draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-09.txt   draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-10.txt 
Network Working Group A. Petrescu Network Working Group A. Petrescu
Internet-Draft CEA, LIST Internet-Draft CEA, LIST
Intended status: Standards Track N. Benamar Intended status: Standards Track N. Benamar
Expires: April 9, 2018 Moulay Ismail University Expires: April 15, 2018 Moulay Ismail University
J. Haerri J. Haerri
Eurecom Eurecom
J. Lee J. Lee
Sangmyung University Sangmyung University
T. Ernst T. Ernst
YoGoKo YoGoKo
October 6, 2017 October 12, 2017
Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.11 Networks operating in mode Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.11 Networks operating in mode
Outside the Context of a Basic Service Set (IPv6-over-80211-OCB) Outside the Context of a Basic Service Set (IPv6-over-80211-OCB)
draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-09.txt draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-10.txt
Abstract Abstract
In order to transmit IPv6 packets on IEEE 802.11 networks running In order to transmit IPv6 packets on IEEE 802.11 networks running
outside the context of a basic service set (OCB, earlier "802.11p") outside the context of a basic service set (OCB, earlier "802.11p")
there is a need to define a few parameters such as the supported there is a need to define a few parameters such as the supported
Maximum Transmission Unit size on the 802.11-OCB link, the header Maximum Transmission Unit size on the 802.11-OCB link, the header
format preceding the IPv6 header, the Type value within it, and format preceding the IPv6 header, the Type value within it, and
others. This document describes these parameters for IPv6 and IEEE others. This document describes these parameters for IPv6 and IEEE
802.11-OCB networks; it portrays the layering of IPv6 on 802.11-OCB 802.11-OCB networks; it portrays the layering of IPv6 on 802.11-OCB
skipping to change at page 1, line 46 skipping to change at page 1, line 46
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 9, 2018. This Internet-Draft will expire on April 15, 2018.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Communication Scenarios where IEEE 802.11-OCB Links are Used 4 3. Communication Scenarios where IEEE 802.11-OCB Links are Used 5
4. IPv6 over 802.11-OCB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. IPv6 over 802.11-OCB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.1. Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.1. Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2. Frame Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.2. Frame Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.2.1. Ethernet Adaptation Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.2.1. Ethernet Adaptation Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.3. Link-Local Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.3. Link-Local Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.4. Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.4. Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.4.1. Address Mapping -- Unicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.4.1. Address Mapping -- Unicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.4.2. Address Mapping -- Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.4.2. Address Mapping -- Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.5. Stateless Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.5. Stateless Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.6. Subnet Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.6. Subnet Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Appendix A. ChangeLog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Appendix A. ChangeLog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Appendix B. 802.11p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Appendix B. 802.11p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Appendix C. Aspects introduced by the OCB mode to 802.11 . . . . 20 Appendix C. Aspects introduced by the OCB mode to 802.11 . . . . 22
Appendix D. Changes Needed on a software driver 802.11a to Appendix D. Changes Needed on a software driver 802.11a to
become a 802.11-OCB driver . . . 25 become a 802.11-OCB driver . . . 27
Appendix E. EPD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Appendix E. EtherType Protocol Discrimination (EPD) . . . . . . 28
Appendix F. Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Appendix F. Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
F.1. Vehicle ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 F.1. Vehicle ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
F.2. Reliability Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 F.2. Reliability Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
F.3. Multiple interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 F.3. Multiple interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
F.4. MAC Address Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 F.4. MAC Address Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Appendix G. IEEE 802.11 Messages Transmitted in OCB mode . . . . 29 Appendix G. IEEE 802.11 Messages Transmitted in OCB mode . . . . 31
Appendix H. Implementation Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Appendix H. Implementation Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
H.1. Capture in Monitor Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 H.1. Capture in Monitor Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
H.2. Capture in Normal Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 H.2. Capture in Normal Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document describes the transmission of IPv6 packets on IEEE Std This document describes the transmission of IPv6 packets on IEEE Std
802.11-OCB networks [IEEE-802.11-2016] (a.k.a "802.11p" see 802.11-OCB networks [IEEE-802.11-2016] (a.k.a "802.11p" see
Appendix B). This involves the layering of IPv6 networking on top of Appendix B). This involves the layering of IPv6 networking on top of
the IEEE 802.11 MAC layer, with an LLC layer. Compared to running the IEEE 802.11 MAC layer, with an LLC layer. Compared to running
IPv6 over the Ethernet MAC layer, there is no modification expected IPv6 over the Ethernet MAC layer, there is no modification expected
to IEEE Std 802.11 MAC and Logical Link sublayers: IPv6 works fine to IEEE Std 802.11 MAC and Logical Link sublayers: IPv6 works fine
directly over 802.11-OCB too, with an LLC layer. directly over 802.11-OCB too, with an LLC layer.
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document describes an Ethernet Adaptation Layer between Ethernet document describes an Ethernet Adaptation Layer between Ethernet
headers and 802.11 headers. The Ethernet Adaptation Layer is headers and 802.11 headers. The Ethernet Adaptation Layer is
described Section 4.2.1. The operation of IP on Ethernet is described Section 4.2.1. The operation of IP on Ethernet is
described in [RFC1042], [RFC2464] and described in [RFC1042], [RFC2464] and
[I-D.hinden-6man-rfc2464bis]. [I-D.hinden-6man-rfc2464bis].
o Exceptions due to the OCB nature of 802.11-OCB compared to 802.11. o Exceptions due to the OCB nature of 802.11-OCB compared to 802.11.
This has impacts on security, privacy, subnet structure and This has impacts on security, privacy, subnet structure and
handover behaviour. For security and privacy recommendations see handover behaviour. For security and privacy recommendations see
Section 5 and Section 4.5. The subnet structure is described in Section 5 and Section 4.5. The subnet structure is described in
Section 4.6; a new Group ID is requested to be used in such Section 4.6. The handover behaviour on OCB links is not described
subnets, see section Section 6. The handover behaviour on OCB in this document.
links is not described in this document.
In the published literature, many documents describe aspects and In the published literature, many documents describe aspects and
problems related to running IPv6 over 802.11-OCB: problems related to running IPv6 over 802.11-OCB:
[I-D.ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-survey]. [I-D.ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-survey].
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
WiFi: Wireless Fidelity. WiFi: Wireless Fidelity.
OBRU (On-Board Router Unit): an OBRU is almost always situated in a OBRU (On-Board Router Unit): an OBRU is almost always situated in a
vehicle; it is a computer with at least two IP interfaces; at least vehicle; it is a computer with at least two IP real or virtual
one IP interface runs in OCB mode of 802.11. It MAY be an IP Router. interfaces; at least one IP interface runs in OCB mode of 802.11. It
MAY be an IP Router.
OBU (On-Board Unit): term defined outside the IETF.
RSRU (Road-Side Router Unit): an RSRU is almost always situated in a RSRU (Road-Side Router Unit): an RSRU is almost always situated in a
box fixed along the road. An RSRU has at least two distinct IP- box fixed along the road. An RSRU has at least two distinct IP-
enabled interfaces; at least one interface is operated in mode OCB of enabled interfaces; at least one interface is operated in mode OCB of
IEEE 802.11 and is IP-enabled. An RSRU is similar to a Wireless IEEE 802.11 and is IP-enabled. An RSRU is similar to a Wireless
Termination Point (WTP), as defined in [RFC5415], or an Access Point Termination Point (WTP), as defined in [RFC5415], or an Access Point
(AP), as defined in IEEE documents, or an Access Network Router (ANR) (AP), as defined in IEEE documents, or an Access Network Router (ANR)
defined in [RFC3753], with one key particularity: the wireless PHY/ defined in [RFC3753], with one key particularity: the wireless PHY/
MAC layer of at least one of its IP-enabled interfaces is configured MAC layer of at least one of its IP-enabled interfaces is configured
to operate in 802.11-OCB mode. The RSRU communicates with the On to operate in 802.11-OCB mode. The RSRU communicates with the OBRU
board Unit (OBRU) in the vehicle over 802.11 wireless link operating in the vehicle over 802.11 wireless link operating in OCB mode. An
in OCB mode. An RSRU MAY be connected to the Internet, and MAY be an RSRU MAY be connected to the Internet, and MAY be an IP Router. When
IP Router. When it is connected to the Internet, the term V2I it is connected to the Internet, the term V2I (Vehicle to Internet)
(Vehicle to Internet) is relevant. is relevant.
