channel Environments (WAVE) -- Multi-Channel Operation",
Operation. Example URL DOI 10.1109/IEEESTD.2016.7435228, IEEE
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7435228/ accessed on Standard 1609.4-2016, March 2016,
August 17th, 2017.". <http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7435228>.
[IEEE-802.11-2007]
IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Information Technology -
Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between
Systems - Local and Metropolitan Area Networks - Specific
Requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
(MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications",
DOI 10.1109/IEEESTD.2007.373646, IEEE
Standard 802.11-2007, June 2007,
<https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/4248378>.
[IEEE-802.11-2012]
IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Information technology--
Telecommunications and information exchange between
systems Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific
requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
(MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications",
DOI 10.1109/IEEESTD.2012.6178212, IEEE
Standard 802.11-2012, March 2012,
<https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6419735>.
[IEEE-802.11p-2010] [IEEE-802.11p-2010]
"IEEE Std 802.11p (TM)-2010, IEEE Standard for Information IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Information technology -
Technology - Telecommunications and information exchange Telecommunications and information exchange between
between systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific
Specific requirements, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access requirements, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, Amendment
Amendment 6: Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments; 6: Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments",
document freely available at URL DOI 10.1109/IEEESTD.2010.5514475, IEEE Standard 802.11p-
http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/ 2010, July 2010,
download/802.11p-2010.pdf retrieved on September 20th, <https://standards.ieee.org/standard/802_11p-2010.html>.
2013.".
[IEEE-802.3-2012]
IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Ethernet",
DOI 10.1109/IEEESTD.2012.6419735, IEEE
Standard 802.3-2012, December 2012,
<https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6419735>.
[IEEE802-MCAST]
Perkins, C., McBride, M., Stanley, D., Kumari, W., and J.
Zuniga, "Multicast Considerations over IEEE 802 Wireless
Media", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
mboned-ieee802-mcast-problems-11, 11 December 2019,
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-mboned-ieee802-
mcast-problems-11>.
[IPWAVE] Jeong, J., "IP Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments
(IPWAVE): Problem Statement and Use Cases", Work in
Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-
networking-12, 3 October 2019,
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-
networking-12>.
[RFC3753] Manner, J., Ed. and M. Kojo, Ed., "Mobility Related [RFC3753] Manner, J., Ed. and M. Kojo, Ed., "Mobility Related
Terminology", RFC 3753, DOI 10.17487/RFC3753, June 2004, Terminology", RFC 3753, DOI 10.17487/RFC3753, June 2004,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3753>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3753>.
[RFC3963] Devarapalli, V., Wakikawa, R., Petrescu, A., and P. [RFC3963] Devarapalli, V., Wakikawa, R., Petrescu, A., and P.
Thubert, "Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support Protocol", Thubert, "Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support Protocol",
RFC 3963, DOI 10.17487/RFC3963, January 2005, RFC 3963, DOI 10.17487/RFC3963, January 2005,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3963>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3963>.
skipping to change at page 16, line 14 skipping to change at line 695
[RFC7721] Cooper, A., Gont, F., and D. Thaler, "Security and Privacy [RFC7721] Cooper, A., Gont, F., and D. Thaler, "Security and Privacy
Considerations for IPv6 Address Generation Mechanisms", Considerations for IPv6 Address Generation Mechanisms",
RFC 7721, DOI 10.17487/RFC7721, March 2016, RFC 7721, DOI 10.17487/RFC7721, March 2016,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7721>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7721>.
[RFC8065] Thaler, D., "Privacy Considerations for IPv6 Adaptation- [RFC8065] Thaler, D., "Privacy Considerations for IPv6 Adaptation-
Layer Mechanisms", RFC 8065, DOI 10.17487/RFC8065, Layer Mechanisms", RFC 8065, DOI 10.17487/RFC8065,
February 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8065>. February 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8065>.
[SHA256] "Secure Hash Standard (SHS), National Institute of [RFC8505] Thubert, P., Ed., Nordmark, E., Chakrabarti, S., and C.
Standards and Technology. Perkins, "Registration Extensions for IPv6 over Low-Power
https://csrc.nist.gov/CSRC/media/Publications/fips/180/2/ Wireless Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN) Neighbor
archive/2002-08-01/documents/fips180-2.pdf". Discovery", RFC 8505, DOI 10.17487/RFC8505, November 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8505>.
[SHA256] National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure
Hash Standard (SHS)", DOI 10.6028/NIST.FIPS.180-4,
FIPS 180-4, August 2015,
<https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/fips/180/4/
final>.
Appendix A. 802.11p Appendix A. 802.11p
The term "802.11p" is an earlier definition. The behaviour of The term "802.11p" is an earlier definition. The behavior of
"802.11p" networks is rolled in the document IEEE Std 802.11-2016. "802.11p" networks is rolled in [IEEE-802.11-2016]. In that
In that document the term 802.11p disappears. Instead, each 802.11p document, the term "802.11p" disappears. Instead, each 802.11p
feature is conditioned by the IEEE Management Information Base (MIB) feature is conditioned by the IEEE Management Information Base (MIB)
attribute "OCBActivated" [IEEE-802.11-2016]. Whenever OCBActivated attribute "OCBActivated" [IEEE-802.11-2016]. Whenever OCBActivated
is set to true the IEEE Std 802.11-OCB state is activated. For is set to "true", the IEEE Std 802.11-OCB state is activated. For
example, an 802.11 STAtion operating outside the context of a basic example, an 802.11 STAtion operating outside the context of a BSS has
service set has the OCBActivated flag set. Such a station, when it the OCBActivated flag set. Such a station, when it has the flag set,
has the flag set, uses a BSS identifier equal to ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff. uses a BSS identifier equal to ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff.
Appendix B. Aspects introduced by the OCB mode to 802.11 Appendix B. Aspects Introduced by OCB Mode to 802.11
In the IEEE 802.11-OCB mode, all nodes in the wireless range can In IEEE 802.11-OCB mode, all nodes in the wireless range can directly
directly communicate with each other without involving authentication communicate with each other without involving authentication or
or association procedures. In OCB mode, the manner in which channels association procedures. In OCB mode, the manner in which channels
are selected and used is simplified compared to when in BSS mode. are selected and used is simplified compared to when in BSS mode.
Contrary to BSS mode, at link layer, it is necessary to set Contrary to BSS mode, at the link layer, it is necessary to
statically the same channel number (or frequency) on two stations statically set the same channel number (or frequency) on two stations
that need to communicate with each other (in BSS mode this channel that need to communicate with each other (in BSS mode, this channel
set operation is performed automatically during 'scanning'). The set operation is performed automatically during 'scanning'). The
manner in which stations set their channel number in OCB mode is not manner in which stations set their channel number in OCB mode is not
specified in this document. Stations STA1 and STA2 can exchange IP specified in this document. Stations STA1 and STA2 can exchange IP
packets only if they are set on the same channel. At IP layer, they packets only if they are set to the same channel. At the IP layer,
then discover each other by using the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery they then discover each other by using the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery
protocol. The allocation of a particular channel for a particular protocol. The allocation of a particular channel for a particular
use is defined statically in standards authored by ETSI (in Europe), use is defined statically in standards authored by ETSI in Europe,
FCC in America, and similar organisations in South Korea, Japan and the FCC in the United States of America, and similar organizations in
other parts of the world. South Korea, Japan, and other parts of the world.
Briefly, the IEEE 802.11-OCB mode has the following properties: Briefly, the IEEE 802.11-OCB mode has the following properties:
o The use by each node of a 'wildcard' BSSID (i.e., each bit of the * The use by each node of a 'wildcard' BSS identifier (BSSID) (i.e.,
BSSID is set to 1) each bit of the BSSID is set to 1).
o No IEEE 802.11 Beacon frames are transmitted * No IEEE 802.11 beacon frames are transmitted.
o No authentication is required in order to be able to communicate * No authentication is required in order to be able to communicate.
o No association is needed in order to be able to communicate * No association is needed in order to be able to communicate.
o No encryption is provided in order to be able to communicate * No encryption is provided in order to be able to communicate.
o Flag dot11OCBActivated is set to true * Flag dot11OCBActivated is set to "true".
All the nodes in the radio communication range (IP-OBU and IP-RSU) All the nodes in the radio communication range (IP-OBU and IP-RSU)
receive all the messages transmitted (IP-OBU and IP-RSU) within the receive all the messages transmitted (IP-OBU and IP-RSU) within the
radio communications range. The eventual conflict(s) are resolved by radio communication range. The MAC CDMA function resolves any
the MAC CDMA function. eventual conflict(s).
The message exchange diagram in Figure 1 illustrates a comparison The message exchange diagram in Figure 1 illustrates a comparison
between traditional 802.11 and 802.11 in OCB mode. The 'Data' between traditional 802.11 and 802.11 in OCB mode. The 'Data'
messages can be IP packets such as HTTP or others. Other 802.11 messages can be IP packets such as HTTP or others. Other 802.11
management and control frames (non IP) may be transmitted, as management and control frames (non-IP) may be transmitted, as
specified in the 802.11 standard. For information, the names of specified in the 802.11 standard. The names of these messages as
these messages as currently specified by the 802.11 standard are currently specified by the 802.11 standard are listed in Appendix F.
listed in Appendix F.
STA AP STA1 STA2 STA AP STA1 STA2
| | | | | | | |
|<------ Beacon -------| |<------ Data -------->| |<------ Beacon -------| |<------ Data -------->|
| | | | | | | |
|---- Probe Req. ----->| |<------ Data -------->| |---- Probe Req. ----->| |<------ Data -------->|
|<--- Probe Res. ------| | | |<--- Probe Res. ------| | |
| | |<------ Data -------->| | | |<------ Data -------->|
|---- Auth Req. ------>| | | |---- Auth Req. ------>| | |
|<--- Auth Res. -------| |<------ Data -------->| |<--- Auth Res. -------| |<------ Data -------->|
| | | | | | | |
|---- Asso Req. ------>| |<------ Data -------->| |---- Asso Req. ------>| |<------ Data -------->|
|<--- Asso Res. -------| | | |<--- Asso Res. -------| | |
| | |<------ Data -------->| | | |<------ Data -------->|
|<------ Data -------->| | | |<------ Data -------->| | |
|<------ Data -------->| |<------ Data -------->| |<------ Data -------->| |<------ Data -------->|
(i) 802.11 Infrastructure mode (ii) 802.11-OCB mode (i) 802.11 Infrastructure mode (ii) 802.11-OCB mode
Figure 1: Difference between messages exchanged on 802.11 (left) and Figure 1: Difference between Messages Exchanged on 802.11 (Left)
802.11-OCB (right) and 802.11-OCB (Right)
The interface 802.11-OCB was specified in IEEE Std 802.11p (TM) -2010 The 802.11-OCB interface was specified in [IEEE-802.11p-2010],
[IEEE-802.11p-2010] as an amendment to IEEE Std 802.11 (TM) -2007, Amendment 6: Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments, as an
titled "Amendment 6: Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments". amendment to [IEEE-802.11-2007]. Since then, this amendment has been
Since then, this amendment has been integrated in IEEE 802.11(TM) integrated into [IEEE-802.11-2012] and [IEEE-802.11-2016].
-2012 and -2016 [IEEE-802.11-2016].
In document 802.11-2016, anything qualified specifically as In [IEEE-802.11p-2010], anything qualified specifically as
"OCBActivated", or "outside the context of a basic service" set to be "OCBActivated" or "outside the context of a basic service" that is
true, then it is actually referring to OCB aspects introduced to set to be "true" actually refers to OCB aspects introduced to 802.11.
802.11.
In order to delineate the aspects introduced by 802.11-OCB to 802.11, In order to delineate the aspects introduced by 802.11-OCB to 802.11,
we refer to the earlier [IEEE-802.11p-2010]. The amendment is we refer to the earlier [IEEE-802.11p-2010]. The amendment is
concerned with vehicular communications, where the wireless link is concerned with vehicular communications, where the wireless link is
similar to that of Wireless LAN (using a PHY layer specified by similar to that of Wireless LAN (using a PHY layer specified by
802.11a/b/g/n), but which needs to cope with the high mobility factor 802.11a/b/g/n) but needs to cope with the high mobility factor
inherent in scenarios of communications between moving vehicles, and inherent in scenarios of communications between moving vehicles and
between vehicles and fixed infrastructure deployed along roads. between vehicles and fixed infrastructure deployed along roads.
While 'p' is a letter identifying the Amendment, just like 'a, b, g' While 'p' is a letter identifying the Amendment, just like 'a', 'b',
and 'n' are, 'p' is concerned more with MAC modifications, and a 'g', and 'n' are, 'p' is concerned more with MAC modifications and is
little with PHY modifications; the others are mainly about PHY slightly concerned with PHY modifications; the others are mainly
modifications. It is possible in practice to combine a 'p' MAC with about PHY modifications. It is possible in practice to combine a 'p'
an 'a' PHY by operating outside the context of a BSS with OFDM at MAC with an 'a' PHY by operating outside the context of a BSS with
5.4GHz and 5.9GHz. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) at 5.4 GHz and 5.9
GHz.
The 802.11-OCB links are specified to be compatible as much as The 802.11-OCB links are specified to be as compatible as possible
possible with the behaviour of 802.11a/b/g/n and future generation with the behavior of 802.11a/b/g/n and future generation IEEE WLAN
IEEE WLAN links. From the IP perspective, an 802.11-OCB MAC layer links. From the IP perspective, an 802.11-OCB MAC layer offers
offers practically the same interface to IP as the 802.11a/b/g/n and practically the same interface to IP as 802.11a/b/g/n and 802.3. A
802.3. A packet sent by an IP-OBU may be received by one or multiple packet sent by an IP-OBU may be received by one or multiple IP-RSUs.
IP-RSUs. The link-layer resolution is performed by using the IPv6 The link-layer resolution is performed by using the IPv6 Neighbor
Neighbor Discovery protocol. Discovery protocol.
To support this similarity statement (IPv6 is layered on top of LLC To support this similarity statement (IPv6 is layered on top of LLC
on top of 802.11-OCB, in the same way that IPv6 is layered on top of on top of 802.11-OCB in the same way that IPv6 is layered on top of
LLC on top of 802.11a/b/g/n (for WLAN) or layered on top of LLC on LLC on top of 802.11a/b/g/n (for WLAN) or on top of LLC on top of
top of 802.3 (for Ethernet)) it is useful to analyze the differences 802.3 (for Ethernet)), it is useful to analyze the differences
between 802.11-OCB and 802.11 specifications. During this analysis, between the 802.11-OCB and 802.11 specifications. During this
we note that whereas 802.11-OCB lists relatively complex and numerous analysis, we note that whereas 802.11-OCB lists relatively complex
changes to the MAC layer (and very little to the PHY layer), there and numerous changes to the MAC layer (and very few to the PHY
are only a few characteristics which may be important for an layer), there are only a few characteristics that may be important
implementation transmitting IPv6 packets on 802.11-OCB links. for an implementation transmitting IPv6 packets on 802.11-OCB links.