RSU (Road-Side Unit): an RSU operates in 802.11-OCB mode. A RSU RSU (Road-Side Unit): an RSU operates in 802.11-OCB mode. A RSU
broadcasts data to OBUs or exchanges data with OBUs in its broadcasts data to OBUs or exchanges data with OBUs in its
communications zone. An RSU may provide channel assignments and communications zone. An RSU may provide channel assignments and
operating instructions to OBUs in its communications zone, when operating instructions to OBUs in its communications zone, when
required. The basic functional blocks of an RSU are: internal required. The basic functional blocks of an RSU are: internal
computer processing, permanent storage capability, an integrated GPS computer processing, permanent storage capability, an integrated GPS
receiver for positioning and timing and an interface that supports receiver for positioning and timing and an interface that supports
both IPv4 and IPv6 connectivity, compliant with 802.3at. An OCB both IPv4 and IPv6 connectivity, compliant with 802.3at. An OCB
interface of an RSU MAY be IP-enabled simultaneously to being WAVE- interface of an RSU MAY be IP-enabled simultaneously to being WAVE-
enabled or GeoNetworking-enabled (MAY support simultaneously enabled or GeoNetworking-enabled (MAY support simultaneously
EtherTypes 0x86DD for IPv6 _and_ 0x88DC for WAVE and 0x8947 for EtherTypes 0x86DD for IPv6 _and_ 0x88DC for WAVE and 0x8947 for
GeoNetworking). GeoNetworking). The difference between RSU and RSRU is that an RSU
is likely to have one single OCB interface which is likely not IP
enabled, whereas an RSRU is likely to have one or more OCB interfaces
which are almost always IP-enabled; moreover, an RSRU does IP
forwarding, whereas an RSU does not.
OCB (outside the context of a basic service set - BSS): A mode of OCB (outside the context of a basic service set - BSS): A mode of
operation in which a STA is not a member of a BSS and does not operation in which a STA is not a member of a BSS and does not
utilize IEEE Std 802.11 authentication, association, or data utilize IEEE Std 802.11 authentication, association, or data
confidentiality. confidentiality.
802.11-OCB: mode specified in IEEE Std 802.11-2016 when the MIB 802.11-OCB: mode specified in IEEE Std 802.11-2016 when the MIB
attribute dot11OCBActivited is true. The OCB mode requires attribute dot11OCBActivited is true. The OCB mode requires
transmission of QoS data frames (IEEE Std 802.11e), half-clocked transmission of QoS data frames (IEEE Std 802.11e), half-clocked
operation (IEEE Std 802.11j), and use of 5.9 GHz frequency band. operation (IEEE Std 802.11j), and use of 5.9 GHz frequency band.
Nota: any implementation should comply with standards and regulations
set in the different countries for using that frequency band.
3. Communication Scenarios where IEEE 802.11-OCB Links are Used 3. Communication Scenarios where IEEE 802.11-OCB Links are Used
The IEEE 802.11-OCB Networks are used for vehicular communications, The IEEE 802.11-OCB Networks are used for vehicular communications,
as 'Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments'. The IP communication as 'Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments'. The IP communication
scenarios for these environments have been described in several scenarios for these environments have been described in several
documents; in particular, we refer the reader to documents; in particular, we refer the reader to
[I-D.ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-survey], that lists some
[I-D.petrescu-its-scenarios-reqs], about scenarios and requirements scenarios and requirements for IP in Intelligent Transportation
for IP in Intelligent Transportation Systems. Systems.
The link model is the following: STA --- 802.11-OCB --- STA. In The link model is the following: STA --- 802.11-OCB --- STA. In
vehicular networks, STAs can be RSRUs and/or OBRUs. While 802.11-OCB vehicular networks, STAs can be RSRUs and/or OBRUs. While 802.11-OCB
is clearly specified, and the use of IPv6 over such link is not is clearly specified, and the use of IPv6 over such link is not
radically new, the operating environment (vehicular networks) brings radically new, the operating environment (vehicular networks) brings
in new perspectives. in new perspectives.
The 802.11-OCB links form and terminate; nodes connected to these The 802.11-OCB links form and terminate; nodes connected to these
links peer, and discover each other; the nodes are mobile. However, links peer, and discover each other; the nodes are mobile. However,
the precise description of how links discover each other, peer and the precise description of how links discover each other, peer and
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Networking layer. This is used to transform some parameters between Networking layer. This is used to transform some parameters between
their form expected by the IP stack and the form provided by the MAC their form expected by the IP stack and the form provided by the MAC
layer. layer.
An Ethernet Adaptation Layer makes an 802.11 MAC look to IP An Ethernet Adaptation Layer makes an 802.11 MAC look to IP
Networking layer as a more traditional Ethernet layer. At reception, Networking layer as a more traditional Ethernet layer. At reception,
this layer takes as input the IEEE 802.11 Data Header and the this layer takes as input the IEEE 802.11 Data Header and the
Logical-Link Layer Control Header and produces an Ethernet II Header. Logical-Link Layer Control Header and produces an Ethernet II Header.
At sending, the reverse operation is performed. At sending, the reverse operation is performed.
The operation of the Ethernet Adaptation Layer is depicted by the
double arrow in Figure 1.
+--------------------+------------+-------------+---------+-----------+ +--------------------+------------+-------------+---------+-----------+
| 802.11 Data Header | LLC Header | IPv6 Header | Payload |.11 Trailer| | 802.11 Data Header | LLC Header | IPv6 Header | Payload |.11 Trailer|
+--------------------+------------+-------------+---------+-----------+ +--------------------+------------+-------------+---------+-----------+
\ / \ / \ / \ /
----------------------------- -------- ----------------------------- --------
\---------------------------------------------/ \---------------------------------------------/
^ ^
| |
802.11-to-Ethernet Adaptation Layer 802.11-to-Ethernet Adaptation Layer
| |
v v
+---------------------+-------------+---------+ +---------------------+-------------+---------+
| Ethernet II Header | IPv6 Header | Payload | | Ethernet II Header | IPv6 Header | Payload |
+---------------------+-------------+---------+ +---------------------+-------------+---------+
Figure 1: Operation of the Ethernet Adaptation Layer
The Receiver and Transmitter Address fields in the 802.11 Data Header The Receiver and Transmitter Address fields in the 802.11 Data Header
contain the same values as the Destination and the Source Address contain the same values as the Destination and the Source Address
fields in the Ethernet II Header, respectively. The value of the fields in the Ethernet II Header, respectively. The value of the
Type field in the LLC Header is the same as the value of the Type Type field in the LLC Header is the same as the value of the Type
field in the Ethernet II Header. field in the Ethernet II Header.
The ".11 Trailer" contains solely a 4-byte Frame Check Sequence. The ".11 Trailer" contains solely a 4-byte Frame Check Sequence.
Additionally, the Ethernet Adaptation Layer performs operations in Additionally, the Ethernet Adaptation Layer performs operations in
relation to IP fragmentation and MTU. One of these operations is relation to IP fragmentation and MTU. One of these operations is
briefly described in section Section 4.1. briefly described in Section 4.1.
In OCB mode, IPv6 packets MAY be transmitted either as "IEEE 802.11 In OCB mode, IPv6 packets MAY be transmitted either as "IEEE 802.11
Data" or alternatively as "IEEE 802.11 QoS Data", as illustrated in Data" or alternatively as "IEEE 802.11 QoS Data", as illustrated in
the figure below. Figure 2.