The most important 802.11-OCB point which influences the IPv6 The most important 802.11-OCB aspect that influences the IPv6
functioning is the OCB characteristic; an additional, less direct functioning is the OCB characteristic; an additional, less direct
influence, is the maximum bandwidth afforded by the PHY modulation/ influence is the maximum bandwidth afforded by the PHY modulation/
demodulation methods and channel access specified by 802.11-OCB. The demodulation methods and channel access specified by 802.11-OCB. The
maximum bandwidth theoretically possible in 802.11-OCB is 54 Mbit/s maximum bandwidth theoretically possible in 802.11-OCB is 54 Mbit/s
(when using, for example, the following parameters: 20 MHz channel; (when using, for example, the following parameters: a 20 MHz channel;
modulation 64-QAM; coding rate R is 3/4); in practice of IP-over- modulation of 64-QAM; a coding rate R of 3/4). With regard to IP
802.11-OCB a commonly observed figure is 12Mbit/s; this bandwidth over 802.11-OCB, in practice, a commonly observed figure is 12 Mbit/
allows the operation of a wide range of protocols relying on IPv6. s; this bandwidth allows the operation of a wide range of protocols
relying on IPv6.
o Operation Outside the Context of a BSS (OCB): the (earlier * Operation outside the context of a BSS (OCB): The 802.11-OCB links
802.11p) 802.11-OCB links are operated without a Basic Service Set (previously 802.11p) are operated without a BSS. This means that
(BSS). This means that the frames IEEE 802.11 Beacon, Association IEEE 802.11 beacon, Association Request/Response, Authentication
Request/Response, Authentication Request/Response, and similar, Request/Response, and similar frames are not used. The used
are not used. The used identifier of BSS (BSSID) has a identifier of BSS (BSSID) always has a hexadecimal value of
hexadecimal value always 0xffffffffffff (48 '1' bits, represented 0xffffffffffff (48 '1' bits, represented as MAC address
as MAC address ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, or otherwise the 'wildcard' ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff; otherwise, the 'wildcard' BSSID), as opposed to
BSSID), as opposed to an arbitrary BSSID value set by an arbitrary BSSID value set by an administrator (e.g., 'My-Home-
administrator (e.g. 'My-Home-AccessPoint'). The OCB operation - AccessPoint'). The OCB operation -- namely, the lack of beacon-
namely the lack of beacon-based scanning and lack of based scanning and lack of authentication -- should be taken into
authentication - should be taken into account when the Mobile IPv6 account when the Mobile IPv6 protocol [RFC6275] and the protocols
protocol [RFC6275] and the protocols for IP layer security for IP layer security [RFC4301] are used. The way these protocols
[RFC4301] are used. The way these protocols adapt to OCB is not adapt to OCB is not described in this document.
described in this document.
o Timing Advertisement: is a new message defined in 802.11-OCB, * Timing Advertisement: This is a new message defined in 802.11-OCB
which does not exist in 802.11a/b/g/n. This message is used by that does not exist in 802.11a/b/g/n. This message is used by
stations to inform other stations about the value of time. It is stations to inform other stations about the value of time. It is
similar to the time as delivered by a GNSS system (Galileo, GPS, similar to the time delivered by a Global Navigation Satellite
...) or by a cellular system. This message is optional for System (GNSS) (e.g., Galileo, GPS, etc.) or by a cellular system.
implementation. This message is optional for implementation.
o Frequency range: this is a characteristic of the PHY layer, with * Frequency range: This is a characteristic of the PHY layer; it has
almost no impact on the interface between MAC and IP. However, it almost no impact on the interface between MAC and IP. However, it
is worth considering that the frequency range is regulated by a is worth considering that the frequency range is regulated by a
regional authority (ARCEP, ECC/CEPT based on ENs from ETSI, FCC, regional authority (ARCEP, ECC/CEPT based on ENs from ETSI, FCC,
etc.); as part of the regulation process, specific applications etc.); as part of the regulation process, specific applications
are associated with specific frequency ranges. In the case of are associated with specific frequency ranges. In the case of
802.11-OCB, the regulator associates a set of frequency ranges, or 802.11-OCB, the regulator associates a set of frequency ranges or
slots within a band, to the use of applications of vehicular slots within a band to the use of applications of vehicular
communications, in a band known as "5.9GHz". The 5.9GHz band is communications in a band known as "5.9 GHz". The 5.9 GHz band is
different from the 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands used by Wireless LAN. different from the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands used by Wireless LAN.
However, as with Wireless LAN, the operation of 802.11-OCB in However, as with Wireless LAN, the operation of 802.11-OCB in 5.9
"5.9GHz" bands is exempt from owning a license in EU (in US the GHz bands does not require a license in the EU (in the US, the 5.9
5.9GHz is a licensed band of spectrum; for the fixed GHz is a licensed band of spectrum; for the fixed infrastructure,
infrastructure an explicit FCC authorization is required; for an explicit FCC authorization is required; for an on-board device, a
on-board device a 'licensed-by-rule' concept applies: rule 'licensed-by-rule' concept applies, where rule certification
certification conformity is required.) Technical conditions are conformity is required). Technical conditions are different from
different than those of the bands "2.4GHz" or "5GHz". The allowed those of the "2.4 GHz" or "5 GHz" bands. The allowed power levels
power levels, and implicitly the maximum allowed distance between and, implicitly, the maximum allowed distance between vehicles is
vehicles, is of 33dBm for 802.11-OCB (in Europe), compared to 20 33 dBm for 802.11-OCB (in Europe) compared to 20 dBm for Wireless
dBm for Wireless LAN 802.11a/b/g/n; this leads to a maximum LAN 802.11a/b/g/n; this leads to a maximum distance of
distance of approximately 1km, compared to approximately 50m. approximately 1 km compared to approximately 50 m. Additionally,
specific conditions related to congestion avoidance, jamming
Additionally, specific conditions related to congestion avoidance, avoidance, and radar detection are imposed on the use of DSRC (in
jamming avoidance, and radar detection are imposed on the use of the US) and on the use of frequencies for Intelligent
DSRC (in US) and on the use of frequencies for Intelligent Transportation Systems (in the EU) compared to Wireless LAN
Transportation Systems (in EU), compared to Wireless LAN
(802.11a/b/g/n). (802.11a/b/g/n).
o 'Half-rate' encoding: as the frequency range, this parameter is * 'Half-rate' encoding: As the frequency range, this parameter is
related to PHY, and thus has not much impact on the interface related to PHY and thus does not have much impact on the interface
between the IP layer and the MAC layer. between the IP layer and the MAC layer.
o In vehicular communications using 802.11-OCB links, there are * In vehicular communications using 802.11-OCB links, there are
strong privacy requirements with respect to addressing. While the strong privacy requirements with respect to addressing. While the
802.11-OCB standard does not specify anything in particular with 802.11-OCB standard does not specify anything in particular with
respect to MAC addresses, in these settings there exists a strong respect to MAC addresses, in these settings, there is a strong
need for dynamic change of these addresses (as opposed to the non- need for a dynamic change of these addresses (as opposed to the
vehicular settings - real wall protection - where fixed MAC non-vehicular settings -- real wall protection -- where fixed MAC
addresses do not currently pose some privacy risks). This is addresses do not currently pose privacy risks). This is further
further described in Section 5. A relevant function is described described in Section 5. A relevant function is described in
in documents IEEE 1609.3-2016 [IEEE-1609.3] and IEEE 1609.4-2016 [IEEE-1609.3] and [IEEE-1609.4].