+--------------------+-------------+-------------+---------+-----------+ +--------------------+-------------+-------------+---------+-----------+
| 802.11 Data Header | LLC Header | IPv6 Header | Payload |.11 Trailer| | 802.11 Data Header | LLC Header | IPv6 Header | Payload |.11 Trailer|
+--------------------+-------------+-------------+---------+-----------+ +--------------------+-------------+-------------+---------+-----------+
or or
+--------------------+-------------+-------------+---------+-----------+ +--------------------+-------------+-------------+---------+-----------+
| 802.11 QoS Data Hdr| LLC Header | IPv6 Header | Payload |.11 Trailer| | 802.11 QoS Data Hdr| LLC Header | IPv6 Header | Payload |.11 Trailer|
+--------------------+-------------+-------------+---------+-----------+ +--------------------+-------------+-------------+---------+-----------+
Figure 2: 802.11 Data Header or 802.11 QoS Data Header
The distinction between the two formats is given by the value of the The distinction between the two formats is given by the value of the
field "Type/Subtype". The value of the field "Type/Subtype" in the field "Type/Subtype". The value of the field "Type/Subtype" in the
802.11 Data header is 0x0020. The value of the field "Type/Subtype" 802.11 Data header is 0x0020. The value of the field "Type/Subtype"
in the 802.11 QoS header is 0x0028. in the 802.11 QoS header is 0x0028.
The mapping between qos-related fields in the IPv6 header (e.g. The mapping between qos-related fields in the IPv6 header (e.g.
"Traffic Class", "Flow label") and fields in the "802.11 QoS Data "Traffic Class", "Flow label") and fields in the "802.11 QoS Data
Header" (e.g. "QoS Control") are not specified in this document. Header" (e.g. "QoS Control") are not specified in this document.
Guidance for a potential mapping is provided in Guidance for a potential mapping is provided in
[I-D.ietf-tsvwg-ieee-802-11], although it is not specific to OCB [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-ieee-802-11], although it is not specific to OCB
mode. mode.
The placement of IPv6 networking layer on Ethernet Adaptation Layer The placement of IPv6 networking layer on Ethernet Adaptation Layer
is illustrated below: is illustrated in Figure 3.
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| IPv6 | | IPv6 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Ethernet Adaptation Layer | | Ethernet Adaptation Layer |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| 802.11 WiFi MAC | | 802.11 WiFi MAC |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| 802.11 WiFi PHY | | 802.11 WiFi PHY |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 3: Ethernet Adaptation Layer stacked with other layers
(in the above figure, a WiFi profile is represented; this is used (in the above figure, a WiFi profile is represented; this is used
also for OCB profile.) also for OCB profile.)
Other alternative views of layering are EtherType Protocol Other alternative views of layering are EtherType Protocol
Discrimination (EPD), see Appendix E, and SNAP see [RFC1042]. Discrimination (EPD), see Appendix E, and SNAP see [RFC1042].
4.3. Link-Local Addresses 4.3. Link-Local Addresses
The link-local address of an 802.11-OCB interface is formed in the The link-local address of an 802.11-OCB interface is formed in the
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multicast address mapping format of Ethernet interfaces, as defined multicast address mapping format of Ethernet interfaces, as defined
by sections 6 and 7 of [RFC2464]. by sections 6 and 7 of [RFC2464].
4.4.1. Address Mapping -- Unicast 4.4.1. Address Mapping -- Unicast
The procedure for mapping IPv6 unicast addresses into Ethernet link- The procedure for mapping IPv6 unicast addresses into Ethernet link-
layer addresses is described in [RFC4861]. layer addresses is described in [RFC4861].
4.4.2. Address Mapping -- Multicast 4.4.2. Address Mapping -- Multicast
A Group ID named TBD, of length 112bits is requested to IANA; this The multicast address mapping is performed according to the method
Group ID signifies "All 80211OCB Interfaces Address". Only the least specified in section 7 of [RFC2464]. The meaning of the value "3333"
32 significant bits of this "All 80211OCB Interfaces Address" will be mentioned in that section 7 of [RFC2464] is defined in section 2.3.1
mapped to and from a MAC multicast address. of [RFC7042].
Transmitting IPv6 packets to multicast destinations over 802.11 links Transmitting IPv6 packets to multicast destinations over 802.11 links
proved to have some performance issues proved to have some performance issues
[I-D.perkins-intarea-multicast-ieee802]. These issues may be [I-D.perkins-intarea-multicast-ieee802]. These issues may be
exacerbated in OCB mode. Solutions for these problems should exacerbated in OCB mode. Solutions for these problems should
consider the OCB mode of operation. consider the OCB mode of operation.
4.5. Stateless Autoconfiguration 4.5. Stateless Autoconfiguration
The Interface Identifier for an 802.11-OCB interface is formed using The Interface Identifier for an 802.11-OCB interface is formed using
skipping to change at page 9, line 8 skipping to change at page 9, line 46
The bits in the interface identifier have no generic meaning and the The bits in the interface identifier have no generic meaning and the
identifier should be treated as an opaque value. The bits identifier should be treated as an opaque value. The bits
'Universal' and 'Group' in the identifier of an 802.11-OCB interface 'Universal' and 'Group' in the identifier of an 802.11-OCB interface
are significant, as this is an IEEE link-layer address. The details are significant, as this is an IEEE link-layer address. The details
of this significance are described in [RFC7136]. of this significance are described in [RFC7136].
As with all Ethernet and 802.11 interface identifiers ([RFC7721]), As with all Ethernet and 802.11 interface identifiers ([RFC7721]),
the identifier of an 802.11-OCB interface may involve privacy, MAC the identifier of an 802.11-OCB interface may involve privacy, MAC
address spoofing and IP address hijacking risks. A vehicle embarking address spoofing and IP address hijacking risks. A vehicle embarking
an On-Board Unit whose egress interface is 802.11-OCB may expose an OBU or an OBRU whose egress interface is 802.11-OCB may expose
itself to eavesdropping and subsequent correlation of data; this may itself to eavesdropping and subsequent correlation of data; this may
reveal data considered private by the vehicle owner; there is a risk reveal data considered private by the vehicle owner; there is a risk
of being tracked; see the privacy considerations described in of being tracked; see the privacy considerations described in
Appendix F. Appendix F.
If stable Interface Identifiers are needed in order to form IPv6 If stable Interface Identifiers are needed in order to form IPv6
addresses on 802.11-OCB links, it is recommended to follow the addresses on 802.11-OCB links, it is recommended to follow the
recommendation in [RFC8064]. Additionally, if semantically opaque recommendation in [RFC8064]. Additionally, if semantically opaque
Interface Identifiers are needed, a potential method for generating Interface Identifiers are needed, a potential method for generating
semantically opaque Interface Identifiers with IPv6 Stateless Address semantically opaque Interface Identifiers with IPv6 Stateless Address
skipping to change at page 10, line 44 skipping to change at page 11, line 36
802.11-OCB deployments, there is a strong necessity to use protection 802.11-OCB deployments, there is a strong necessity to use protection
tools such as dynamically changing MAC addresses. This may help tools such as dynamically changing MAC addresses. This may help
mitigate privacy risks to a certain level. On another hand, it may mitigate privacy risks to a certain level. On another hand, it may
have an impact in the way typical IPv6 address auto-configuration is have an impact in the way typical IPv6 address auto-configuration is
performed for vehicles (SLAAC would rely on MAC addresses amd would performed for vehicles (SLAAC would rely on MAC addresses amd would
hence dynamically change the affected IP address), in the way the hence dynamically change the affected IP address), in the way the
IPv6 Privacy addresses were used, and other effects. IPv6 Privacy addresses were used, and other effects.
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
A Group ID named TBD, of length 112bits is requested to IANA; this No request to IANA.
Group ID signifies "All 80211OCB Interfaces Address".
7. Contributors 7. Contributors
Christian Huitema, Tony Li. Christian Huitema, Tony Li.
Romain Kuntz contributed extensively about IPv6 handovers between Romain Kuntz contributed extensively about IPv6 handovers between
links running outside the context of a BSS (802.11-OCB links). links running outside the context of a BSS (802.11-OCB links).
Tim Leinmueller contributed the idea of the use of IPv6 over Tim Leinmueller contributed the idea of the use of IPv6 over
802.11-OCB for distribution of certificates. 802.11-OCB for distribution of certificates.
skipping to change at page 11, line 39 skipping to change at page 12, line 29
Margaret Cullen and William Whyte. Their valuable comments clarified Margaret Cullen and William Whyte. Their valuable comments clarified
particular issues and generally helped to improve the document. particular issues and generally helped to improve the document.
Pierre Pfister, Rostislav Lisovy, and others, wrote 802.11-OCB Pierre Pfister, Rostislav Lisovy, and others, wrote 802.11-OCB
drivers for linux and described how. drivers for linux and described how.