[IEEE-1609.4].
Appendix C. Changes Needed on a software driver 802.11a to become a Appendix C. Changes Needed on an 802.11a Software Driver to Become an
802.11-OCB driver 802.11-OCB Driver
The 802.11p amendment modifies both the 802.11 stack's physical and The 802.11p amendment modifies both the 802.11 stack's physical and
MAC layers but all the induced modifications can be quite easily MAC layers, but all the induced modifications can be quite easily
obtained by modifying an existing 802.11a ad-hoc stack. obtained by modifying an existing 802.11a ad hoc stack.
Conditions for a 802.11a hardware to be 802.11-OCB compliant: The conditions for 802.11a hardware to be compliant with 802.11-OCB
are as follows:
o The PHY entity shall be an orthogonal frequency division * The PHY entity shall be an OFDM system. It must support the
multiplexing (OFDM) system. It must support the frequency bands frequency bands on which the regulator recommends the use of ITS
on which the regulator recommends the use of ITS communications, communications -- for example, using an IEEE 802.11-OCB layer of
for example using IEEE 802.11-OCB layer, in France: 5875MHz to 5875 MHz to 5925 MHz in France.
5925MHz.
o The OFDM system must provide a "half-clocked" operation using 10 * The OFDM system must provide a "half-clocked" operation using 10
MHz channel spacings. MHz channel spacings.
o The chip transmit spectrum mask must be compliant to the "Transmit * The chip transmit spectrum mask must be compliant with the
spectrum mask" from the IEEE 802.11p amendment (but experimental "Transmit spectrum mask" from the IEEE 802.11p amendment (but
environments tolerate otherwise). experimental environments do not require compliance).
o The chip should be able to transmit up to 44.8 dBm when used by * The chip should be able to transmit up to 44.8 dBm when used in
the US government in the United States, and up to 33 dBm in the United States and up to 33 dBm in Europe; other regional
Europe; other regional conditions apply. conditions apply.
Changes needed on the network stack in OCB mode: Changes needed on the network stack in OCB mode are as follows:
o Physical layer: * Physical layer:
* The chip must use the Orthogonal Frequency Multiple Access - Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access The chip must use
(OFDM) encoding mode. the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)
encoding mode.
* The chip must be set in half-mode rate mode (the internal clock - The chip must be set to half-mode rate mode (the internal clock
frequency is divided by two). frequency is divided by two).
* The chip must use dedicated channels and should allow the use - The chip must use dedicated channels and should allow the use
of higher emission powers. This may require modifications to of higher emission powers. This may require modifications to
the local computer file that describes regulatory domains the local computer file that describes regulatory domains rules
rules, if used by the kernel to enforce local specific if used by the kernel to enforce local specific restrictions.
restrictions. Such modifications to the local computer file Such modifications to the local computer file must respect the
must respect the location-specific regulatory rules. location-specific regulatory rules.
MAC layer: * MAC layer:
* All management frames (beacons, join, leave, and others) - All management frames (beacons, join, leave, and others)
emission and reception must be disabled except for frames of emission and reception must be disabled, except for frames of
subtype Action and Timing Advertisement (defined below). subtype Action and Timing Advertisement (defined below).
* No encryption key or method must be used. - No encryption key or method must be used.
* Packet emission and reception must be performed as in ad-hoc - Packet emission and reception must be performed as in ad hoc
mode, using the wildcard BSSID (ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff). mode using the wildcard BSSID (ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff).
* The functions related to joining a BSS (Association Request/ - The functions related to joining a BSS (Association Request/
Response) and for authentication (Authentication Request/Reply, Response) and authentication (Authentication Request/Reply,
Challenge) are not called. Challenge) are not called.
* The beacon interval is always set to 0 (zero). - The beacon interval is always set to 0 (zero).
* Timing Advertisement frames, defined in the amendment, should - Timing Advertisement frames, defined in the amendment, should
be supported. The upper layer should be able to trigger such be supported. The upper layer should be able to trigger such
frames emission and to retrieve information contained in frames emission and retrieve information contained in the
received Timing Advertisements. received Timing Advertisements.
Appendix D. Protocol Layering Appendix D. Protocol Layering
A more theoretical and detailed view of layer stacking, and A more theoretical and detailed view of layer stacking and interfaces
interfaces between the IP layer and 802.11-OCB layers, is illustrated between the IP layer and 802.11-OCB layers is illustrated in
in Figure 2. The IP layer operates on top of the EtherType Protocol Figure 2. The IP layer operates on top of EtherType Protocol
Discrimination (EPD); this Discrimination layer is described in IEEE Discrimination (EPD). This discrimination layer is described in
Std 802.3-2012; the interface between IPv6 and EPD is the LLC_SAP [IEEE-802.3-2012]. The interface between IPv6 and EPD is the LLC_SAP
(Link Layer Control Service Access Point). (Link Layer Control Service Access Point).
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| IPv6 | | IPv6 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-{ }+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-{ }+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
{ LLC_SAP } 802.11-OCB { LLC_SAP } 802.11-OCB
+-+-+-+-+-+-{ }+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Boundary +-+-+-+-+-+-{ }+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Boundary
| EPD | | | | EPD | | |
| | MLME | | | | MLME | |
+-+-+-{ MAC_SAP }+-+-+-| MLME_SAP | +-+-+-{ MAC_SAP }+-+-+-| MLME_SAP |
skipping to change at page 22, line 28 skipping to change at line 999
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 2: EtherType Protocol Discrimination Figure 2: EtherType Protocol Discrimination
Appendix E. Design Considerations Appendix E. Design Considerations
The networks defined by 802.11-OCB are in many ways similar to other The networks defined by 802.11-OCB are in many ways similar to other
networks of the 802.11 family. In theory, the transportation of IPv6 networks of the 802.11 family. In theory, the transportation of IPv6
over 802.11-OCB could be very similar to the operation of IPv6 over over 802.11-OCB could be very similar to the operation of IPv6 over
other networks of the 802.11 family. However, the high mobility, other networks of the 802.11 family. However, the high mobility,
strong link asymmetry and very short connection makes the 802.11-OCB strong link asymmetry, and very short connection makes the 802.11-OCB
link significantly different from other 802.11 networks. Also, the link significantly different from other 802.11 networks. Also,
automotive applications have specific requirements for reliability, automotive applications have specific requirements for reliability,
security and privacy, which further add to the particularity of the security, and privacy, which further add to the particularity of the
802.11-OCB link. 802.11-OCB link.