For the multicast discussion, the authors would like to thank Owen For the multicast discussion, the authors would like to thank Owen
DeLong, Joe Touch, Jen Linkova, Erik Kline, Brian Haberman and DeLong, Joe Touch, Jen Linkova, Erik Kline, Brian Haberman and
participants to discussions in network working groups. participants to discussions in network working groups.
The authours would like to thank participants to the Birds-of- The authors would like to thank participants to the Birds-of-
a-Feather "Intelligent Transportation Systems" meetings held at IETF a-Feather "Intelligent Transportation Systems" meetings held at IETF
in 2016. in 2016.
9. References 9. References
9.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-tsvwg-ieee-802-11] [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-ieee-802-11]
Szigeti, T., Henry, J., and F. Baker, "Diffserv to IEEE Szigeti, T., Henry, J., and F. Baker, "Diffserv to IEEE
802.11 Mapping", draft-ietf-tsvwg-ieee-802-11-09 (work in 802.11 Mapping", draft-ietf-tsvwg-ieee-802-11-09 (work in
skipping to change at page 13, line 33 skipping to change at page 14, line 24
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5415>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5415>.
[RFC5889] Baccelli, E., Ed. and M. Townsley, Ed., "IP Addressing [RFC5889] Baccelli, E., Ed. and M. Townsley, Ed., "IP Addressing
Model in Ad Hoc Networks", RFC 5889, DOI 10.17487/RFC5889, Model in Ad Hoc Networks", RFC 5889, DOI 10.17487/RFC5889,
September 2010, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5889>. September 2010, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5889>.
[RFC6275] Perkins, C., Ed., Johnson, D., and J. Arkko, "Mobility [RFC6275] Perkins, C., Ed., Johnson, D., and J. Arkko, "Mobility
Support in IPv6", RFC 6275, DOI 10.17487/RFC6275, July Support in IPv6", RFC 6275, DOI 10.17487/RFC6275, July
2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6275>. 2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6275>.
[RFC7042] Eastlake 3rd, D. and J. Abley, "IANA Considerations and
IETF Protocol and Documentation Usage for IEEE 802
Parameters", BCP 141, RFC 7042, DOI 10.17487/RFC7042,
October 2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7042>.
[RFC7136] Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "Significance of IPv6 [RFC7136] Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "Significance of IPv6
Interface Identifiers", RFC 7136, DOI 10.17487/RFC7136, Interface Identifiers", RFC 7136, DOI 10.17487/RFC7136,
February 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7136>. February 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7136>.
[RFC7217] Gont, F., "A Method for Generating Semantically Opaque [RFC7217] Gont, F., "A Method for Generating Semantically Opaque
Interface Identifiers with IPv6 Stateless Address Interface Identifiers with IPv6 Stateless Address
Autoconfiguration (SLAAC)", RFC 7217, Autoconfiguration (SLAAC)", RFC 7217,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7217, April 2014, DOI 10.17487/RFC7217, April 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7217>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7217>.
skipping to change at page 14, line 27 skipping to change at page 15, line 22
Geonetworking Protocols. Downloaded on September 9th, Geonetworking Protocols. Downloaded on September 9th,
2017, freely available from ETSI website at URL 2017, freely available from ETSI website at URL
http://www.etsi.org/deliver/ http://www.etsi.org/deliver/
etsi_en/302600_302699/30263601/01.02.01_60/ etsi_en/302600_302699/30263601/01.02.01_60/
en_30263601v010201p.pdf". en_30263601v010201p.pdf".
[ETSI-sec-archi] [ETSI-sec-archi]
"ETSI TS 102 940 V1.2.1 (2016-11), ETSI Technical "ETSI TS 102 940 V1.2.1 (2016-11), ETSI Technical
Specification, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Specification, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS);
Security; ITS communications security architecture and Security; ITS communications security architecture and
security management, November 2016. Dowloaded on security management, November 2016. Downloaded on
September 9th, 2017, freely available from ETSI website at September 9th, 2017, freely available from ETSI website at
URL http://www.etsi.org/deliver/ URL http://www.etsi.org/deliver/
etsi_ts/102900_102999/102940/01.02.01_60/ etsi_ts/102900_102999/102940/01.02.01_60/
ts_102940v010201p.pdf". ts_102940v010201p.pdf".
[I-D.hinden-6man-rfc2464bis] [I-D.hinden-6man-rfc2464bis]
Crawford, M. and R. Hinden, "Transmission of IPv6 Packets Crawford, M. and R. Hinden, "Transmission of IPv6 Packets
over Ethernet Networks", draft-hinden-6man-rfc2464bis-02 over Ethernet Networks", draft-hinden-6man-rfc2464bis-02
(work in progress), March 2017. (work in progress), March 2017.
skipping to change at page 15, line 5 skipping to change at page 15, line 46
Intelligent Transportation Systems", draft-ietf-ipwave- Intelligent Transportation Systems", draft-ietf-ipwave-
vehicular-networking-survey-00 (work in progress), July vehicular-networking-survey-00 (work in progress), July
2017. 2017.
[I-D.perkins-intarea-multicast-ieee802] [I-D.perkins-intarea-multicast-ieee802]
Perkins, C., Stanley, D., Kumari, W., and J. Zuniga, Perkins, C., Stanley, D., Kumari, W., and J. Zuniga,
"Multicast Considerations over IEEE 802 Wireless Media", "Multicast Considerations over IEEE 802 Wireless Media",
draft-perkins-intarea-multicast-ieee802-03 (work in draft-perkins-intarea-multicast-ieee802-03 (work in
progress), July 2017. progress), July 2017.
[I-D.petrescu-its-scenarios-reqs]
Petrescu, A., Janneteau, C., Boc, M., and W. Klaudel,
"Scenarios and Requirements for IP in Intelligent
Transportation Systems", draft-petrescu-its-scenarios-
reqs-03 (work in progress), October 2013.
[IEEE-1609.2] [IEEE-1609.2]
"IEEE SA - 1609.2-2016 - IEEE Standard for Wireless Access "IEEE SA - 1609.2-2016 - IEEE Standard for Wireless Access
in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) -- Security Services for in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) -- Security Services for
Applications and Management Messages. Example URL Applications and Management Messages. Example URL
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7426684/ accessed on http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7426684/ accessed on
August 17th, 2017.". August 17th, 2017.".
[IEEE-1609.3] [IEEE-1609.3]
"IEEE SA - 1609.3-2016 - IEEE Standard for Wireless Access "IEEE SA - 1609.3-2016 - IEEE Standard for Wireless Access
in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) -- Networking Services. in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) -- Networking Services.
skipping to change at page 16, line 10 skipping to change at page 16, line 46
document freely available at URL document freely available at URL
http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/ http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/
download/802.11p-2010.pdf retrieved on September 20th, download/802.11p-2010.pdf retrieved on September 20th,
2013.". 2013.".
Appendix A. ChangeLog Appendix A. ChangeLog
The changes are listed in reverse chronological order, most recent The changes are listed in reverse chronological order, most recent
changes appearing at the top of the list. changes appearing at the top of the list.
From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-09 to draft-ietf-ipwave-
ipv6-over-80211ocb-10
o Removed text requesting a new Group ID for multicast for OCB.
o Added a clarification of the meaning of value "3333" in the
section Address Mapping -- Multicast.
o Added note clarifying that in Europe the regional authority is not
ETSI, but "ECC/CEPT based on ENs from ETSI".
o Added note stating that the manner in which two STAtions set their
communication channel is not described in this document.
o Added a time qualifier to state that the "each node is represented
uniquely at a certain point in time."
o Removed text "This section may need to be moved" (the "Reliability
Requirements" section). This section stays there at this time.
o In the term definition "802.11-OCB" added a note stating that "any
implementation should comply with standards and regulations set in
the different countries for using that frequency band."
o In the RSU term definition, added a sentence explaining the
difference between RSU and RSRU: in terms of number of interfaces
and IP forwarding.
o Replaced "with at least two IP interfaces" with "with at least two
real or virtual IP interfaces".
o Added a term in the Terminology for "OBU". However the definition
is left empty, as this term is defined outside IETF.
o Added a clarification that it is an OBU or an OBRU in this phrase
"A vehicle embarking an OBU or an OBRU".
o Checked the entire document for a consistent use of terms OBU and
OBRU.
o Added note saying that "'p' is a letter identifying the
Ammendment".
o Substituted lower case for capitals SHALL or MUST in the
Appendices.
o Added reference to RFC7042, helpful in the 3333 explanation.