Appendix F. IEEE 802.11 Messages Transmitted in OCB mode Appendix F. IEEE 802.11 Messages Transmitted in OCB Mode
For information, at the time of writing, this is the list of IEEE At the time of writing, this is the list of IEEE 802.11 messages that
802.11 messages that may be transmitted in OCB mode, i.e. when may be transmitted in OCB mode, i.e., when dot11OCBActivated is true
dot11OCBActivated is true in a STA: in a STA:
o The STA may send management frames of subtype Action and, if the * The STA may send management frames of subtype Action and, if the
STA maintains a TSF Timer, subtype Timing Advertisement; STA maintains a TSF Timer, subtype Timing Advertisement.
o The STA may send control frames, except those of subtype PS-Poll, * The STA may send control frames except those of subtype PS-Poll,
CF-End, and CF-End plus CFAck; CF-End, and CF-End plus CFAck.
o The STA MUST send data frames of subtype QoS Data. * The STA MUST send data frames of subtype QoS Data.
Appendix G. Examples of Packet Formats Appendix G. Examples of Packet Formats
This section describes an example of an IPv6 Packet captured over a This section describes an example of an IPv6 packet captured over an
IEEE 802.11-OCB link. IEEE 802.11-OCB link.
By way of example we show that there is no modification in the By way of example, we show that there is no modification in the
headers when transmitted over 802.11-OCB networks - they are headers when transmitted over 802.11-OCB networks -- they are
transmitted like any other 802.11 and Ethernet packets. transmitted like any other 802.11 and Ethernet packets.
We describe an experiment of capturing an IPv6 packet on an We describe an experiment for capturing an IPv6 packet on an
802.11-OCB link. In topology depicted in Figure 3, the packet is an 802.11-OCB link. In the topology depicted in Figure 3, the packet is
IPv6 Router Advertisement. This packet is emitted by a Router on its an IPv6 Router Advertisement. This packet is emitted by a router on
802.11-OCB interface. The packet is captured on the Host, using a its 802.11-OCB interface. The packet is captured on the host using a
network protocol analyzer (e.g. Wireshark); the capture is performed network protocol analyzer (e.g., Wireshark). The capture is
in two different modes: direct mode and 'monitor' mode. The topology performed in two different modes: direct mode and monitor mode. The
used during the capture is depicted below. topology used during the capture is depicted below.
The packet is captured on the Host. The Host is an IP-OBU containing The packet is captured on the host. The host is an IP-OBU containing
an 802.11 interface in format PCI express (an ITRI product). The an 802.11 interface in Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI)
kernel runs the ath5k software driver with modifications for OCB Express format (an Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI)
mode. The capture tool is Wireshark. The file format for save and product). The kernel runs the ath5k software driver with
analyze is 'pcap'. The packet is generated by the Router. The modifications for OCB mode. The capture tool is Wireshark. The file
Router is an IP-RSU (ITRI product). format for saving and analyzing is .pcap. The packet is generated by
the router, which is an IP-RSU (an ITRI product).
+--------+ +-------+ +--------+ +-------+
| | 802.11-OCB Link | | | | 802.11-OCB Link | |
---| Router |--------------------------------| Host | ---| Router |--------------------------------| Host |
| | | | | | | |
+--------+ +-------+ +--------+ +-------+
Figure 3: Topology for capturing IP packets on 802.11-OCB Figure 3: Topology for Capturing IP Packets on 802.11-OCB
During several capture operations running from a few moments to During several capture operations running from a few moments to
several hours, no message relevant to the BSSID contexts were several hours, no messages relevant to the BSSID contexts were
captured (no Association Request/Response, Authentication Req/Resp, captured (Association Request/Response, Authentication Req/Resp, or
Beacon). This shows that the operation of 802.11-OCB is outside the beacon). This shows that the operation of 802.11-OCB is outside the
context of a BSSID. context of a BSSID.
Overall, the captured message is identical with a capture of an IPv6 Overall, the captured message is identical to a capture of an IPv6
packet emitted on a 802.11b interface. The contents are precisely packet emitted on an 802.11b interface. The contents are exactly the
similar. same.
G.1. Capture in Monitor Mode G.1. Capture in Monitor Mode
The IPv6 RA packet captured in monitor mode is illustrated below. The IPv6 RA packet captured in monitor mode is illustrated below.
The radio tap header provides more flexibility for reporting the The Radiotap header provides more flexibility for reporting the
characteristics of frames. The Radiotap Header is prepended by this characteristics of frames. The Radiotap header is prepended by this
particular stack and operating system on the Host machine to the RA particular stack and operating system on the host machine to the RA
packet received from the network (the Radiotap Header is not present packet received from the network (the Radiotap header is not present
on the air). The implementation-dependent Radiotap Header is useful on the air). The implementation-dependent Radiotap header is useful
for piggybacking PHY information from the chip's registers as data in for piggybacking PHY information from the chip's registers as data in
a packet understandable by userland applications using Socket a packet that is understandable by userland applications using socket
interfaces (the PHY interface can be, for example: power levels, data interfaces (the PHY interface can be, for example, power levels, data
rate, ratio of signal to noise). rate, or the ratio of signal to noise).
The packet present on the air is formed by IEEE 802.11 Data Header, The packet present on the air is formed by the IEEE 802.11 Data
Logical Link Control Header, IPv6 Base Header and ICMPv6 Header. header, Logical Link Control header, IPv6 Base header, and ICMPv6
header.
Radiotap Header v0
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Header Revision| Header Pad | Header length | |Header Revision| Header Pad | Header Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Present flags | | Present Flags |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Data Rate | Pad | | Data Rate | Pad |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
IEEE 802.11 Data Header Figure 4: Radiotap Header v0
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type/Subtype and Frame Ctrl | Duration | | Type/Subtype and Frame Ctrl | Duration |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Receiver Address... | Receiver Address...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
... Receiver Address | Transmitter Address... ... Receiver Address | Transmitter Address...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
... Transmitter Address | ... Transmitter Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| BSS Id... | BSS ID...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
... BSS Id | Frag Number and Seq Number | ... BSS ID | Frag Number and Seq Number |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Logical-Link Control Header Figure 5: IEEE 802.11 Data Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| DSAP |I| SSAP |C| Control field | Org. code... | DSAP |I| SSAP |C| Control Field | Org. Code...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
... Organizational Code | Type | ... Organizational Code | Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
IPv6 Base Header
Figure 6: Logical Link Control Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Version| Traffic Class | Flow Label | |Version| Traffic Class | Flow Label |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Payload Length | Next Header | Hop Limit | | Payload Length | Next Header | Hop Limit |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
+ Source Address + + Source Address +
| | | |
skipping to change at page 25, line 27 skipping to change at line 1135
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
+ Destination Address + + Destination Address +
| | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Router Advertisement Figure 7: IPv6 Base Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Code | Checksum | | Type | Code | Checksum |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Cur Hop Limit |M|O| Reserved | Router Lifetime | | Cur Hop Limit |M|O| Reserved | Router Lifetime |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Reachable Time | | Reachable Time |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Retrans Timer | | Retrans Timer |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Options ... | Options ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
Figure 8: Router Advertisement
The value of the Data Rate field in the Radiotap header is set to 6 The value of the Data Rate field in the Radiotap header is set to 6
Mb/s. This indicates the rate at which this RA was received. Mb/s. This indicates the rate at which this RA was received.