Removed reference to individual submission draft-petrescu-its-
scenario-reqs and added reference to draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-
networking-survey.
o Added figure captions, figure numbers, and references to figure
numbers instead of 'below'. Replaced "section Section" with
"section" throughout.
o Minor typographical errors.
From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-08 to draft-ietf-ipwave- From draft-ietf-ipwave-ipv6-over-80211ocb-08 to draft-ietf-ipwave-
ipv6-over-80211ocb-09 ipv6-over-80211ocb-09
o Significantly shortened the Address Mapping sections, by text o Significantly shortened the Address Mapping sections, by text
copied from RFC2464, and rather referring to it. copied from RFC2464, and rather referring to it.
o Moved the EPD description to an Appendix on its own. o Moved the EPD description to an Appendix on its own.
o Shortened the Introduction and the Abstract. o Shortened the Introduction and the Abstract.
skipping to change at page 21, line 4 skipping to change at page 22, line 50
STAtion operating outside the context of a basic service set has the STAtion operating outside the context of a basic service set has the
OCBActivated flag set. Such a station, when it has the flag set, OCBActivated flag set. Such a station, when it has the flag set,
uses a BSS identifier equal to ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff. uses a BSS identifier equal to ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff.
Appendix C. Aspects introduced by the OCB mode to 802.11 Appendix C. Aspects introduced by the OCB mode to 802.11
In the IEEE 802.11-OCB mode, all nodes in the wireless range can In the IEEE 802.11-OCB mode, all nodes in the wireless range can
directly communicate with each other without involving authentication directly communicate with each other without involving authentication
or association procedures. At link layer, it is necessary to set the or association procedures. At link layer, it is necessary to set the
same channel number (or frequency) on two stations that need to same channel number (or frequency) on two stations that need to
communicate with each other. Stations STA1 and STA2 can exchange IP communicate with each other. The manner in which stations set their
packets if they are set on the same channel. At IP layer, they then channel number is not specified in this document. Stations STA1 and
discover each other by using the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery protocol. STA2 can exchange IP packets if they are set on the same channel. At
IP layer, they then discover each other by using the IPv6 Neighbor
Discovery protocol.
Briefly, the IEEE 802.11-OCB mode has the following properties: Briefly, the IEEE 802.11-OCB mode has the following properties:
o The use by each node of a 'wildcard' BSSID (i.e., each bit of the o The use by each node of a 'wildcard' BSSID (i.e., each bit of the
BSSID is set to 1) BSSID is set to 1)
o No IEEE 802.11 Beacon frames are transmitted o No IEEE 802.11 Beacon frames are transmitted
o No authentication is required in order to be able to communicate o No authentication is required in order to be able to communicate
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o No encryption is provided in order to be able to communicate o No encryption is provided in order to be able to communicate
o Flag dot11OCBActivated is set to true o Flag dot11OCBActivated is set to true
All the nodes in the radio communication range (OBRU and RSRU) All the nodes in the radio communication range (OBRU and RSRU)
receive all the messages transmitted (OBRU and RSRU) within the radio receive all the messages transmitted (OBRU and RSRU) within the radio
communications range. The eventual conflict(s) are resolved by the communications range. The eventual conflict(s) are resolved by the
MAC CDMA function. MAC CDMA function.
The following message exchange diagram illustrates a comparison The message exchange diagram in Figure 4 illustrates a comparison
between traditional 802.11 and 802.11 in OCB mode. The 'Data' between traditional 802.11 and 802.11 in OCB mode. The 'Data'
messages can be IP packets such as HTTP or others. Other 802.11 messages can be IP packets such as HTTP or others. Other 802.11
management and control frames (non IP) may be transmitted, as management and control frames (non IP) may be transmitted, as
specified in the 802.11 standard. For information, the names of specified in the 802.11 standard. For information, the names of
these messages as currently specified by the 802.11 standard are these messages as currently specified by the 802.11 standard are
listed in Appendix G. listed in Appendix G.
STA AP STA1 STA2 STA AP STA1 STA2
| | | | | | | |
|<------ Beacon -------| |<------ Data -------->| |<------ Beacon -------| |<------ Data -------->|
skipping to change at page 22, line 21 skipping to change at page 24, line 21
| | |<------ Data -------->| | | |<------ Data -------->|
|---- Auth Req. ------>| | | |---- Auth Req. ------>| | |
|<--- Auth Res. -------| |<------ Data -------->| |<--- Auth Res. -------| |<------ Data -------->|
| | | | | | | |
|---- Asso Req. ------>| |<------ Data -------->| |---- Asso Req. ------>| |<------ Data -------->|
|<--- Asso Res. -------| | | |<--- Asso Res. -------| | |
| | |<------ Data -------->| | | |<------ Data -------->|
|<------ Data -------->| | | |<------ Data -------->| | |
|<------ Data -------->| |<------ Data -------->| |<------ Data -------->| |<------ Data -------->|
(a) 802.11 Infrastructure mode (b) 802.11-OCB mode (i) 802.11 Infrastructure mode (ii) 802.11-OCB mode
Figure 4: Difference between messages exchanged on 802.11 (left) and
802.11-OCB (right)
The interface 802.11-OCB was specified in IEEE Std 802.11p (TM) -2010 The interface 802.11-OCB was specified in IEEE Std 802.11p (TM) -2010
[IEEE-802.11p-2010] as an amendment to IEEE Std 802.11 (TM) -2007, [IEEE-802.11p-2010] as an amendment to IEEE Std 802.11 (TM) -2007,
titled "Amendment 6: Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments". titled "Amendment 6: Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments".
Since then, this amendment has been included in IEEE 802.11(TM) -2012 Since then, this amendment has been integrated in IEEE 802.11(TM)
and -2016 [IEEE-802.11-2016]. -2012 and -2016 [IEEE-802.11-2016].
In document 802.11-2016, anything qualified specifically as In document 802.11-2016, anything qualified specifically as
"OCBActivated", or "outside the context of a basic service" set to be "OCBActivated", or "outside the context of a basic service" set to be
true, then it is actually referring to OCB aspects introduced to true, then it is actually referring to OCB aspects introduced to
802.11. 802.11.
In order to delineate the aspects introduced by 802.11-OCB to 802.11, In order to delineate the aspects introduced by 802.11-OCB to 802.11,
we refer to the earlier [IEEE-802.11p-2010]. The amendment is we refer to the earlier [IEEE-802.11p-2010]. The amendment is
concerned with vehicular communications, where the wireless link is concerned with vehicular communications, where the wireless link is
similar to that of Wireless LAN (using a PHY layer specified by similar to that of Wireless LAN (using a PHY layer specified by
802.11a/b/g/n), but which needs to cope with the high mobility factor 802.11a/b/g/n), but which needs to cope with the high mobility factor
inherent in scenarios of communications between moving vehicles, and inherent in scenarios of communications between moving vehicles, and
between vehicles and fixed infrastructure deployed along roads. between vehicles and fixed infrastructure deployed along roads.
While 'p' is a letter just like 'a, b, g' and 'n' are, 'p' is While 'p' is a letter identifying the Ammendment, just like 'a, b, g'
concerned more with MAC modifications, and a little with PHY and 'n' are, 'p' is concerned more with MAC modifications, and a
modifications; the others are mainly about PHY modifications. It is little with PHY modifications; the others are mainly about PHY
possible in practice to combine a 'p' MAC with an 'a' PHY by modifications. It is possible in practice to combine a 'p' MAC with
operating outside the context of a BSS with OFDM at 5.4GHz and an 'a' PHY by operating outside the context of a BSS with OFDM at
5.9GHz. 5.4GHz and 5.9GHz.