The value of the Transmitter address in the IEEE 802.11 Data Header The value of the Transmitter Address in the IEEE 802.11 Data header
is set to a 48bit value. The value of the destination address is is set to a 48-bit value. The value of the destination address is
33:33:00:00:00:1 (all-nodes multicast address). The value of the BSS 33:33:00:00:00:1 (all-nodes multicast address). The value of the BSS
Id field is ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, which is recognized by the network ID field is ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, which is recognized by the network
protocol analyzer as being "broadcast". The Fragment number and protocol analyzer as being "broadcast". The Fragment number and
sequence number fields are together set to 0x90C6. Sequence number fields together are set to 0x90C6.
The value of the Organization Code field in the Logical-Link Control The value of the Organization Code field in the Logical Link Control
Header is set to 0x0, recognized as "Encapsulated Ethernet". The header is set to 0x0, recognized as "Encapsulated Ethernet". The
value of the Type field is 0x86DD (hexadecimal 86DD, or otherwise value of the Type field is 0x86DD (hexadecimal 86DD; otherwise,
#86DD), recognized as "IPv6". #86DD), recognized as "IPv6".
A Router Advertisement is periodically sent by the router to A Router Advertisement is periodically sent by the router to
multicast group address ff02::1. It is an icmp packet type 134. The multicast group address ff02::1. It is ICMP packet type 134. The
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery's Router Advertisement message contains an IPv6 Neighbor Discovery's Router Advertisement message contains an
8-bit field reserved for single-bit flags, as described in [RFC4861]. 8-bit field reserved for single-bit flags, as described in [RFC4861].
The IPv6 header contains the link local address of the router The IPv6 header contains the link-local address of the router
(source) configured via EUI-64 algorithm, and destination address set (source) configured via the EUI-64 algorithm, and the destination
to ff02::1. address is set to ff02::1.
The Ethernet Type field in the logical-link control header is set to The Ethernet Type field in the Logical Link Control header is set to
0x86dd which indicates that the frame transports an IPv6 packet. In 0x86dd, which indicates that the frame transports an IPv6 packet. In
the IEEE 802.11 data, the destination address is 33:33:00:00:00:01 the IEEE 802.11 data, the destination address is 33:33:00:00:00:01,
which is the corresponding multicast MAC address. The BSS id is a which is the corresponding multicast MAC address. The BSS ID is a
broadcast address of ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff. Due to the short link broadcast address of ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff. Due to the short link
duration between vehicles and the roadside infrastructure, there is duration between vehicles and the roadside infrastructure, there is
no need in IEEE 802.11-OCB to wait for the completion of association no need in IEEE 802.11-OCB to wait for the completion of association
and authentication procedures before exchanging data. IEEE and authentication procedures before exchanging data. IEEE
802.11-OCB enabled nodes use the wildcard BSSID (a value of all 1s) 802.11-OCB enabled nodes use the wildcard BSSID (a value of all 1s)
and may start communicating as soon as they arrive on the and may start communicating as soon as they arrive on the
communication channel. communication channel.
G.2. Capture in Normal Mode G.2. Capture in Normal Mode
The same IPv6 Router Advertisement packet described above (monitor The same IPv6 Router Advertisement packet described above (monitor
mode) is captured on the Host, in the Normal mode, and depicted mode) is captured on the host in normal mode and is depicted below.
below.
Ethernet II Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Destination... | Destination...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
...Destination | Source... ...Destination | Source...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
...Source | ...Source |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | | Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
IPv6 Base Header Figure 9: Ethernet II Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Version| Traffic Class | Flow Label | |Version| Traffic Class | Flow Label |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Payload Length | Next Header | Hop Limit | | Payload Length | Next Header | Hop Limit |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
+ Source Address + + Source Address +
| | | |
skipping to change at page 27, line 39 skipping to change at line 1226
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
+ Destination Address + + Destination Address +
| | | |
+ + + +
| | | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Router Advertisement Figure 10: IPv6 Base Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Code | Checksum | | Type | Code | Checksum |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Cur Hop Limit |M|O| Reserved | Router Lifetime | | Cur Hop Limit |M|O| Reserved | Router Lifetime |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Reachable Time | | Reachable Time |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Retrans Timer | | Retrans Timer |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Options ... | Options ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
One notices that the Radiotap Header, the IEEE 802.11 Data Header and Figure 11: Router Advertisement
the Logical-Link Control Headers are not present. On the other hand,
a new header named Ethernet II Header is present. One notices that the Radiotap header, the IEEE 802.11 Data header,
and the Logical Link Control headers are not present. On the other
hand, a new header named the Ethernet II header is present.
The Destination and Source addresses in the Ethernet II header The Destination and Source addresses in the Ethernet II header
contain the same values as the fields Receiver Address and contain the same values as the Receiver Address and Transmitter
Transmitter Address present in the IEEE 802.11 Data Header in the Address fields present in the IEEE 802.11 Data header in the monitor
"monitor" mode capture. mode capture.
The value of the Type field in the Ethernet II header is 0x86DD The value of the Type field in the Ethernet II header is 0x86DD
(recognized as "IPv6"); this value is the same value as the value of (recognized as "IPv6"); this value is the same as the value of the
the field Type in the Logical-Link Control Header in the "monitor" Type field in the Logical Link Control header in the monitor mode
mode capture. capture.
The knowledgeable experimenter will no doubt notice the similarity of The knowledgeable experimenter will no doubt notice the similarity of
this Ethernet II Header with a capture in normal mode on a pure this Ethernet II header with a capture in normal mode on a pure
Ethernet cable interface. Ethernet cable interface.
A frame translation is inserted on top of a pure IEEE 802.11 MAC A frame translation is inserted on top of a pure IEEE 802.11 MAC
layer, in order to adapt packets, before delivering the payload data layer in order to adapt packets before delivering the payload data to
to the applications. It adapts 802.11 LLC/MAC headers to Ethernet II the applications. It adapts 802.11 LLC/MAC headers to Ethernet II
headers. In further detail, this adaptation consists in the headers. Specifically, this adaptation consists of the elimination
elimination of the Radiotap, 802.11 and LLC headers, and in the of the Radiotap, 802.11, and LLC headers and the insertion of the
insertion of the Ethernet II header. In this way, IPv6 runs straight Ethernet II header. In this way, IPv6 runs straight over LLC over
over LLC over the 802.11-OCB MAC layer; this is further confirmed by the 802.11-OCB MAC layer; this is further confirmed by the use of the
the use of the unique Type 0x86DD. unique Type 0x86DD.
Appendix H. Extra Terminology Appendix H. Extra Terminology
The following terms are defined outside the IETF. They are used to The following terms are defined outside the IETF. They are used to
define the main terms in the main terminology Section 2. define the main terms in the terminology section (Section 2).
DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communication): a term defined outside DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communication):
the IETF. The US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Dedicated The US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Dedicated Short
Short Range Communication (DSRC) is defined in the Code of Federal Range Communication (DSRC) is defined in the Code of Federal
Regulations (CFR) 47, Parts 90 and 95. This Code is referred in the Regulations (CFR) 47, Parts 90 [CFR-90] and 95 [CFR-95]. This
definitions below. At the time of the writing of this Internet Code is referenced in the definitions below. At the time of the
Draft, the last update of this Code was dated October 1st, 2010. writing of this document, the last update of this Code was dated
December 6, 2019.