The 802.11-OCB links are specified to be compatible as much as The 802.11-OCB links are specified to be compatible as much as
possible with the behaviour of 802.11a/b/g/n and future generation possible with the behaviour of 802.11a/b/g/n and future generation
IEEE WLAN links. From the IP perspective, an 802.11-OCB MAC layer IEEE WLAN links. From the IP perspective, an 802.11-OCB MAC layer
offers practically the same interface to IP as the WiFi and Ethernet offers practically the same interface to IP as the WiFi and Ethernet
layers do (802.11a/b/g/n and 802.3). A packet sent by an OBRU may be layers do (802.11a/b/g/n and 802.3). A packet sent by an OBRU may be
received by one or multiple RSRUs. The link-layer resolution is received by one or multiple RSRUs. The link-layer resolution is
performed by using the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery protocol. performed by using the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery protocol.
To support this similarity statement (IPv6 is layered on top of LLC To support this similarity statement (IPv6 is layered on top of LLC
skipping to change at page 23, line 24 skipping to change at page 25, line 29
changes to the MAC layer (and very little to the PHY layer), there changes to the MAC layer (and very little to the PHY layer), there
are only a few characteristics which may be important for an are only a few characteristics which may be important for an
implementation transmitting IPv6 packets on 802.11-OCB links. implementation transmitting IPv6 packets on 802.11-OCB links.
The most important 802.11-OCB point which influences the IPv6 The most important 802.11-OCB point which influences the IPv6
functioning is the OCB characteristic; an additional, less direct functioning is the OCB characteristic; an additional, less direct
influence, is the maximum bandwidth afforded by the PHY modulation/ influence, is the maximum bandwidth afforded by the PHY modulation/
demodulation methods and channel access specified by 802.11-OCB. The demodulation methods and channel access specified by 802.11-OCB. The
maximum bandwidth theoretically possible in 802.11-OCB is 54 Mbit/s maximum bandwidth theoretically possible in 802.11-OCB is 54 Mbit/s
(when using, for example, the following parameters: 20 MHz channel; (when using, for example, the following parameters: 20 MHz channel;
modulation 64-QAM; codint rate R is 3/4); in practice of IP-over- modulation 64-QAM; coding rate R is 3/4); in practice of IP-over-
802.11-OCB a commonly observed figure is 12Mbit/s; this bandwidth 802.11-OCB a commonly observed figure is 12Mbit/s; this bandwidth
allows the operation of a wide range of protocols relying on IPv6. allows the operation of a wide range of protocols relying on IPv6.
o Operation Outside the Context of a BSS (OCB): the (earlier o Operation Outside the Context of a BSS (OCB): the (earlier
802.11p) 802.11-OCB links are operated without a Basic Service Set 802.11p) 802.11-OCB links are operated without a Basic Service Set
(BSS). This means that the frames IEEE 802.11 Beacon, Association (BSS). This means that the frames IEEE 802.11 Beacon, Association
Request/Response, Authentication Request/Response, and similar, Request/Response, Authentication Request/Response, and similar,
are not used. The used identifier of BSS (BSSID) has a are not used. The used identifier of BSS (BSSID) has a
hexadecimal value always 0xffffffffffff (48 '1' bits, represented hexadecimal value always 0xffffffffffff (48 '1' bits, represented
as MAC address ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, or otherwise the 'wildcard' as MAC address ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, or otherwise the 'wildcard'
skipping to change at page 24, line 5 skipping to change at page 26, line 10
o Timing Advertisement: is a new message defined in 802.11-OCB, o Timing Advertisement: is a new message defined in 802.11-OCB,
which does not exist in 802.11a/b/g/n. This message is used by which does not exist in 802.11a/b/g/n. This message is used by
stations to inform other stations about the value of time. It is stations to inform other stations about the value of time. It is
similar to the time as delivered by a GNSS system (Galileo, GPS, similar to the time as delivered by a GNSS system (Galileo, GPS,
...) or by a cellular system. This message is optional for ...) or by a cellular system. This message is optional for
implementation. implementation.
o Frequency range: this is a characteristic of the PHY layer, with o Frequency range: this is a characteristic of the PHY layer, with
almost no impact on the interface between MAC and IP. However, it almost no impact on the interface between MAC and IP. However, it
is worth considering that the frequency range is regulated by a is worth considering that the frequency range is regulated by a
regional authority (ARCEP, ETSI, FCC, etc.); as part of the regional authority (ARCEP, ECC/CEPT based on ENs from ETSI, FCC,
regulation process, specific applications are associated with etc.); as part of the regulation process, specific applications
specific frequency ranges. In the case of 802.11-OCB, the are associated with specific frequency ranges. In the case of
regulator associates a set of frequency ranges, or slots within a 802.11-OCB, the regulator associates a set of frequency ranges, or
band, to the use of applications of vehicular communications, in a slots within a band, to the use of applications of vehicular
band known as "5.9GHz". The 5.9GHz band is different from the communications, in a band known as "5.9GHz". The 5.9GHz band is
2.4GHz and 5GHz bands used by Wireless LAN. However, as with different from the 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands used by Wireless LAN.
Wireless LAN, the operation of 802.11-OCB in "5.9GHz" bands is However, as with Wireless LAN, the operation of 802.11-OCB in
exempt from owning a license in EU (in US the 5.9GHz is a licensed "5.9GHz" bands is exempt from owning a license in EU (in US the
band of spectrum; for the fixed infrastructure an explicit FCC 5.9GHz is a licensed band of spectrum; for the fixed
autorization is required; for an onboard device a 'licensed-by- infrastructure an explicit FCC authorization is required; for an
rule' concept applies: rule certification conformity is required); on-board device a 'licensed-by-rule' concept applies: rule
however technical conditions are different than those of the bands certification conformity is required.) Technical conditions are
"2.4GHz" or "5GHz". On one hand, the allowed power levels, and different than those of the bands "2.4GHz" or "5GHz". The allowed
implicitly the maximum allowed distance between vehicles, is of power levels, and implicitly the maximum allowed distance between
33dBm for 802.11-OCB (in Europe), compared to 20 dBm for Wireless vehicles, is of 33dBm for 802.11-OCB (in Europe), compared to 20
LAN 802.11a/b/g/n; this leads to a maximum distance of dBm for Wireless LAN 802.11a/b/g/n; this leads to a maximum
approximately 1km, compared to approximately 50m. On the other distance of approximately 1km, compared to approximately 50m.
hand, specific conditions related to congestion avoidance, jamming Additionally, specific conditions related to congestion avoidance,
avoidance, and radar detection are imposed on the use of DSRC (in jamming avoidance, and radar detection are imposed on the use of
US) and on the use of frequencies for Intelligent Transportation DSRC (in US) and on the use of frequencies for Intelligent
Systems (in EU), compared to Wireless LAN (802.11a/b/g/n). Transportation Systems (in EU), compared to Wireless LAN
(802.11a/b/g/n).
o 'Half-rate' encoding: as the frequency range, this parameter is o 'Half-rate' encoding: as the frequency range, this parameter is
related to PHY, and thus has not much impact on the interface related to PHY, and thus has not much impact on the interface
between the IP layer and the MAC layer. between the IP layer and the MAC layer.
o In vehicular communications using 802.11-OCB links, there are o In vehicular communications using 802.11-OCB links, there are
strong privacy requirements with respect to addressing. While the strong privacy requirements with respect to addressing. While the
802.11-OCB standard does not specify anything in particular with 802.11-OCB standard does not specify anything in particular with
respect to MAC addresses, in these settings there exists a strong respect to MAC addresses, in these settings there exists a strong
need for dynamic change of these addresses (as opposed to the non- need for dynamic change of these addresses (as opposed to the non-
vehicular settings - real wall protection - where fixed MAC vehicular settings - real wall protection - where fixed MAC
addresses do not currently pose some privacy risks). This is addresses do not currently pose some privacy risks). This is
further described in section Section 5. A relevant function is further described in Section 5. A relevant function is described
described in IEEE 1609.3-2016 [IEEE-1609.3], clause 5.5.1 and IEEE in IEEE 1609.3-2016 [IEEE-1609.3], clause 5.5.1 and IEEE
1609.4-2016 [IEEE-1609.4], clause 6.7. 1609.4-2016 [IEEE-1609.4], clause 6.7.
Other aspects particular to 802.11-OCB, which are also particular to Other aspects particular to 802.11-OCB, which are also particular to
802.11 (e.g. the 'hidden node' operation), may have an influence on 802.11 (e.g. the 'hidden node' operation), may have an influence on
the use of transmission of IPv6 packets on 802.11-OCB networks. The the use of transmission of IPv6 packets on 802.11-OCB networks. The
OCB subnet structure is described in section Section 4.6. OCB subnet structure is described in Section 4.6.
Appendix D. Changes Needed on a software driver 802.11a to become a Appendix D. Changes Needed on a software driver 802.11a to become a
802.11-OCB driver 802.11-OCB driver
The 802.11p amendment modifies both the 802.11 stack's physical and The 802.11p amendment modifies both the 802.11 stack's physical and
MAC layers but all the induced modifications can be quite easily MAC layers but all the induced modifications can be quite easily
obtained by modifying an existing 802.11a ad-hoc stack. obtained by modifying an existing 802.11a ad-hoc stack.
Conditions for a 802.11a hardware to be 802.11-OCB compliant: Conditions for a 802.11a hardware to be 802.11-OCB compliant:
skipping to change at page 26, line 21 skipping to change at page 28, line 25
Response) and for authentication (Authentication Request/Reply, Response) and for authentication (Authentication Request/Reply,
Challenge) are not called. Challenge) are not called.
* The beacon interval is always set to 0 (zero). * The beacon interval is always set to 0 (zero).
* Timing Advertisement frames, defined in the amendment, should * Timing Advertisement frames, defined in the amendment, should
be supported. The upper layer should be able to trigger such be supported. The upper layer should be able to trigger such
frames emission and to retrieve information contained in frames emission and to retrieve information contained in
received Timing Advertisements. received Timing Advertisements.
Appendix E. EPD Appendix E. EtherType Protocol Discrimination (EPD)
A more theoretical and detailed view of layer stacking, and A more theoretical and detailed view of layer stacking, and
interfaces between the IP layer and 802.11-OCB layers, is illustrated interfaces between the IP layer and 802.11-OCB layers, is illustrated
below. The IP layer operates on top of the EtherType Protocol in Figure 5. The IP layer operates on top of the EtherType Protocol
Discrimination (EPD); this Discrimination layer is described in IEEE Discrimination (EPD); this Discrimination layer is described in IEEE
Std 802.3-2012; the interface between IPv6 and EPD is the LLC_SAP Std 802.3-2012; the interface between IPv6 and EPD is the LLC_SAP
(Link Layer Control Service Access Point). (Link Layer Control Service Access Point).
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| IPv6 | | IPv6 |
+-+-+-+-+-+-{ }+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-{ }+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
{ LLC_SAP } 802.11-OCB { LLC_SAP } 802.11-OCB
+-+-+-+-+-+-{ }+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Boundary +-+-+-+-+-+-{ }+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Boundary
| EPD | | | | EPD | | |
| | MLME | | | | MLME | |
+-+-+-{ MAC_SAP }+-+-+-| MLME_SAP | +-+-+-{ MAC_SAP }+-+-+-| MLME_SAP |
| MAC Sublayer | | | 802.11-OCB | MAC Sublayer | | | 802.11-OCB
| and ch. coord. | | SME | Services | and ch. coord. | | SME | Services
+-+-+-{ PHY_SAP }+-+-+-+-+-+-+-| | +-+-+-{ PHY_SAP }+-+-+-+-+-+-+-| |
| | PLME | | | | PLME | |
| PHY Layer | PLME_SAP | | PHY Layer | PLME_SAP |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 5: EtherType Protocol Discrimination
Appendix F. Design Considerations Appendix F. Design Considerations
The networks defined by 802.11-OCB are in many ways similar to other The networks defined by 802.11-OCB are in many ways similar to other
networks of the 802.11 family. In theory, the encapsulation of IPv6 networks of the 802.11 family. In theory, the encapsulation of IPv6
over 802.11-OCB could be very similar to the operation of IPv6 over over 802.11-OCB could be very similar to the operation of IPv6 over
other networks of the 802.11 family. However, the high mobility, other networks of the 802.11 family. However, the high mobility,
strong link asymmetry and very short connection makes the 802.11-OCB strong link asymmetry and very short connection makes the 802.11-OCB
link significantly different from other 802.11 networks. Also, the link significantly different from other 802.11 networks. Also, the
automotive applications have specific requirements for reliability, automotive applications have specific requirements for reliability,
security and privacy, which further add to the particularity of the security and privacy, which further add to the particularity of the
802.11-OCB link. 802.11-OCB link.
F.1. Vehicle ID F.1. Vehicle ID
In automotive networks it is required that each node is represented In automotive networks it is required that each node is represented
uniquely. Accordingly, a vehicle must be identified by at least one uniquely at a certain point in time. Accordingly, a vehicle must be
unique identifier. The current specification at ETSI and at IEEE identified by at least one unique identifier. The current
1609 identifies a vehicle by its MAC address, which is obtained from specification at ETSI and at IEEE 1609 identifies a vehicle by its
the 802.11-OCB Network Interface Card (NIC). MAC address, which is obtained from the 802.11-OCB Network Interface
Card (NIC).
In case multiple 802.11-OCB NICs are present in one car, implicitely In case multiple 802.11-OCB NICs are present in one car, implicitely
multiple vehicle IDs will be generated. Additionally, some software multiple vehicle IDs will be generated. Additionally, some software
generates a random MAC address each time the computer boots; this generates a random MAC address each time the computer boots; this
constitutes an additional difficulty. constitutes an additional difficulty.
A mechanim to uniquely identify a vehicle irrespectively to the A mechanim to uniquely identify a vehicle irrespectively to the
multiplicity of NICs, or frequent MAC address generation, is multiplicity of NICs, or frequent MAC address generation, is
necessary. necessary.
F.2. Reliability Requirements F.2. Reliability Requirements
This section may need to be moved out into a separate requirements
document.
The dynamically changing topology, short connectivity, mobile The dynamically changing topology, short connectivity, mobile
transmitter and receivers, different antenna heights, and many-to- transmitter and receivers, different antenna heights, and many-to-
many communication types, make IEEE 802.11-OCB links significantly many communication types, make IEEE 802.11-OCB links significantly
different from other IEEE 802.11 links. Any IPv6 mechanism operating different from other IEEE 802.11 links. Any IPv6 mechanism operating
on IEEE 802.11-OCB link MUST support strong link asymmetry, spatio- on IEEE 802.11-OCB link must support strong link asymmetry, spatio-
temporal link quality, fast address resolution and transmission. temporal link quality, fast address resolution and transmission.
IEEE 802.11-OCB strongly differs from other 802.11 systems to operate IEEE 802.11-OCB strongly differs from other 802.11 systems to operate
outside of the context of a Basic Service Set. This means in outside of the context of a Basic Service Set. This means in
practice that IEEE 802.11-OCB does not rely on a Base Station for all practice that IEEE 802.11-OCB does not rely on a Base Station for all
Basic Service Set management. In particular, IEEE 802.11-OCB SHALL Basic Service Set management. In particular, IEEE 802.11-OCB shall
NOT use beacons. Any IPv6 mechanism requiring L2 services from IEEE not use beacons. Any IPv6 mechanism requiring L2 services from IEEE
802.11 beacons MUST support an alternative service. 802.11 beacons must support an alternative service.
Channel scanning being disabled, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB MUST Channel scanning being disabled, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB must
implement a mechanism for transmitter and receiver to converge to a implement a mechanism for transmitter and receiver to converge to a
common channel. common channel.
Authentication not being possible, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB MUST Authentication not being possible, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB must
implement an distributed mechanism to authenticate transmitters and implement an distributed mechanism to authenticate transmitters and
receivers without the support of a DHCP server. receivers without the support of a DHCP server.
Time synchronization not being available, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB Time synchronization not being available, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB
MUST implement a higher layer mechanism for time synchronization must implement a higher layer mechanism for time synchronization
between transmitters and receivers without the support of a NTP between transmitters and receivers without the support of a NTP
server. server.
The IEEE 802.11-OCB link being asymmetric, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB The IEEE 802.11-OCB link being asymmetric, IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB
MUST disable management mechanisms requesting acknowledgements or must disable management mechanisms requesting acknowledgements or
replies. replies.