DSRCS (Dedicated Short-Range Communications Services): a term defined DSRCS (Dedicated Short-Range Communications Services):
outside the IETF. The use of radio techniques to transfer data over Radio techniques are used to transfer data over short distances
short distances between roadside and mobile units, between mobile between roadside and mobile units, between mobile units, and
units, and between portable and mobile units to perform operations between portable and mobile units to perform operations related to
related to the improvement of traffic flow, traffic safety, and other the improvement of traffic flow, traffic safety, and other
intelligent transportation service applications in a variety of intelligent transportation service applications in a variety of
environments. DSRCS systems may also transmit status and environments. DSRCS systems may also transmit status and
instructional messages related to the units involve. [Ref. 47 CFR instructional messages related to the units involved. [CFR-90.7]
90.7 - Definitions]
OBU (On-Board Unit): a term defined outside the IETF. An On-Board
Unit is a DSRCS transceiver that is normally mounted in or on a
vehicle, or which in some instances may be a portable unit. An OBU
can be operational while a vehicle or person is either mobile or
stationary. The OBUs receive and contend for time to transmit on one
or more radio frequency (RF) channels. Except where specifically
excluded, OBU operation is permitted wherever vehicle operation or
human passage is permitted. The OBUs mounted in vehicles are
licensed by rule under part 95 of the respective chapter and
communicate with Roadside Units (RSUs) and other OBUs. Portable OBUs
are also licensed by rule under part 95 of the respective chapter.
OBU operations in the Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure
(UNII) Bands follow the rules in those bands. - [CFR 90.7 -
Definitions].
RSU (Road-Side Unit): a term defined outside of IETF. A Roadside OBU (On-Board Unit):
Unit is a DSRC transceiver that is mounted along a road or pedestrian An On-Board Unit is a DSRCS transceiver that is normally mounted
passageway. An RSU may also be mounted on a vehicle or is hand in or on a vehicle or may be a portable unit in some instances.
carried, but it may only operate when the vehicle or hand- carried An OBU can be operational while a vehicle or person is either
unit is stationary. Furthermore, an RSU operating under the mobile or stationary. The OBUs receive and contend for time to
respectgive part is restricted to the location where it is licensed transmit on one or more radio frequency (RF) channels. Except
to operate. However, portable or hand-held RSUs are permitted to where specifically excluded, OBU operation is permitted wherever
operate where they do not interfere with a site-licensed operation. vehicle operation or human passage is permitted. The OBUs mounted
A RSU broadcasts data to OBUs or exchanges data with OBUs in its in vehicles are licensed by rule under part 95 of [CFR-95] and
communications zone. An RSU also provides channel assignments and communicate with Roadside Units (RSUs) and other OBUs. Portable
operating instructions to OBUs in its communications zone, when OBUs are also licensed by rule under part 95 of [CFR-95]. OBU
required. - [CFR 90.7 - Definitions]. operations in the Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure
(U-NII) Bands follow the rules in those bands. [CFR-90.7]
RSU (Roadside Unit):
A Roadside Unit is a DSRC transceiver that is mounted along a road
or pedestrian passageway. An RSU may also be mounted on a vehicle
or may be hand carried, but it may only operate when the vehicle
or hand-carried unit is stationary. Perhaps Furthermore, an RSU
is restricted to the location where it is licensed to operate.
However, portable or handheld RSUs are permitted to operate where
they do not interfere with a site-licensed operation. An RSU
broadcasts data to OBUs or exchanges data with OBUs in its
communications zone. An RSU also provides channel assignments and
operating instructions to OBUs in its communications zone when
required. [CFR-90.7]
Appendix I. Neighbor Discovery (ND) Potential Issues in Wireless Links Appendix I. Neighbor Discovery (ND) Potential Issues in Wireless Links
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (IPv6 ND) [RFC4861][RFC4862] was designed for IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (IPv6 ND) [RFC4861] [RFC4862] was designed
point-to-point and transit links such as Ethernet, with the for point-to-point and transit links, such as Ethernet, with the
expectation of a cheap and reliable support for multicast from the expectation of cheap and reliable support for multicast from the
lower layer. Section 3.2 of RFC 4861 indicates that the operation on lower layer. Section 3.2 of [RFC4861] indicates that the operation
Shared Media and on non-broadcast multi-access (NBMA) networks on shared media and on NBMA networks require additional support,
require additional support, e.g., for Address Resolution (AR) and e.g., for AR and DAD, which depend on multicast. An
duplicate address detection (DAD), which depend on multicast. An
infrastructureless radio network such as OCB shares properties with infrastructureless radio network such as OCB shares properties with
both Shared Media and NBMA networks, and then adds its own both shared media and NBMA networks and then adds its own complexity,
complexity, e.g., from movement and interference that allow only e.g., from movement and interference that allow only transient and
transient and non-transitive reachability between any set of peers. non-transitive reachability between any set of peers.
The uniqueness of an address within a scoped domain is a key pillar The uniqueness of an address within a scoped domain is a key pillar
of IPv6 and the base for unicast IP communication. RFC 4861 details of IPv6 and is the basis for unicast IP communication. [RFC4861]
the DAD method to avoid that an address is duplicated. For a link details the DAD method to prevent an address from being duplicated.
local address, the scope is the link, whereas for a Globally For a link-local address, the scope is the link, whereas for a
Reachable address the scope is much larger. The underlying globally reachable address, the scope is much larger. The underlying
assumption for DAD to operate correctly is that the node that owns an assumption for DAD to operate correctly is that the node that owns an
IPv6 address can reach any other node within the scope at the time it IPv6 address can reach any other node within the scope at the time it
claims its address, which is done by sending a NS multicast message, claims its address, which is done by sending a Neighbor Solicitation
and can hear any future claim for that address by another party (NS) multicast message, and can hear any future claim for that
within the scope for the duration of the address ownership. address by another party within the scope for the duration of the
address ownership.
In the case of OCB, there is a potentially a need to define a scope In the case of OCB, there is a potentially a need to define a scope
that is compatible with DAD, and that cannot be the set of nodes that that is compatible with DAD. The scope cannot be the set of nodes
a transmitter can reach at a particular time, because that set varies that a transmitter can reach at a particular time because that set
all the time and does not meet the DAD requirements for a link local varies all the time and does not meet the DAD requirements for a
address that could possibly be used anytime, anywhere. The generic link-local address that can be used anytime and anywhere. The
expectation of a reliable multicast is not ensured, and the operation generic expectation of a reliable multicast is not ensured, and the
of DAD and AR (Address Resolution) as specified by RFC 4861 cannot be operation of DAD and AR as specified by [RFC4861] cannot be
guaranteed. Moreover, multicast transmissions that rely on broadcast guaranteed. Moreover, multicast transmissions that rely on broadcast
are not only unreliable but are also often detrimental to unicast are not only unreliable but are also often detrimental to unicast
traffic (see [draft-ietf-mboned-ieee802-mcast-problems]). traffic (see [IEEE802-MCAST]).
Early experience indicates that it should be possible to exchange Early experience indicates that it should be possible to exchange
IPv6 packets over OCB while relying on IPv6 ND alone for DAD and AR IPv6 packets over OCB while relying on IPv6 ND alone for DAD and AR
(Address Resolution) in good conditions. In the absence of a correct (Address Resolution) in good conditions. In the absence of a correct
DAD operation, a node that relies only on IPv6 ND for AR and DAD over DAD operation, a node that relies only on IPv6 ND for AR and DAD over
OCB should ensure that the addresses that it uses are unique by means OCB should ensure that the addresses that it uses are unique by means
others than DAD. It must be noted that deriving an IPv6 address from other than DAD. It must be noted that deriving an IPv6 address from
a globally unique MAC address has this property but may yield privacy a globally unique MAC address has this property but may yield privacy
issues. issues.
RFC 8505 provides a more recent approach to IPv6 ND and in particular [RFC8505] provides a more recent approach to IPv6 ND, in particular
DAD. RFC 8505 is designed to fit wireless and otherwise constrained DAD. [RFC8505] is designed to fit wireless and otherwise constrained
networks whereby multicast and/or continuous access to the medium may networks whereby multicast and/or continuous access to the medium may
not be guaranteed. RFC 8505 Section 5.6 "Link-Local Addresses and not be guaranteed. [RFC8505], Section 5.6 ("Link-Local Addresses and
Registration" indicates that the scope of uniqueness for a link local Registration") indicates that the scope of uniqueness for a link-
address is restricted to a pair of nodes that use it to communicate, local address is restricted to a pair of nodes that uses it to
and provides a method to assert the uniqueness and resolve the link- communicate and provides a method to assert the uniqueness and
Layer address using a unicast exchange. resolve the link-layer address using a unicast exchange.
RFC 8505 also enables a router (acting as a 6LR) to own a prefix and [RFC8505] also enables a router (acting as a 6LR) to own a prefix and
act as a registrar (acting as a 6LBR) for addresses within the act as a registrar (acting as a 6LBR) for addresses within the
associated subnet. A peer host (acting as a 6LN) registers an associated subnet. A peer host (acting as a 6LN) registers an
address derived from that prefix and can use it for the lifetime of address derived from that prefix and can use it for the lifetime of
the registration. The prefix is advertised as not onlink, which the registration. The prefix is advertised as not on-link, which
means that the 6LN uses the 6LR to relay its packets within the means that the 6LN uses the 6LR to relay its packets within the
subnet, and participation to the subnet is constrained to the time of subnet, and participation to the subnet is constrained to the time of
reachability to the 6LR. Note that RSU that provides internet reachability to the 6LR. Note that an RSU that provides internet
connectivity MAY announce a default router preference [RFC4191], connectivity MAY announce a default router preference [RFC4191],
whereas a car that does not provide that connectivity MUST NOT do so. whereas a car that does not provide that connectivity MUST NOT do so.
This operation presents similarities with that of an access point, This operation presents similarities to that of an access point, but
but at Layer-3. This is why RFC 8505 well-suited for wireless in at Layer 3. This is why [RFC8505] is well suited for wireless in
general. general.
Support of RFC 8505 may be implemented on OCB. OCB nodes that Support of [RFC8505] may be implemented on OCB. OCB nodes that
support RFC 8505 SHOULD support the 6LN operation in order to act as support [RFC8505] SHOULD support the 6LN operation in order to act as
a host, and may support the 6LR and 6LBR operations in order to act a host and may support the 6LR and 6LBR operations in order to act as
as a router and in particular own a prefix that can be used by RFC a router and in particular to own a prefix that can be used by hosts
8505-compliant hosts for address autoconfiguration and registration. that are compliant with [RFC8505] for address autoconfiguration and
registration.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Alexandre Petrescu for initiating
this work and for being the lead author up to draft version 43 of
this document.
The authors would like to thank Pascal Thubert for reviewing,
proofreading, and suggesting modifications for this document.
The authors would like to thank Mohamed Boucadair for proofreading
and suggesting modifications for this document.
The authors would like to thank Eric Vyncke for reviewing the
suggesting modifications of this document.
The authors would like to thank Witold Klaudel, Ryuji Wakikawa,
Emmanuel Baccelli, John Kenney, John Moring, Francois Simon, Dan
Romascanu, Konstantin Khait, Ralph Droms, Richard 'Dick' Roy, Ray
Hunter, Tom Kurihara, Michal Sojka, Jan de Jongh, Suresh Krishnan,
Dino Farinacci, Vincent Park, Jaehoon Paul Jeong, Gloria Gwynne,
Hans-Joachim Fischer, Russ Housley, Rex Buddenberg, Erik Nordmark,
Bob Moskowitz, Andrew Dryden, Georg Mayer, Dorothy Stanley, Sandra
Cespedes, Mariano Falcitelli, Sri Gundavelli, Abdussalam Baryun,
Margaret Cullen, Erik Kline, Carlos Jesus Bernardos Cano, Ronald in
't Velt, Katrin Sjoberg, Roland Bless, Tijink Jasja, Kevin Smith,
Brian Carpenter, Julian Reschke, Mikael Abrahamsson, Dirk von Hugo,
Lorenzo Colitti, Pascal Thubert, Ole Troan, Jinmei Tatuya, Joel
Halpern, Eric Gray, and William Whyte. Their valuable comments
clarified particular issues and generally helped to improve the
document.
Pierre Pfister, Rostislav Lisovy, and others wrote 802.11-OCB drivers
for Linux.
For the multicast discussion, the authors would like to thank Owen
DeLong, Joe Touch, Jen Linkova, Erik Kline, Brian Haberman, and
participants to discussions in network working groups.
The authors would like to thank the participants of the Birds-of-
a-Feather "Intelligent Transportation Systems" meetings held at IETF
in 2016.
The human rights protocol considerations review was done by Amelia
Andersdotter.
The work of Jong-Hyouk Lee was supported by the National Research
Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT)
(NRF-2018R1A4A1025632).
The work of Jérôme Härri was supported by EURECOM industrial members,
namely BMW Group, IABG, Monaco Telecom, Orange, SAP and Symantec.
This RFC reflects the view of the IPWAVE WG and does not necessarily
reflect the official policy or position of EURECOM industrial
members.
Contributors
Christian Huitema and Tony Li contributed to this document.
Romain Kuntz contributed extensively regarding IPv6 handovers between
links running outside the context of a BSS (802.11-OCB links).
Tim Leinmueller contributed the idea of the use of IPv6 over
802.11-OCB for the distribution of certificates.
Marios Makassikis, Jose Santa Lozano, Albin Severinson, and Alexey
Voronov provided significant feedback on the experience of using IP
messages over 802.11-OCB in initial trials.
Michelle Wetterwald contributed extensively to the MTU discussion,
offered the ETSI ITS perspective, and reviewed other parts of the
document.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Nabil Benamar Nabil Benamar
Moulay Ismail University of Meknes Moulay Ismail University of Meknes
Morocco Morocco
Phone: +212670832236 Phone: +212670832236
Email: n.benamar@est.umi.ac.ma Email: n.benamar@est.umi.ac.ma
Jerome Haerri Jérôme Härri
Eurecom EURECOM
Sophia-Antipolis 06904 06904 Sophia-Antipolis
France France
Phone: +33493008134 Phone: +33493008134
Email: Jerome.Haerri@eurecom.fr Email: Jerome.Haerri@eurecom.fr
Jong-Hyouk Lee Jong-Hyouk Lee
Sangmyung University Sangmyung University
31, Sangmyeongdae-gil, Dongnam-gu 31, Sangmyeongdae-gil, Dongnam-gu
Cheonan 31066 Cheonan
31066
Republic of Korea Republic of Korea
Email: jonghyouk@smu.ac.kr Email: jonghyouk@smu.ac.kr
Thierry Ernst Thierry ERNST
YoGoKo YoGoKo
1137A Avenue des Champs-Blancs
35510 CESON-SEVIGNE
France France
Email: thierry.ernst@yogoko.fr Email: thierry.ernst@yogoko.fr
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