The IEEE 802.11-OCB link having a short duration time, IPv6 over IEEE The IEEE 802.11-OCB link having a short duration time, IPv6 over IEEE
802.11-OCB SHOULD implement fast IPv6 mobility management mechanisms. 802.11-OCB should implement fast IPv6 mobility management mechanisms.
F.3. Multiple interfaces F.3. Multiple interfaces
There are considerations for 2 or more IEEE 802.11-OCB interface There are considerations for 2 or more IEEE 802.11-OCB interface
cards per vehicle. For each vehicle taking part in road traffic, one cards per vehicle. For each vehicle taking part in road traffic, one
IEEE 802.11-OCB interface card could be fully allocated for Non IP IEEE 802.11-OCB interface card could be fully allocated for Non IP
safety-critical communication. Any other IEEE 802.11-OCB may be used safety-critical communication. Any other IEEE 802.11-OCB may be used
for other type of traffic. for other type of traffic.
The mode of operation of these other wireless interfaces is not The mode of operation of these other wireless interfaces is not
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including the IEEE 802.11-OCB interface used by Non IP safety including the IEEE 802.11-OCB interface used by Non IP safety
critical communications). This will require specific logic to critical communications). This will require specific logic to
ensure, for example, that packets meant for a vehicle in front are ensure, for example, that packets meant for a vehicle in front are
actually sent by the radio in the front, or that multiple copies of actually sent by the radio in the front, or that multiple copies of
the same packet received by multiple interfaces are treated as a the same packet received by multiple interfaces are treated as a
single packet. Treating each wireless interface as a separate single packet. Treating each wireless interface as a separate
network interface pushes such issues to the application layer. network interface pushes such issues to the application layer.
Certain privacy requirements imply that if these multiple interfaces Certain privacy requirements imply that if these multiple interfaces
are represented by many network interface, a single renumbering event are represented by many network interface, a single renumbering event
SHALL cause renumbering of all these interfaces. If one MAC changed shall cause renumbering of all these interfaces. If one MAC changed
and another stayed constant, external observers would be able to and another stayed constant, external observers would be able to
correlate old and new values, and the privacy benefits of correlate old and new values, and the privacy benefits of
randomization would be lost. randomization would be lost.
The privacy requirements of Non IP safety-critical communications The privacy requirements of Non IP safety-critical communications
imply that if a change of pseudonyme occurs, renumbering of all other imply that if a change of pseudonyme occurs, renumbering of all other
interfaces SHALL also occur. interfaces shall also occur.
F.4. MAC Address Generation F.4. MAC Address Generation
When designing the IPv6 over 802.11-OCB address mapping, we will When designing the IPv6 over 802.11-OCB address mapping, we assume
assume that the MAC Addresses will change during well defined that the MAC Addresses change during well defined "renumbering
"renumbering events". The 48 bits randomized MAC addresses will have events". The 48 bits randomized MAC addresses will have the
the following characteristics: following characteristics:
o Bit "Local/Global" set to "locally admninistered". o Bit "Local/Global" set to "locally admninistered".
o Bit "Unicast/Multicast" set to "Unicast". o Bit "Unicast/Multicast" set to "Unicast".
o 46 remaining bits set to a random value, using a random number o 46 remaining bits set to a random value, using a random number
generator that meets the requirements of [RFC4086]. generator that meets the requirements of [RFC4086].
The way to meet the randomization requirements is to retain 46 bits The way to meet the randomization requirements is to retain 46 bits
from the output of a strong hash function, such as SHA256, taking as from the output of a strong hash function, such as SHA256, taking as
skipping to change at page 29, line 50 skipping to change at page 32, line 6
Appendix H. Implementation Status Appendix H. Implementation Status
This section describes an example of an IPv6 Packet captured over a This section describes an example of an IPv6 Packet captured over a
IEEE 802.11-OCB link. IEEE 802.11-OCB link.
By way of example we show that there is no modification in the By way of example we show that there is no modification in the
headers when transmitted over 802.11-OCB networks - they are headers when transmitted over 802.11-OCB networks - they are
transmitted like any other 802.11 and Ethernet packets. transmitted like any other 802.11 and Ethernet packets.
We describe an experiment of capturing an IPv6 packet on an We describe an experiment of capturing an IPv6 packet on an
802.11-OCB link. In this experiment, the packet is an IPv6 Router 802.11-OCB link. In topology depicted in Figure 6, the packet is an
Advertisement. This packet is emitted by a Router on its 802.11-OCB IPv6 Router Advertisement. This packet is emitted by a Router on its
interface. The packet is captured on the Host, using a network 802.11-OCB interface. The packet is captured on the Host, using a
protocol analyzer (e.g. Wireshark); the capture is performed in two network protocol analyzer (e.g. Wireshark); the capture is performed
different modes: direct mode and 'monitor' mode. The topology used in two different modes: direct mode and 'monitor' mode. The topology
during the capture is depicted below. used during the capture is depicted below.
+--------+ +-------+ +--------+ +-------+
| | 802.11-OCB Link | | | | 802.11-OCB Link | |
---| Router |--------------------------------| Host | ---| Router |--------------------------------| Host |
| | | | | | | |
+--------+ +-------+ +--------+ +-------+
Figure 6: Topology for capturing IP packets on 802.11-OCB
During several capture operations running from a few moments to During several capture operations running from a few moments to
several hours, no message relevant to the BSSID contexts were several hours, no message relevant to the BSSID contexts were
captured (no Association Request/Response, Authentication Req/Resp, captured (no Association Request/Response, Authentication Req/Resp,
Beacon). This shows that the operation of 802.11-OCB is outside the Beacon). This shows that the operation of 802.11-OCB is outside the
context of a BSSID. context of a BSSID.
Overall, the captured message is identical with a capture of an IPv6 Overall, the captured message is identical with a capture of an IPv6
packet emitted on a 802.11b interface. The contents are precisely packet emitted on a 802.11b interface. The contents are precisely
similar. similar.
skipping to change at page 31, line 4 skipping to change at page 33, line 10
Logical Link Control Header, IPv6 Base Header and ICMPv6 Header. Logical Link Control Header, IPv6 Base Header and ICMPv6 Header.
Radiotap Header v0 Radiotap Header v0
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Header Revision| Header Pad | Header length | |Header Revision| Header Pad | Header length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Present flags | | Present flags |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Data Rate | Pad | | Data Rate | Pad |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
IEEE 802.11 Data Header IEEE 802.11 Data Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type/Subtype and Frame Ctrl | Duration | | Type/Subtype and Frame Ctrl | Duration |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Receiver Address... | Receiver Address...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
... Receiver Address | Transmitter Address... ... Receiver Address | Transmitter Address...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
... Transmitter Address | ... Transmitter Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| BSS Id... | BSS Id...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
... BSS Id | Frag Number and Seq Number | ... BSS Id | Frag Number and Seq Number |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Logical-Link Control Header Logical-Link Control Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| DSAP |I| SSAP |C| Control field | Org. code... | DSAP |I| SSAP |C| Control field | Org. code...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
... Organizational Code | Type | ... Organizational Code | Type |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
IPv6 Base Header IPv6 Base Header
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Version| Traffic Class | Flow Label | |Version| Traffic Class | Flow Label |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Payload Length | Next Header | Hop Limit | | Payload Length | Next Header | Hop Limit |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
+ + + +
skipping to change at page 35, line 48 skipping to change at page 37, line 48
France France
Phone: +33169089223 Phone: +33169089223
Email: Alexandre.Petrescu@cea.fr Email: Alexandre.Petrescu@cea.fr
Nabil Benamar Nabil Benamar
Moulay Ismail University Moulay Ismail University
Morocco Morocco
Phone: +212670832236 Phone: +212670832236
Email: benamar73@gmail.com Email: n.benamar@est.umi.ac.ma
Jerome Haerri Jerome Haerri
Eurecom Eurecom
Sophia-Antipolis 06904 Sophia-Antipolis 06904
France France
Phone: +33493008134 Phone: +33493008134
Email: Jerome.Haerri@eurecom.fr Email: Jerome.Haerri@eurecom.fr
Jong-Hyouk Lee Jong-Hyouk Lee
Sangmyung University Sangmyung University
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